Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Charles Brantley Aycock
Charles Brantley Aycock was the 50th Governor of the U. S. state of North Carolina from 1901 to 1905. After starting his career as a lawyer and teacher, he became active in the Democratic Party during the party's Solid South period, was a strong proponent of the white supremacy campaigns of that period. Under his tenure as governor, he was an advocate for the improvement of the state's public school systems, following his term in office, he traveled the country promoting educational causes. Charles B. Aycock was born in Wayne County, North Carolina as the youngest of the 10 children of Benjamin and Serena Aycock, his family lived near the present-day town of Fremont, North Carolina known as Nahunta. Though his father died when he was 15, his mother and older brothers recognized his abilities and determined that he should go to college. Aycock attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and joined Philanthropic Society, a debate and literary society at the university. After graduating in 1880 with first honors in both oratory and essay writing, he entered law practice in Goldsboro and supplemented his income by teaching school.
His success in both fields led to his appointment as superintendent of schools for Wayne County and to service on the school board in Goldsboro. His political career began in 1888 as a presidential elector for Grover Cleveland, when he gained distinction as an orator and political debater. From 1893 to 1897 he served as U. S. attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina. In 1898 and 1900, Aycock was prominent in the Democratic Party's "white supremacy" Solid South campaigns. Aycock's involvement with the Wilmington insurrection of 1898 is chronicled in official state commission report. "Planned violence to suppress the African American and Republican communities grew into unplanned bloodshed. The frenzy over white supremacy victory, incessantly repeated by orators such as Alfred Moore Waddell and Charles Aycock could not be quieted after an overwhelming and somewhat anticlimactic election victory." Aycock was not present in Wilmington the day of the insurrection. In 1900, Aycock was elected Governor over Republican Spencer B.
Adams, as part of a sweeping Democratic victory which included a suffrage amendment. Aycock campaigned on the issue. Indeed it has become the fashion among Republicans and Populists to assert the unfitness of the negro to rule, but when they use the word rule, they confine it to holding office; when we say that the negro is unfit to rule we carry it one step further and convey the correct idea when we declare that he is unfit to vote. To do this we must disfranchise the negro; this movement comes from the people. Politicians have been afraid of it and have hesitated, but the great mass of white men in the State are now demanding and have demanded that the matter be settled once and for all. To do so is both desirable and necessary – desirable because it sets the white man free to move along faster than he can go when retarded by the slower movement of the negro; as governor, Aycock became known as the "Education Governor" for his support of the public school system. It was said that one school was constructed in the state for every day he was in office.
He was dedicated to education after watching his mother make her mark when signing a deed. He felt, he supported increased salaries for teachers, longer school terms, new school buildings. Let us cast away all fear of rivalry with the negro, all apprehension that he shall overtake us in the race of life. We should have no fear of winning the race against a commoner stock. An effort to reduce their public schools would send thousands more of them away from us. In this hour, when our industrial development demands more labor and not less, it becomes of the utmost importance that we shall make no mistake in dealing with that race which does a large part of the work, of actual hard labor in the State. Historian Morgan Kousser has demonstrated that Aycock's progressive attitude toward black education was based on white Democrats' desire to ensure that the disfranchisement of black voters would not be reversed by federal government intervention. Kousser observed, "Some scholars have made a great deal of the opposition of'progressive' Governor Charles B.
Aycock and state school superintendent James Y. Joyner to the movement for a constitutional amendment in North Carolina to limit black school expenditures to the amount paid by Negroes in taxes, it is true that Aycock threatened resignation if such a law passed and that, speaking to the legislature in 1903, he condemned the proposed measure as'unjust and unconstitutional.' Yet in the same address he put greater stress on his view that the act was impolitic than he did on its injustice. The law would invite a challenge in federal court, he believed, and'if it should be made to appear to the Court that in connection with our disfranchisement of the negro we had taken pains for providing to keep him in ignorance both amendments would fall together.' In other words, the disfranchisement of the unanimously Republican blacks, priceless to the Democrats, would be bartered for the temporary gain of a few extra dollars of the school fund." On December 18, 1903, while Gover
Paul Hardin III
Paul Hardin III was an American academic administrator who spent 27 years as a leader in higher education. He was the chancellor of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1988 to 1995, president of Wofford College from 1968 to 1972, of Southern Methodist University from 1972 to 1974, of Drew University from 1974 to 1988, he was trained at the Duke University Law School. The son of Paul Hardin Jr. a Methodist bishop, Dorothy Reel Hardin, Paul Hardin III was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, on June 11, 1931, grew up in Concord, Wadesboro, Asheboro and High Point, North Carolina. He earned both his bachelors and law degrees from Duke University, where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa, finished first in his law school class, served as editor-in-chief of the Duke Law Journal, played on the golf team. Hardin fell in love with Barbara Stone Russell, whose father was a Methodist minister, the summer before his junior year at Duke while they were both vacationing at Lake Junaluska, in the North Carolina mountains.
