National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
A Funk Odyssey
A Funk Odyssey is the fifth studio album by British funk band Jamiroquai. The album was released on 3 September 2001 in the United Kingdom by Sony Soho Square and 11 September 2001 by Epic Records in the United States. Combining elements of funk and electronica, the release of the album represented the peak of international commercial success for Jamiroquai, in the ensuing world tour the group became a household name in many countries; the sleeve art of A Funk Odyssey features Jay Kay posed in front of a series of lasers that form the famous "Buffalo Man" logo, making it the first Jamiroquai album not to feature the logo prominently on its cover. In a 2001 interview with Billboard magazine, Kay said he wrote the deliberately simple first single "Little L" in 25 minutes, "It would have been so easy to overthink and overwrite that song, because it's so simple, but that would've killed it." He described the fourth single, "Corner of the Earth" as a "spiritual song" that "speaks for anyone who's in a place or a moment where they're happy."
For the tenth track "Picture of My Life", Kay said, "I cried throughout the process of writing. It was an act of looking at some major personal issues and understanding their lingering effects." Initial critical response to A Funk Odyssey was mixed. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album has received an average score of 58, based on 13 reviews. Q magazine gave the album 4 out of 5 stars; this time, there's a bankable chorus or barbed sentiment for every mirror-ball moment....demonstrating that no-one does sci-fi boogie quite as well as he does sci-fi boogie." They listed it as one of the best 50 albums of 2001. CMJ described the album as "The perfect mixtape to snap your fingers to on your way to another universe." "Cannabliss" was a track, performed live during a pre-album tour in 2001. The track was scrapped from the project after Jay claimed that it wasn't half complete at the time of going to press; the track's introduction was re-used for "Corner of the Earth".
The album's title track, "A Funk Odyssey", was performed by the group while on tour. It is unknown whether this track was intended as a live-only track. "Shoot The Moon" was a further outtake from the album, performed live at least twice, once at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 2003, once at a concert in Turkey. A circulated recording of the song being played at the festival exists, can be found on the group's official website for download. One interesting fact about the song is; the band did not have a horn section at the time, so the electric guitar had to substitute the horns. A studio version was never recorded; the test pressing of the album featured three interludes. The first features band frontman Jay in an electronically manipulated monologue, asking himself why he would want to "shut down the funk assembly unit." The second interlude is a beatbox track, sampled in the single "Feels Just Like It Should", while the third features Strauss' "The Blue Danube" being faded in at a low volume. A case of synchronicity occurs when the test pressing is played to Stanley Kubrick's film adaptation of Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Jay Kay - vocals Rob Harris - guitar Derrick McKenzie - drums Toby Smith - keyboards Nick Fyffe - bass Sola Akingbola - percussion Paul Stoney - programming
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Reef are an English rock band from Glastonbury, England. The band members include Jesse Wood on guitar and Jack Bessant on bass. In 1993, while Bessant and Stringer were looking for band members, House met up with Dominic Greensmith in London, discussed forming a band; the foursome got together, started to jam, producing the rare "Purple Tape" demo. After recording a couple of tracks, the band spent much of 1994 building up a fan base, they signed to an offshoot of Sony. Their first single "Good Feeling" was released on an independent label, but financed by Sony as an official Sony S2 release in early 1995; this paved the way for "Naked", used in a TV advert for the Sony MiniDisc in which a record company executive hears the track on MiniDisc and throws it out of the window disapprovingly. It is picked up by a young man outside, who likes it. There has been some disapproval of the band's participation in this campaign, but in interviews they have emphasised that they were a young band and were offered a chance that any young band would not resist.
