Vladimir Yulyevich Wiese was a Russian scientist of German descent who devoted his life to the study of the Arctic ice pack. His name is associated with the Scientific Prediction of Ice Conditions theory. Wiese was an authority on polar oceanography, he was the founder of the Geographico-hydrological School of Oceanography. Wiese was born to German immigrants to Saint Petersburg, Julius Friedrich Franz Wiese and Lydia Karoline Amalie Gertrud Blass, he graduated from the University of Göttingen. In 1912–14 Wiese went with Georgy Sedov’s expedition on the ship St. Foka to Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land. After the Russian Revolution Wiese took part in a number of Soviet Arctic expeditions. In 1924 Wiese studied the drift of Georgy Brusilov's ill-fated Russian ship St. Anna when she was trapped on the pack ice of the Kara Sea, he detected an odd deviation of the path of the ship's drift caused by certain variations of the patterns of sea and ice currents. He concluded that the deviation was caused by the presence of an undiscovered island, whose coordinates he could calculate thanks to the availability of the successive positions of the St. Anna during its drift.
The island was named after Wiese. The island was discovered on 13 August 1930 by a Soviet expedition led by Otto Schmidt aboard the Icebreaker Sedov under Captain Vladimir Voronin; the island was named Vize Island, at the time aboard the Sedov. In July 1931 Wiese led an expedition on icebreaking steamer Malygin to Franz Josef Land and the northern part of the Kara Sea, he carried out meteorological and hydrological observations during this expedition. During this expedition German airship Graf Zeppelin made a rendezvous with icebreaker Malygin at Bukhta Tikhaya in Hooker Island, Franz Josef Land. At Rudolf Island Wiese recovered artifacts from the abandoned huts of the 1904–1905 Ziegler Polar Expedition to Franz Josef Land, his intention was to carry out deep-sea oceanographic research in the Arctic basin, but due to fog and bad weather he reluctantly gave up and the expedition headed south. He had hoped to carry out oceanographic research in the little-explored northern part of the Kara Sea, but the ice concentrations became progressively heavier until it was decided to turn back.
In this Arctic expedition Wiese’s scientific zeal was tempered by Captain Chertkhov's prudent decisions. So, the expedition was quite successful. Surface water temperatures were taken at 295 locations, water samples were taken from 273 stations, meteorological observations were duly taken every four hours. Earlier in 1929 Wiese proposed setting up a drifting polar observatory near the North Pole, his proposal was accepted only in 1935. Wiese could not participate due to declining health, he went into his final expedition on Icebreaker Sadko. Its goal was to sail to Henrietta and Jeannette Islands, in the De Long group and carry out scientific research; the purpose of the expedition was to find out how could the Northern Sea Route be used for regular shipping. But the Soviet naval authorities changed the plans and the ice-breaker was sent instead to help ships in distress in the Kara and Laptev Seas. Sadko itself became trapped in fast ice at 75°17'N and 132°28'E near New Siberian Islands. Two other Soviet icebreakers that researched the ice condition in the same area and Malygin became trapped by sea ice and drifted helplessly.
Owing to persistent bad weather conditions, part of the stranded crew members and some of the scientists could only be rescued in April 1938. On 28 August 1938, Icebreaker Yermak freed two of the three ships at 83°4'N and 138°22'E; the third ship, had to be left to drift in its icy prison and was transformed into a scientific Polar Station. It kept drifting northwards in the ice towards the Pole much like Fridtjof Nansen's Fram had done in 1893–96. There were 15 crew aboard. During the long drift Weise and his colleagues carried out hundreds of astronomical and electromagnetic observations, made 38 depth measurements by drilling the thick polar ice during their 812-day stay aboard the Sedov, they were freed between Greenland and Svalbard by the icebreaker Joseph Stalin on 18 January 1940. The crew and scientists were welcomed back in the Soviet Union as heroes. In 1933 Wiese was elected as a corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, he was awarded two Orders of one Stalin Prize. Several geographical objects in the Soviet Arctic bear his name, including the Wiese Island.