In 1954, he declined an invitation to compete for a Rhodes Scholarship due to his desire to stay at Duke with Barbara. He received his law degree on the same day that Barbara completed her AB, the two were married the day after graduation in 1954. After service in the US Army Counter Intelligence Corps, Hardin practiced law in Birmingham, he returned to Duke Law School where he served on the faculty for ten years before becoming President of Wofford College at the age of 37. Hardin assumed the presidency of Wofford College in the late 1960s—a time of student unrest across the country, he is credited with championing openness on campus, introducing an open speakers policy and assuring free student expression. He spearheaded continued efforts to desegregate the student body, he hired the first African-American administrator at Wofford. Hardin went on to serve as President of Southern Methodist University, in Texas. Two years into his tenure, he discovered infractions within the SMU football program involving coaches and university trustees.
Hardin reported the violations to the NCAA, a move, applauded by some, but led to his forced resignation at the hands of powerful members of the SMU Board of Governors. After his departure, the malfeasance continued into the 1990s leading to the Southern Methodist University football scandal. Hardin did not view the event as a setback. In fact, he considered it a jumping off point for a successful career in academic administration. I think some people flinched and they were the people who got that university into such trouble that they incurred the only death penalty in the history of the NCAA," Hardin said. "So I tried to curb this before it got under way and they suggested that I go elsewhere. And that's when my career perked up. After his ouster from Dallas, Hardin moved to New Jersey to lead Drew University, he built a reputation as an energetic leader. Among his legacies at Drew are the United Methodist Church Archives Center, the remodeled Learning Center and the Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti program.
While at Drew, he worked to bolster the sciences at the small liberal arts campus. In 1983, long before it was widespread practice, Drew assigned a personal computer to every student. To those familiar with the Tobacco Road rivalry, Hardin may have seemed an unlikely candidate to become Chancellor at North Carolina, but in spite of his Duke pedigree, after stints at several smaller private institutions, he took the reins at the large public research university in 1988. The Chapel Hill campus offered stark contrast against the backdrop of the tiny, private Wofford and Drew communities, Hardin encountered the understandable culture shock of operating as an administrator in the public sector. Hardin was hired to lead UNC into its third century, first by spearheading the largest capital campaign in school history, he led the effort with his characteristic gusto. In the end the campaign raised $440 million, well over its goal of $300 million; the Bicentennial Observance culminated in a University Day celebration in 1993, during which Hardin conferred an honorary degree upon President Bill Clinton.
Hardin's time at UNC was not without conflict. In 1992 he refused student demands to build a freestanding Black Cultural Center on campus, recommending instead to expand the BCC's current space within the existing Student Union, he believed that a freestanding center would promote separatism, but proponents of the idea believed he was degrading the importance of black culture on campus. Emphasizing his position, Hardin stated, "We want a forum, not a fortress." The disagreement led to the largest demonstration movement on campus since Vietnam. The protests garnered national attention, with Rev. Jesse Jackson and filmmaker Spike Lee coming to Chapel Hill to support the cause. In 1993, Hardin appointed a planning committee to assess the situation and recommend a course of action; the committee concluded that a freestanding center was appropriate, but supported Hardin in his belief that the center should be a working classroom building controlled by the Office of the Provost, rather than a separate student union under the Department of Student Affairs.
The Sonja Haynes Stone Black Cultural Center opened in 2004. Hardin deemed the period "the greatest personal anguish" of his career. Hardin was active in civil rights issues, ran for mayor of Durham in 1967, losing in part due to his liberal views on race relations, he worried that he was being portrayed as a "60s liberal who stopped growing," while in fact throughout his career he worked to promo
The Silver Star Medal, unofficially the Silver Star, is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star Medal is awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States; the Silver Star Medal is the successor award to the "Citation Star", established by an Act of Congress on July 9, 1918, during World War I. On July 19, 1932, the Secretary of War approved the conversion of the "Citation Star" to the SSM with the original "Citation Star" incorporated into the center of the medal. Authorization for the Silver Star Medal was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the U. S. Navy on August 7, 1942, an Act of Congress for the U. S. Army on December 15, 1942; the current statutory authorization for the medal is Title 10 of the United States Code, 10 U. S. C. § 3746 for the U. S. Army, 10 U. S. C. § 8746 for the U. S. Air Force, 10 U. S. C. § 6244 for the U. S. Navy; the U. S. Army and Air Force award the medal as the "Silver Star".
