USS Tennessee (1865)
USS Tennessee USS Madawaska, was a screw frigate built of wood at the New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn, New York, launched as Madawaska on 8 July 1865. Powered by two Ericsson vibrating-lever engines, Madawaska departed New York City for sea trials 14 January 1867, Commander Francis A. Roe in command. Remaining at sea for one week, she steamed nearly 1,000 nautical miles before returning when her supply of coal was exhausted, she was renamed Tennessee 15 May 1869 and timbered up to the necessary height to allow a spar deck to be installed. She was fitted with new compound back‑acting engines capable of developing 3,200 horsepower, she carried 380 tons of coal but was rigged for sail, the area of her 10 principal sails being 22,500 square feet. Her duties included service as flagship of the Asiatic Squadron under Rear Admiral William Reynolds, with Captain William W. Low in command. By 1879 she was flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron under Rear Admiral Robert W. Wyman, with Captain David B. Harmony in command.
On 15 February 1881 at New Orleans, Seaman George Low jumped overboard and rescued a fellow sailor from drowning, for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor. In The Steam Navy of the United States, Frank M. Bennet relates that during the time Tennessee was flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron she was "the largest vessel in commission in the American Navy, the era of mastless steel cruisers was yet so far away that she was not suspected, by the youngsters at least, of being obsolete and stood as the type of all, excellent and majestic in ship construction." Her spaciousness and the comfort of her quarters as well as her handling characteristics made her a favorite duty station. Tennessee was sold on 15 September 1886 to Burdett Pond of Connecticut. List of steam frigates of the United States Navy Bibliography of American Civil War naval history Union Navy Confederate States Navy This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here
Washington Navy Yard
The Washington Navy Yard is the former shipyard and ordnance plant of the United States Navy in Southeast Washington, D. C, it is the oldest shore establishment of the U. S. Navy; the Yard serves as a ceremonial and administrative center for the U. S. Navy, home to the Chief of Naval Operations, is headquarters for the Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Reactors, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Naval History and Heritage Command, the National Museum of the United States Navy, the U. S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps, Marine Corps Institute, the United States Navy Band, other more classified facilities. In 1998, the yard was listed as a Superfund site due to environmental contamination; the history of the yard can be divided into its military history and cultural and scientific history. The land was purchased under an Act of Congress on July 23, 1799; the Washington Navy Yard was established on October 2, 1799, the date the property was transferred to the Navy. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.
S. Navy; the Yard was built under the direction of Benjamin Stoddert, the first Secretary of the Navy, under the supervision of the Yard's first commandant, Commodore Thomas Tingey, who served in that capacity for 29 years. The original boundaries that were established in 1800, along 9th and M Street SE, are still marked by a white brick wall that surrounds the Yard on the north and east sides; the next year, two additional lots were purchased. The north wall of the Yard was built in 1809 along with a guardhouse, now known as the Latrobe Gate. After the Burning of Washington in 1814, Tingey recommended that the height of the eastern wall be increased to ten feet because of the fire and subsequent looting; the southern boundary of the Yard was formed by the Anacostia River. The west side was undeveloped marsh; the land located along the Anacostia was added to by landfill over the years as it became necessary to increase the size of the Yard. From its first years, the Washington Navy Yard became the navy's largest shipbuilding and shipfitting facility, with 22 vessels constructed there, ranging from small 70-foot gunboats to the 246-foot steam frigate USS Minnesota.
The USS Constitution came to the Yard in 1812 to prepare for combat action. During the War of 1812, the Navy Yard was important not only as a support facility, but as a vital strategic link in the defense of the capital city. Sailors of Navy Yard were part of the hastily assembled American army, which, at Bladensburg, opposed the British forces marching on Washington. An independent volunteer militia rifle company of civilian workers in the Washington Navy Yard was organized by the United States naval architect William Doughty in 1813 and they drilled after working hours. In 1814, Captain Doughty's volunteers were designated the Navy Yard Rifles and assigned to serving under the overall command of Major Robert Brent of the 2nd Regiment of the District of Columbia Militia, the first mayor of Washington, D. C. In late August they were ordered to assemble at Bladensburg, Maryland to form the first line of defense in protecting the capital city of the United States and along with the majority of the American forces was ordered to retreat.