Morya Sovetskoy Arktiki. Moscow-Leningrad 1948 The expedition on board the icebreaking steamer “Malygin” to Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa. 1933 The voyage of the icebreaker “Malygin” to Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa in 1931. Trudy "Die Vorhersage der Eisverhältnisse im Barentsmeer". Arktis I. 1928. Sea ice Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations Uedineniya Island Icebreaker Feodor Litke Icebreaker Sadko
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966, it is composed over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center, its enrollment is 25,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students with over 170,000 alumni in 152 countries, including James Gosling, who invented the Java computer language, Garrett Camp, who co-founded Uber, former Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, former Canadian astronaut Robert Thirsk, Lululemon Athletica founder, Chip Wilson. A member of the U15, the University of Calgary is one of Canada's top research universities; the university has a sponsored research revenue of $380.4 million, with total revenues exceeding $1.2 billion, one of the highest in Canada.
Being in Calgary, with Canada's highest concentration of engineers and geoscientists, the university maintains close ties to the petroleum and geoscience industry through the Department of Geosciences and the Schulich School of Engineering while maintaining a history of environmental research and leadership through the Faculty of Environmental Design, the School of Public Policy and the Faculty of Law. The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada; the main campus covers 200 hectares. The University of Calgary was established in 1966, but its roots date back more than half a century earlier to the establishment of the Normal School in Calgary in 1905; the Alberta Normal School was established in Calgary to train primary and secondary school teachers in the new province. The Calgary Normal School was absorbed by the University of Alberta's Faculty of Education in 1945, operated as a part of its Calgary branch campus, a satellite campus of the University of Alberta.
Operating from the west wing of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, the Calgary University Committee was formed 1946, in an effort to lobby for separate permanent facilities for the branch campus. In July 1957, the University of Alberta signed a one dollar lease with the City of Calgary, for 121.4 hectares of land. In 1958, the University of Alberta changed the name of the branch campus to the "University of Alberta in Calgary," and unveiled plans for new permanent facilities on the leased land; the new campus opened its first permanent facilities in October 1960, the Arts and Education Building, the Science and Engineering Building. In May 1965, the satellite campus was granted academic and financial autonomy from the University of Alberta. In the following year, in April 1966, the institution was formally made into an independent university, with the passage of the Universities Act by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research.
The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was a link between the bodies to perform institutional leadership. In the early 20th century, professional education expanded beyond theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the university's first president, Herbert Stoker Armstrong, held a strong belief that "although the university is accountable to the society that supports it, the university must insist on playing a leadership role in intellectual matters if it is to be worthy of the name."During the late 1960s, the University of Calgary's campus expanded with new buildings for engineering and science, the opening of the new University Theatre in Calgary Hall and, in 1971, the launch of the program in architecture.
In addition, the Banff Centre affiliated with the University of Calgary in 1966. The University of Calgary played a central role in facilitating and hosting Canada's first winter olympic games, the XV Olympic Winter Games in 1988. In May 2001, the University of Calgary tartan was accredited in a ceremony presided over by the president of the Scottish Tartans Society, the director of the Register of All Publicly Known Tartans; the accreditation ceremony for the university's tartan was the first to take place in Canada. Use of the black and gold tartan is limited to formal ceremonies, a small number of items sold by the University; the tartan is used by the university's pipe band. On January 4, 2018, 21-year-old Connor Neurauter was sentenced to 90-days in jail, 2 years probation and had to register as a sex offender in Kamloops, B. C after obtaining and threatening to share photos of a minor under 16, it was revealed that Neurauter would not serve his sentence until May 2018, in order to allow him to finish his semester at the University of Calgary.
On January 6, the University of Calgary said that they were "reviewing the situation"
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak KB was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War, he established an anti-communist government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the "Supreme Leader and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces" by the other leaders of the White movement from 1918 to 1920, his government was based in southwestern Siberia. For 2 years, Kolchak was Russia's internationally recognized head of state. However, his effort to unite the White Movement failed; this served only to boost the Reds morale, as it allowed them to label Kolchak as a "Western Puppet". As his White forces fell apart, he was betrayed and captured by the Czechoslovak Legion who handed him over to local Socialists-Revolutionaries, he was soon after executed by the Bolsheviks. Kolchak was born in Saint Petersburg in 1874 to a family of minor Russian nobility of Moldovan origin.