During their touring in'94 and'95 Reef supported Paul Weller, The Rolling Stones and Soundgarden, amongst others. Both the Good Feeling and Naked singles came from Reef’s 1995 release, their now gold debut album Replenish; the album was recorded in a studio in Bath. "We wanted our first album, Replenish, to be a honest statement. Four people playing in a room and getting something that’s their own, it was recorded in the most basic way possible. Minimal room sounds. Up until all I used for effects was a wah-pedal and I only used that on two songs," said guitarist Kenwyn House. Hot on the heels of Replenish, in summer 1995, came a non-album, four-track single release entitled "Weird", it was a non-commercial track and Reef had said the release was aimed at the fans. "Sunrise Shakers", one of the B-sides to "Weird", was featured in snowboarding film Day Tripper, by independent film maker Christian Stevenson. Stevenson, known for his films about extreme and free sports, was to direct a promotional video for Reef, for their "Sweety" single in 1999.
The follow-up to Replenish was 1997's Glow, more diverse, with the band using different instruments and creating a more interesting style. Glow was recorded under the direction of The Black Crowes' record producer, George Drakoulious and engineered by Jim Scott, in Los Angeles, it spawned the hit singles "Place Your Hands", "Come Back Brighter", "Consideration" and "Yer Old" which increased Reef’s profile in the UK and abroad. On the week of its release, Glow went straight to number 1 in the UK Albums Chart. "Place Your Hands", released on 21 October 1996, was Reef’s most successful single to date, reaching number 6 in the UK singles chart. The song explains the grief that Stringer felt following the death of his grandfather, easing the pain of death; the video for "Place Your Hands", directed by David Mould, features the band members on pulleys and wires to create an energetic aerial display. During their touring in late 1996, Reef were supported by Feeder, who were at the time laying the foundations for their own career.
In early 1999 Reef released their third album Rides, recorded at Ocean Way Studios in Los Angeles, the same studios used by The Beach Boys for Pet Sounds and Michael Jackson for Thriller. They swapped instruments on some tracks, with Stringer and Greensmith playing guitar and Bessant singing on one song. Working again with Glow producer George Drakoulias, the band enlisted the skills of David Campbell for the string arrangements. Rose Stone of Sly and the Family Stone fame features as a backing singer. Jack told NME magazine that the album was showing a more mature side to Reef but they were still having fun, using slide guitars, trying to achieve a "filmic" feel to some tracks; the album was well received by critics, but commercially could not match the earlier success of its predecessor Glow. The fourth album and most commercial work yet, Getaway was released in 2000, was produced by Al Clay, who has produced for the Pixies and Stereophonics. "Set The Record Straight" was the highlight of the album, this track was used as the theme tune for the BBC Television drama series Red Cap, starring Tamzin Outhwaite.
The "Superhero" single released in the same year, features a video of an impromptu gig held at Bessant's Hoxton Square flat, in London, in the summer of that year. Bessant was vacating the property and used the opportunity to hold a small gig with a select guest list, predominantly from the music industry. One notable guest was Andrea Corr, whilst in attendance were BBC Radio 1, plus Kerrang! and NME magazines. The third and final release from Getaway, was "All I Want," a ballad, different from the first two releases. Despite good airplay on Radio 2, the single only peaked at number 51 in the UK charts; the video features the members of the band stranded in a drifting lifeboat, drawing straws for who would sacrifice themselves to save the others. Late 2000 saw Reef facing legal action from the U. S. company South Cone Inc. for infringement of their trademark, Reef Brazil, on the basis that T-shirts, other merchandising such as stickers and keyrings could cause confusion in the marketplace. The South Cone action failed on account of their mark being REEF BRAZIL rather than REEF, because their primary business and reputation was with the sale of sandals and footwear.
Important to the outcome was the fact th
Garbage is an American rock band formed in Madison, Wisconsin, in 1993. The band consists of Scottish musician and lead singer Shirley Manson and American musicians Duke Erikson, Steve Marker, Butch Vig. All four members are involved in production. Garbage has sold over 17 million albums worldwide; the band's eponymous debut album was critically acclaimed upon its release, selling over four million copies and achieving double platinum certification in the UK, US and Australia. It was accompanied by a string of successful singles from 1995 to 1996, including "Stupid Girl" and "Only Happy When It Rains". Follow-up Version 2.0, released in 1998 after a year in production, was successful, topping the UK Albums Chart and receiving two Grammy Award nominations. Garbage followed this by performing and co-producing the theme song to the nineteenth James Bond film The World Is Not Enough. Despite critical acclaim, Garbage's third album Beautiful Garbage failed to match the commercial success achieved by its predecessors.