The Chesapeake Bay Flotilla of Joshua Barney joined the combined forces of Navy Yard sailors, the U. S. marines of the nearby Marine Barracks of Washington, D. C. and were positioned to be the final line of the American defenses. Together, they used devastating artillery and fought in hand-to-hand combat with cutlasses and pikes against the British regulars before being overwhelmed. One navy yard civilian master blacksmith Benjamin King 1764 -1840 fought at Bladensburg. King accompanied Captain Miller's Marines into battle. King took charge of a disabled gun, was instrumental bringing that gun into action. Captain Miller remembered King's gun "cut down sixteen of the enemy." As the British marched into Washington, holding the Yard became impossible. Tingey, seeing the smoke from the burning Capitol, ordered the Yard burned to prevent its capture by the enemy. Both structures are now individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On August 30, 1814, Mary Stockton Hunter, an eyewitness to the vast conflagration wrote her sister: " No pen can describe the appalling sound that our ears heard and the sight our eyes saw.
We could see everything from the upper part of our house as plainly. All the vessels of war on fire-the immense quantity of dry timber, together with the houses and stores in flames produced an meridian brightness. You never saw a drawing room so brilliantly lighted as the whole city was that night." From its beginning, the navy yard had one of the biggest payrolls in town, with the number of civilian mechanics and laborers and contractors expanding with the seasons and the naval Congressional appropriation. Prior to the passage of the 1883 Pendleton Act on 16 January 1883, applications for employment at the navy yard were informal based on connections and personal influence. On occasion, a dearth of applicants required a public announcement; the waters of the Anacostia River were too shallow to accommodate larger vessels, the Yard was deemed too inaccessible to the open sea. Thus came a shift to what was to be the character of the yard for
Haiti the Republic of Haiti and called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole. The region was inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic; when Columbus landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade; as a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed. The island was claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century.
Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists. In the midst of the French Revolution and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution, culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt; the rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I.
The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack, it is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States, Association of Caribbean States, the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, it has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti; the name Haiti comes from the indigenous Taíno language, the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, "land of high mountains."
The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti has a diacritical mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately, as in the word naïve. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is disregarded, thus the spelling Haiti is used. There are different anglicizations for its pronunciation such as HIGH-ti, high-EE-ti and haa-EE-ti, which are still in use, but HAY-ti is the most widespread and best-established; the name was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. In French, Haiti's nickname is the "Pearl of the Antilles" because of both its natural beauty, the amount of wealth it accumulated for the Kingdom of France. At the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was one of many Caribbean islands inhabited by the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of an Arawakan language called Taino, preserved in the Haitian Creole language.
The Taíno name for the entire island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America. Genetic studies show, they originated in Central and South America. After migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of political organization was led by a cacique, or chief, as the Europeans understood them; the island of Haiti was divided among five Caciquats: the Magua in the north east, the Marien in the north west, the Xaragua in the south west, the Maguana in the center region of Cibao and the Higuey in the south east. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests. Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country; these have become national symbols of tourist attractions. Modern-day Léogane started as a French colonial town in the southwest, is beside the former capital of the caciquedom of Xaragua.
USS Pennsylvania (ACR-4)
The second USS Pennsylvania referred to as Armored Cruiser No. 4, renamed Pittsburgh, was a United States Navy armored cruiser, the lead ship of her class. She was assigned the name Nebraska but was renamed Pennsylvania on 7 March 1901, she was laid down on 7 August 1901, by William Cramp & Sons of Philadelphia, launched on 22 August 1903. Pennsylvania was sponsored by Miss Coral Quay, daughter of Senator Matthew S. Quay of Pennsylvania, commissioned on 9 March 1905, with Captain Thomas C. McLean in command. Pennsylvania operated on the east coast of the United States and in the Caribbean Sea until 8 September 1906, when she cleared Newport for the Asiatic Station, returning to San Francisco on 27 September 1907, for west coast duty, she visited Chile and Peru in 1910. On 18 January 1911, a plane flown by Eugene Ely from the Tanforan airfield in San Bruno, California landed on a platform constructed on her afterdeck; this was the first successful aircraft landing on a ship, the first using a tailhook apparatus, thus opening the era of naval aviation and aircraft carriers.
While in reserve at Puget Sound from 1 July 1911 – 30 May 1913, the cruiser trained naval militia. She was renamed Pittsburgh on 27 August 1912. Recommissioning, Pittsburgh patrolled the west coast of Mexico during the troubled times of insurrection that led to American involvement with the Veracruz landing in April 1914, she served as flagship for Admiral William B. Caperton—Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet—during South American patrols and visits during World War I. Cooperating with the British, she scouted German raiders and acted as a powerful deterrent against their penetration of the eastern Pacific. Future Rear Admiral Ellis M. Zacharias served as a line officer aboard Pittsburgh during World War I. Future Governor of American Samoa George Landenberger commanded the vessel. Returning to the east coast, Pittsburgh prepared for duty as flagship for Commander, US Naval Forces in the eastern Mediterranean, for which she sailed from Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 19 June 1919. Cruising the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Black Sea, she joined in the massive relief operations and other humanitarian concerns with which the Navy carried out its quasi-diplomatic functions in this troubled area.