The U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard continue to award the medal as the "Silver Star Medal". Since 21 December 2016, the Department of Defense refers to the decoration as the Silver Star Medal; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for gallantry, so long as the action does not justify the award of one of the next higher valor awards: the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, or the Air Force Cross. The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for singular acts of valor or heroism over a brief period, such as one or two days of a battle. Air Force pilots and combat systems officers and Navy/Marine Corps naval aviators and flight officers flying fighter aircraft, are considered eligible to receive the Silver Star upon becoming an ace, which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer and risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.
However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U. S. fighter aces: an Air Force pilot and two navigators/weapon systems officers, a naval aviator and a naval flight officer/radar intercept officer who had achieved this distinction, were awarded the Air Force Cross and Navy Cross in addition to SSMs awarded for earlier aerial kills. Unit award equivalentAir Force – Gallant Unit Citation Army – Valorous Unit Award Coast Guard – Coast Guard Unit Commendation Navy-Marine Corps – Navy Unit Commendation The Silver Star Medal is a gold five-pointed star, 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter with a laurel wreath encircling rays from the center and a 3⁄16 inch diameter silver star superimposed in the center; the pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION; the ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 7⁄32 inch Old Glory red. Ribbon devicesSecond and subsequent awards of the Silver Star Medal are denoted by bronze or silver oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force and by gold or silver 5⁄16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard.
The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records for the Silver Star Medal. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 SSMs have been awarded since the decoration was established. Colonel David Hackworth, awarded ten SSMs while serving in the Army during the Korean War and Vietnam War, is to be the person awarded the most SSMs. Three Army nurses that served in World War I were cited in 1919 and 1920 with Citation Stars for gallantry in attending to the wounded while under artillery fire in July 1918. In 2007, it was discovered; the three nurses were awarded the Silver Star Medal posthumously: Jane Rignel – Mobile Hospital No. 2, 42nd Division, for gallantry in "giving aid to the wounded under heavy fire" in France on July 15, 1918 Linnie Leckrone – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artilley bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918 Irene Robar – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artillery bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918An unknown number of servicewomen received the award in World War II.
Four Army nurses serving in Italy during the war—First Lieutenant Mary Roberts, Second Lieutenant Elaine Roe, Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth —became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at Anzio on February 10, 1944. That same year, Corporal Magdalena Leones, a Filipino American, received the medal for clandestine activities on Luzon; the next known servicewomen to receive the Silver Star is Army National Guard Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester in 2005, for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq and Army
Southern Historical Collection
The Southern Historical Collection is a repository of distinct archival collections at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill which document the culture and history of the American South. These collections are made up of unique primary materials, such as manuscripts, photographs, drawings, journals, oral histories, ledgers, moving images, literary manuscripts and other materials; the North Carolina Historical Society began collecting manuscripts at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1844. The collecting stopped in the early twentieth century; the holdings were transferred to the University Library. By the 1920s, Dr. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, a professor of history was corresponding about the idea of creating "a great library of Southern human records." Hamilton began traveling the South, in his "faithful Fords," gathering materials. On January 14, 1930, the Southern Historical Collection was established. Dr. Hamilton served as director, the initial endowment was offered by Sarah Graham Kenan.
Upon Hamilton's 1951 retirement, the Southern Historical Collection held 2,140,000 manuscript items. The Southern Historical Collection now holds more than 15 million items, which are organized into over 4,600 discrete collections; the collection can be found in Wilson Library on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Materials are non-circulating due to rarity and fragility; the collections held in the Southern Historical Collection are described in online and print finding aids, which contain information on the history or background of the entity that created the collection, as well as a description or list of most of the materials in the collection itself. Some of the subject strengths of the collection include: Social activism Communities Labor Civil rights Slavery Journalism FamilyTime periods chiefly represented in the SHC include: Antebellum plantation era American Civil War Reconstruction The New South The Jim Crow South The South since 1954 The Southern Historical Collection SHC 75th Anniversary News Release SHC on public radio station WUNC Digital Collections at UNC The Southern Folklife Collection General Manuscripts The Southern Historical Collection at Google Cultural Institute
Harry Woodburn Chase
Harry Woodburn Chase was the 12th President of the University of North Carolina, the 7th President of the University of Illinois, the 8th President of New York University. Works by Harry Woodburn Chase at LibriVox
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S