Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon, English poet and novelist, better known by her initials L. E. L. Letitia Elizabeth Landon was born on 14 August 1802 in Chelsea, London to John Landon and Catherine Jane, at the age of five, Landon began attending Mrs Rowdens school at 22 Hans Place, which counted among its alumnae Mary Russell Mitford and Lady Caroline Lamb. The family moved to the country in 1809, so that John Landon could carry out a model farm project, I never knew her to be wrong. When young, Letitia was very close to her brother, Whittington Henry. Paying for Whittington through university was one of the needs that drove Letitia to publish and she supported his preferment and dedicated her poem ‘Captain Cook’ to their childhood days together. Whittington went on to become a minister and published a book of Sermons in 1835, sadly, he did not show any appreciation for all his sisters financial assistance but spread false rumours about her marriage and death. Letitia had a sister, Elizabeth Jane, who was a frail child and died in 1819.
Little is known of Elizabeth but her death may well have left an impression on Letitia. The following statements from those who knew her give some idea of the known as L. E. L. Emma Roberts, from her introduction to The Zenana and other works. Gay and piquant, her complexion, dark hair, and eyes, rendered her, when in health and spirits. Her figure was slight, and beautifully proportioned, with hands and feet. A little high-backed cane chair, which gave you any idea but that of comfort, one aspect that is common to all accounts of those who knew Miss Landon is that she possessed an exceptionally high level of intelligence. Fredric Rowton in his The Female Poets of Great Britain puts it thus, Of Mrs. Macleans genius there can be but one opinion. It is distinguished by very great power, a highly sensitive and ardent imagination, an intense fervour of passionate emotion. Of mere art she displays but little and her style is irregular and careless, and her painting sketchy and rough but there is genius in every line she has written.
An agricultural depression soon followed, and the family moved back to London in 1815, where John Landon made the acquaintance of William Jerdan, editor of the Literary Gazette. According to 19th-century commentator Mrs A. T. Jerdan encouraged Landons poetic endeavors, and her first poem was published under the single initial L in the Gazette in 1820, when Landon was 18. The following year, with support from her grandmother, Landon published a book of poetry, The Fate of Adelaide
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
Arthur Howe Holdsworth
He was elected member of Parliament for Dartmouth in 1802, holding the seat until December 1819, when he vacated it in favour of Charles Milner Ricketts, a cousin of Lord Liverpool. He returned to the seat in 1829, but was defeated by John Seale in 1832 and he served as the last Governor of Dartmouth. Holdsworth was a politician in Devonshire, his father Arthur having been a prominent shipowner, merchant. The son, Arthur Howe Holdsworth Holdsworth, was a businessman with interests in shipping. He was a shareholder in the Bristol and Exeter Railway and was a force behind Devons expansive shipping interests. The Holdsworth familys roots lay in Yorkshire, and a vicar ancestor moved to Devon in 1620, the vicars son Arthur entered trade and, aided by the Champernowne family, began a lucrative trade with Newfoundland. By 1672 he was mayor of Dartmouth and a figure on the local business scene. In the following two centuries the Holdsworth family came to dominate the mercantile and cultural life of Dartmouth and they were leaders in the trade with Newfoundland and with Portugal, where they owned estates.
Their interests extended into trade with the Baltic, the West Indies, the family continued to prosper, according to David K. The Holdsworths and their relations held most of the important posts in and around Dartmouth, Mayors, Governor of the Castle since 1725, Rector of Stokenham and Brixham, the family home was Widdicombe House, near Torcross, built in 1785 and enlarged in 1820. They owned Brooke Hall, Dartmouth, at his death in 1860, Holdsworth left an enormous estate. Arthur Howe Holdsworth in 1807 married Catherine Henrietta Eastabrooke, daughter of John Eastabrooke and his wife Catherine Henrietta, widow of Robert Carr. The Holdsworth family intermarried with other prominent West Country families, including the St. Aubyns of St. Michaels Mount, Arthur Howes Holdsworths eldest son Arthur Bastard Eastabrook Holdsworth lived at Widdicombe House after the death of his father. Works by Arthur Howe Holdsworth at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Arthur Howe Holdsworth at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Arthur Howe Holdsworth
George Venables-Vernon, 5th Baron Vernon
He was one of the last Members of Parliament for Derbyshire and the first for South Derbyshire. Vernon had an enthusiasm for Italian literature, particularly Dante after visiting Italy as a child. Vernon county is named after him in Australia, Vernon was born at Stapleford Hall in Nottinghamshire. Sir Richard Vernon, Speaker of the House of Commons from 1425 to 1426, was an ancestor, Vernon entered public life in 1831, as Member of Parliament for Derbyshire. As a result of the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832 the parliamentary seat for Derbyshire was divided in two, and he became MP for the southern part. He continued in the House of Commons until 1835, when he succeeded his father as Baron Vernon and he was an expert rifle-shot and an energetic supporter of the Volunteer movement for which he raised the 2nd Derbyshire Rifle Volunteer Corps of two companies in 16 March 1860. As a youth, Vernon was taken to Italy, and returned to live in Florence and his whole life was devoted to Dante, to whom he erected a noble literary monument.