In June 1920, she sailed north to visit French and British ports and cruise the Baltic Sea on further relief assignments. On 9 September 1920, she ran aground on rocks in the Baltic Sea off Libau, she was assisted by HMS Frederick. Before 12 October she had moved up river to Chatham Dockyard. On that date a team from Pittsburgh routed a team of British officers 21-8 at baseball; the following month, with Pittsburgh still in dry dock, a court martial absolved Captain Todd of blame for the grounding but the navigator and watch officer were held accountable. She returned to decommission at Philadelphia on 15 October 1921. Recommissioned on 2 October 1922, Pittsburgh returned to European and Mediterranean waters as flagship of Naval Forces Europe, arriving in Gibraltar on 19 October. On 23 October, she hoisted the flag of Vice Admiral Long when Utah returned to the US. By 10 July 1923 Pittsburgh was in the harbor at Cherbourg, France, to disembark 3 officers and 60 enlisted men of her Marine Detachment.
They were detailed to travel to the dedication of the Belleau Wood National Monument to the American Expeditionary Force. Belleau Wood was where the US Marine Corps made a famous stand during the Allied Campaign of 1918. In 1923, when docked in Amsterdam, the crew of the Pittsburgh took part in another baseball game, this time against a team of Dutch players; the details of the game are not known. It would be the first of several games Dutch players would play with US Navy crews. Pittsburgh became flagship for two of the Commanders-in-Chief, US Naval Forces European Waters, Admiral Philip Andrews in 1924–1925 and Vice Admiral Roger Welles in 1925–1926; the ship arrived at New York on 17 July 1926 to prepare for flagship duty with the Asiatic Fleet, during which time she was refitted, including the removal of her forward stack and removal and plating over several 3-inch guns. She sailed on 16 October for Chefoo. Early in January 1927, she landed sailors and Marines to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai from the turmoil and fighting of the Chinese power struggle.
When Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army won control of Shanghai in March, Pittsburgh resumed patrol operations and exercises with the Asiatic Fleet. Closing her long career of service, she carried the Governor General of the Philippines, Dwight F. Davis, on a courtesy cruise to such ports as Saigon, Singapore, Batavia, Bali and Sandakan, returning to Manila on 15 April 1931. Six days she steamed for Suez en route to Hampton Roads, arriving on 26 June, she was decommissioned on 10 July, under the terms of the London Naval Treaty, sold for scrapping to Union Shipbuilding, Maryland on 21 December. Pittsburgh's bow ornament was presented to the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, where it was installed overlooking Junction Hollow at the western edge of the school's campus. Today, the ornament is on Sailors National Military Museum and Memorial; the number 3 bell at Rochester Cathedral, bears the inscription "U. S. S. PITTSBURGH IN MEMORY OF 1920". For many years the reason f
Spring Hill, Tennessee
Spring Hill is a city in Maury and Williamson counties, located 30 miles south of Nashville. Spring Hill's population as of 2018 was 40,436; the first settlers of Spring Hill arrived in 1808 and the city was established in 1809. Albert Russell was the first person to build a home on the land. Spring Hill was the site of a Civil War battle, now known as the Battle of Spring Hill, on November 29, 1864. Spring Hill was the home of a preparatory school and Hughes Military Academy, the campus of which now serves as the main campus of Tennessee Children's Home, a ministry associated with the Churches of Christ. Spring Hill is located at 35°45′9″N 86°54′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.7 square miles, of which 17.7 square miles is land and 0.04 square mile is water. The official main street of Spring Hill is called US Highway 31, Columbia Pike or Nashville Highway; as of the 2000 census, there were 7,715 people, 2,634 households and 2,159 families residing in the city.
The population density was 435.6 people per square mile. There were 2,819 housing units at an average density of 159.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.33% White, 7.80% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.81% from other races and 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.98% of the population. There were 2,634 households out of which 50.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.3% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present and 18.0% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.8% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 42.0% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64 and 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.2 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $60,872 and the median income for a family was $62,643. Males had a median income of $50,819 versus $29,821 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,688. About 3.1% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. The population was 7,715 at the 2000 census. Rapid growth has taken place in recent years with a population of 23,462 in 2007 and a 2010 census population of 29,036 and a population of 31,140 in 2012. In 2018, Spring Hill hit 40,000 residents. In November, 2015, the Spring Hill Board of Mayor and Aldermen approved the ‘Spring Hill Rising: 2040’ comprehensive plan; the plan outlines ways to accomplish that vision. In 2016, the city hired Chicago-based planning and zoning consultant, Camiros Ltd, to oversee the creation of a new zoning code to implement the vision described in ‘Spring Hill Rising: 2040’.