Both his parents were from Odessa. His father was a retired major-general of the Marine Artillery and a veteran of the 1854 siege of Sevastopol, who after retirement worked as an engineer in ordnance works near St. Petersburg. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion, he was soon transferred to the Russian Far East, serving in Vladivostok from 1895 to 1899. He returned to western Russia and was based at Kronstadt, joining the Russian Polar expedition of Eduard Toll on the ship Zarya in 1900 as a hydrologist. After considerable hardship, Kolchak returned in December 1902. Kolchak took part in two Arctic expeditions to look for the lost explorers and for a while was nicknamed "Kolchak-Poliarnyi". For his explorations Kolchak received the highest award of the Russian Geographical Society. In December 1903, Kolchak was en route to St. Petersburg with plans to marry his fiancée Sophia Omirova when, not far from Irkutsk, he received notice of the start of war with the Empire of Japan and hastily summoned his bride and her father to Siberia by telegram for a wedding, before heading directly to Port Arthur.
In the early stages of the Russo-Japanese War, he served as watch officer on the cruiser Askold, commanded the destroyer Serdityi. He made several night sorties to lay naval mines, one of which succeeded in sinking the Japanese cruiser Takasago, he was decorated with the Order of St. Anna 4th class for the exploit; as the blockade of the port tightened and the Siege of Port Arthur intensified, he was given command of a coastal artillery battery. He was wounded in the final battle for Port Arthur and taken as a prisoner of war to Nagasaki, where he spent four months, his poor health led to his repatriation before the end of the war. Kolchak was awarded the Golden Sword of St. George with the inscription "For Bravery" on his return to Russia. Returning to Saint Petersburg in April 1905, Kolchak was promoted to lieutenant commander and took part in the rebuilding of the Imperial Russian Navy, completely destroyed during the war, he served on the Naval General Staff from 1906, helping draft a shipbuilding program, a training program, developing a new protection plan for St. Petersburg and the Gulf of Finland.
Kolchak took part in designing the special icebreakers Taimyr and Vaigach, launched in 1909 spring 1910. Based in Vladivostok, these vessels were sent on cartographic expedition to the Bering Strait and Cape Dezhnev. Kolchak commanded the Vaigach during this expedition and worked at the Academy of Sciences with the materials collected by him during expeditions, his study, The Ices of the Kara and Siberian Seas, was printed in the Proceedings of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and is considered the most important work on this subject. Extracts from it were published under the title "The Arctic Pack and the Polynya" in the volume issued in 1929 by the American Geographical Society, Problems of Polar Research. In 1910 he returned to the Naval General Staff, in 1912 he was assigned to the Russian Baltic Fleet; the onset of the First World War found him on the flagship Pogranichnik, where Kolchak oversaw the laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga.
Commanding Admiral Essen was not satisfied to remain on the defensive and ordered Kolchak to prepare a scheme for attacking the approaches of the German naval bases. During the autumn and winter of 1914–1915, Russian destroyers and cruisers started a series of dangerous night operations, laying mines at the approaches to Kiel and Danzig. Kolchak, feeling that the man responsible for planning operations should take part in their execution, was always on board those ships which carried out the operations and at times took direct command of the destroyer flotillas, he was promoted to vice-admiral in August 1916, the youngest man at that rank, was made commander of the Black Sea Fleet, replacing Admiral Eberhart. Kolchak's primary mission was to support General Yudenich in his operations against the Ottoman Empire, he was tasked with countering the U-boat threat and to plan the invasion of the Bosphorus. Kolchak's fleet was successful at sinking Turkish colliers; because there was no railroad linking the coal mines of eastern Turkey with Constantin
Severnaya Zemlya is a 37,000-square-kilometre archipelago in the Russian high Arctic. It lies off Siberia's Taymyr Peninsula, separated from the mainland by the Vilkitsky Strait; this archipelago separates two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Kara Sea in the west and the Laptev Sea in the east. Severnaya Zemlya was first noted in 1913 and first charted in 1930–32, making it the last sizeable archipelago on Earth to be explored. Administratively, the islands form part of Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai federal subject. In Soviet times there were a number of research stations in different locations, but there are no human inhabitants in Severnaya Zemlya except for the Prima Polar Station near Cape Baranov; the largest glacier in the Russian Federation, the Academy of Sciences Glacier, is located in Severnaya Zemlya. The archipelago is notable as well in connection with the ongoing multiyear Arctic sea ice decline; until ice joined the islands to Eurasia at its smallest extent during the late summer melt season, blocking the Northeast Passage between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