Garbage disbanded amidst the troubled production of their fourth album Bleed Like Me, but regrouped to complete the album, released in 2005 and peaked at a career-high number four in the US. The band cut short their concert tour of Bleed Like Me, announcing an "indefinite hiatus", emphasizing that they had not broken up, but wished to pursue personal interests; the hiatus was interrupted in 2007, when Garbage recorded new tracks for their greatest hits retrospective Absolute Garbage. Garbage reunited in 2011, self-released 2012's Not Your Kind of People to positive reviews via their label Stunvolume, their sixth album Strange Little Birds was released in 2016. Duke Erikson and Butch Vig had been in several bands, including Fire Town. In 1983, Vig and Marker founded Smart Studios in Madison and Vig's production work brought him to the attention of Sub Pop. Spooner reunited in 1990 and released another record, but disbanded in 1993 as Vig and Marker's career as producers gained strength. In 1994, as Vig become "kind of burned out on doing long records," he got together with Erikson and Marker, they started doing remixes for acts such as U2, Depeche Mode, Nine Inch Nails, House of Pain.
The remixes featured different instrumentation, highlighting new guitar hooks and bass grooves. This experience inspired the three men to form a band, where they "wanted to take that remix sensibility and somehow translate it into all of the possibilities of a band setup."According to Vig, the team drew inspiration for its name from a hostile early comment, when a friend of the band heard recording material for "Vow" and groaned, "This shit sounds like garbage!" However, according to This Is The Noise That Keeps Me Awake, an autobiography of the band, Vig wrote in his 1993 studio journal about the creative process. The name derives from the last line of this entry: "I hope that all this garbage will become something beautiful!". Initial sessions with Vig on vocals, along with the members' past work with all-male groups, led to the band's desire for a woman on lead. Vig declared that they wanted to find a female vocalist like "Debbie Harry, Patti Smith, Chrissie Hynde and Siouxsie Sioux – all strong, unique personalities".
Marker and Vig desired someone "who didn't have a high, girly quality to her voice" and who could sing in an understated way, in contrast to "these alterna-rock singers have a tendency to scream". Marker was watching 120 Minutes when he saw the music video for Angelfish's "Suffocate Me", he showed the video to Erikson and Vig while their manager Shannon O'Shea tracked down the band's singer, Shirley Manson. When Manson was contacted, she did not know who Vig was and was urged to check the credits on Nevermind, the popular Nirvana album which Vig produced. On April 8, 1994, Manson met Erikson and Vig for the first time in London; that evening Vig was informed of Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain's suicide. Garbage was put on hold. Erikson and Vig attended the Metro Chicago date, Manson was invited to Madison to audition for the band; the audition did not go well, but Manson socialized with the men while there and they found they had a similar taste in music. Angelfish disbanded at the end of the Live tour.
Manson called O'Shea and asked to audition again, feeling that "it could work out". Manson described her first session with the band as "a disaster", as she had no experience as a session player, she and the band were "two parties uncomfortable with the situation", but the "mutual disdain" from that meeting managed to pull the band together; the first songs were skeletal versions of the songs "Stupid Girl", "Queer" and "Vow", which led to some ad-libbed lyrics by Manson. Manson had never written a song prior to this session. Lyrics were penned at a cabin in the north woods of Wisconsin while the songs were recorded at Smart Studios. Conscious of the grunge genre that had made their names Vig's, the band made every effort to avoid sounding similar, deliberately striving to make a pop record. Garbage sent out demo tapes with no bio. Garbage signed with Mushroom UK worldwide and secured the band a Volume magazine compilation inclusion; the only potential candidate for release was "Vow", as it was the only song for which the band had completed production.
When released in December, "Vow" began to receive radio a