The resulting'Spring Hill Unified Development Code', updates the previous code created in 1987. The number of building permits issued has climbed since a sharp decline that started in 2007 and hit a low in 2009. In 2017, permits were issued at a rate of 2.2 per day totaling 812 for the year. 2018 is on pace to match the previous year. Spring Hill was the site of the Saturn Corporation production facility, which operated from 1990 to 2007; the Saturn S-Series, Saturn ION, Saturn VUE were produced there. In 2007, General Motors Corporation, the parent company of Saturn, shut down the facility to retool it for production of other GM vehicles and renamed it Spring Hill Manufacturing; the plant became the assembly point for the new Chevrolet Traverse. However, after a battle among plants in Spring Hill, Orion Township and Janesville, Wisconsin, GM announced on June 26, 2009 that they had chosen to build a new small car in Orion Township. Nearly 2,500 Spring Hill auto workers were faced with buy-out and early retirement.
The vehicle assembly part of the Spring Hill plant was idled in late 2009 when production of the Traverse was moved to Lansing, while production of power trains and metal stamping continued. In November 2011, GM announced plans for retooling of the vehicle assembly portion of the plant for use as an "ultra-flexible" plant which will be used to build the Chevy Equinox and GMC Terrain but will be designed for rapid retooling to other vehicles of similar size. Spring Hill has gone through rapid development and growth in recent years, causing General Motors to reopen their auto plant and begin hiring locally again, which will hire 1,000 new people. In Addition to this, companies such as Ryder and Goodwill have announced new facilities in the Spring Hill area. Mars, Inc. has opened a facility in nearby Thompson's Station, TN. Rippavilla Plantation, located at 5700 Main Street, offers educational activities and an annual corn maze among other attractions. Columbia Academy Marvin Wright Elementary School Spring Hill Elementary School Spring Hill High School Spring Hill Middle School Allendale Elementary Bethesda Elementary Chapmans Retreat Elementary Heritage Elementary Heritage Middle Hillsboro Elementary Middle Independence High Longview Elementary Spring Hill Academy Spring Station Middle Summit High Thompson's S
Naval Health Clinic New England
Naval Health Clinic New England is a medical clinic providing health care for the Navy that serves in the Northeast region. It is a part of Naval Station Newport; the clinic provides medical care to 70,000 beneficiaries. Despite the name, Naval Health Clinic New England should not be confused with a branch clinic; the command reports directly to Navy Medicine East, itself maintains branch locations at Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut, NSA Saratoga Springs, in Kittery, Maine. The first Naval facility in Newport was the Naval Academy which relocated from Annapolis for the duration of the Civil War; the Naval Academy would return to Annapolis in 1865. In 1869, the Navy opened the Goat Island Torpedo Station. Medical care for sailors in the Newport area was provided by the Newport Hospital which opened in 1873. With the opening of the Naval Training Center in 1883, the spread of disease among the sailors became a significant issue. A temporary wooden hospital was constructed in 1896, with the Navy purchasing 13 acres for use as hospital site in 1910.
The new Naval Hospital Newport was dedicated in 1913. In 1918, during World War I, the hospital expanded in size from 100 beds to 1000 beds, increased its Nurse Corps staff from 15 to 62. Nurses received training at the hospital prior to deployment. Additionally, lessons in French were offered. An old cruiser, USS Newark, was used as an quarantine hulk at the hospital for some time. In 1991, rather than renovate the now 78 year old hospital building, the Navy decided to move inpatient care to civilian hospitals in Newport. Naval Hospital Newport was used as until 1997. Following that, the clinics were moved to the current medical campus directly north of the old hospital. In February 2010, the Department of Defense declared the hospital site to be surplus. On September 28, 2016, the City council of Newport, RI voted to re-purpose the waterfront land at the Naval Hospital site as a public park. In March 1998, Naval Hospital Groton, Naval Hospital Newport, Naval Medical Clinic Portsmouth were joined into a single command, Naval Health Care New England.
The consolidated command's first Commanding Officer would be J. Philip Van Landingham, Naval Hospital's last commanding officer. Sometime after that, the command's name was changed to Naval Health Clinic New England. In 2009, Captain Elaine C. Wagner assumed command of Naval Health Clinic New England, she would become the first female pediatric dentist to be appointed Rear Admiral. In 2010, Captain Marcia Lyons would assume command of Naval Health Clinic New England from Wagner, only to be relieved of duty by her in 2012. Captain Tina Davidson would assume command following Lyons