By the late summer of 2012, the permanent ice had reached a record low extent and open water appeared to the north of the archipelago. Although located not far off the northern coast of Russia, nested among Arctic ice-locked waters, the archipelago, now known as Severnaya Zemlya was not formally recorded until the 20th century. Earlier explorers deemed that there was a land mass in the general area of the archipelago, such as in the report by Matvei Gedenschtrom and Yakov Sannikov made in 1810 at the time of their exploration of the New Siberian Islands. In the 19th century Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld during the Vega Expedition sailed close to this land in 1878 but did not notice it. In 1882, Danish Arctic explorer and naval officer Andreas Peter Hovgaard, leader of the Arctic survey Dijmphna Expedition, set himself the goal of discovering land north of Cape Chelyuskin and explore the unknown northeastern limits of the Kara Sea. However, Hovgaard was prevented from accomplishing his objectives after having become trapped in thick ice and his expedition was unable to reach the Taymyr Peninsula's shores.
At the end of the 19th century both Nansen's Fram expedition of 1895, as well Eduard Toll's Russian polar expedition of 1900–02 on ship Zarya failed to note any traces of land to the north of the 55 kilometres wide strait between the Kara Sea and the Laptev Sea that they navigated. The archipelago was not put on the map until the 1913–1915 Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition of icebreakers Taimyr and Vaigach; the chief organiser and first captain of the Vaygach was officer Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak of the Imperial Russian Navy. The expedition was financed and was launched in 1910, being led by Boris Vilkitsky on behalf of the Russian Hydrographic Service; this venture accomplished its goal of exploring the uncharted areas of the continental side of the Northern Sea Route in what was seen as the culmination of the Great Northern Expedition, an ambitious enterprise conceived by emperor Peter I the Great in order to map the whole of the northern coast of Russia to the east. On 3 September 1913, members of Vilkitsky's expedition landed on what is now known as Cape Berg on October Revolution Island.
They raised the Russian flag on the shore and named the new territory Tayvay Land, after the first syllable of their icebreakers' names. During the days that followed Vilkitsky's expedition charted parts of the Laptev Sea coast of what they believed to be a single island. Six months in early 1914, by order of the Secretary of the Imperial Navy, the new discovery was renamed Emperor Nicholas II Land, after ruling Emperor Nicholas II of Russia. In 1926 the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR renamed the still not explored land Severnaya Zemlya. In May 1928, an attempt was made by Umberto Nobile and his crew in the Airship Italia to overfly the islands, but adverse weather conditions forced them to turn southward when only an hour or two from viewing the archipelago's coastline. In the spring of 1931 Georgy Ushakov, accompanied by the geologist Nikolay Urvantsev, the veteran surveyor Sergei Zhuravlev, the radio operator Vasily Khodov surveyed Severnaya Zemlya during a two-year expedition to the archipelago.
Ushakov and his team established a small base at Golomyanny – the western end of Sredniy Island, off October Revolution Island's western coast. From there they made multiple surveying trips into the interior and the coastlines of the larger islands; the first detailed map drawn by the expedition's cartographers showed Severnaya Zemlya to be divided into four main islands. Geographic features of the territory were named after communist organisations and personalities. About Severnaya Zemlya Ushakov wrote: I have seen God-forsaken Chukotka Peninsula, blizzard-ridden Wrangel Island, twice visited fog-enshrouded Novaya Zemlya, I have seen Franz Josef Land with its enamel sky and proud cliffs garbed in blue, hardened glacial streams, but nowhere did I witness such grimness or such depressing, lifeless relief... The Graf Zeppelin flew over the area during its polar flight of July 1931 and took some cartographic and meteorological data. Though German communists had endured great suffering under the Third Reich, following the anti-German sentiment caused by the 1941–1945 Great Patriotic War i
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c