With the advice and help of friends and collaborators, he printed some unedited texts, the latter work was described by Henry Clark Barlow as one which, for utility of purpose, comprehensiveness of design, and costly execution, has never been equalled in any country. Some of the most distinguished artists and men of letters in Italy were occupied for twenty years in its preparation, Vernon a socio correspondent of the Accademia della Crusca, and was a member of many other literary societies. He was created Cavaliere di San Maurizio e Lazzaro in May 1865 and he remarried on 14 December 1859, to his cousin, Frances Emma Maria, only daughter of the Rev. Brooke Boothby, who survived him but was childless. After a long illness, Vernon died at Sudbury Hall, the seat, near Derby. An engraved portrait of Vernon is in the album of his Inferno, besides the two works above mentioned, he printed, LInferno, secondo il testo di B. Lombardi con ordine e schiarimento per uso dei forestieri di L. V. Florence,1841, 8vo.
Petri Allegherii super Dantis ipsius genitoris comoediam commentarium, Florence,1846, chiose sopra Dante, testo inedito, ora per la prima volta pubblicato, Florence,1846, 8vo. II Febusso e Breusso, poema ora per la prima volta pubblicato, Florence,1847, chiose alia Cantica dell Inferno di Dante Allighieri attribuite a Jacopo suo figlio, Florence,1848, 8vo. Comento alia cantica di Dante Allighieri di autore anonimo, Florence,1848, 4to, under the editorship of Sir J. P. Lacaita. The Divine Comedy Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by George Venables-Vernon
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It was bordered by Northumberland to the east, County Durham to the southeast and Lancashire to the south and it formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 and now forms part of Cumbria. The first record of the term Cumberland appears in 945, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the area was ceded to Malcolm I by King Edmund of England, in 1092 King William Rufus of England invaded the Carlisle district, settling it with colonists. He created an Earldom of Carlisle, and granted the territory to Ranulf Meschyn, in 1133 Carlisle was made the see of a new diocese, largely identical with the area of the earldom. However, on the death of King Henry I in 1135 and he was able to consolidate his power and made Carlisle one of his chief seats of government, while England descended into a lengthy civil war. The lead and silver-mining area of Alston, previously associated with the Liberty of Tynedale was added to the new county of Carliol for financial reasons.
By 1177 the county of Carliol was known as Cumberland, the border between England and Scotland was made permanent by the Treaty of York in 1237. The boundaries formed in the 12th century did not change substantially over the countys existence and it bordered four English counties and two Scottish counties. These were Northumberland and County Durham to the east, Westmorland to the south, to the west the county was bounded by the Solway Firth and the Irish Sea. The northern boundary was formed by the Solway Estuary and the border with Scotland running east to Scotch Knowe at Kershope Burn, the boundary ran south from Scotch Knowe along the Cheviot Hills, followed a tributary of the River Irthing and crossed Denton Fell to the River Tees. From Tees Head the boundary crossed the Pennines to descend Crowdundale Beck, from where it followed the rivers Eden, the line followed the Glencoin Beck to the top of the Helvellyn ridge, thence to Wrynose Pass and along the River Duddon to the sea near Millom.
The highest point of the county was Scafell Pike, at 3,208 feet the highest mountain in England, the Earldom of Carlisle was divided into baronies, but on the creation of the county these were replaced by wards. These took the place of hundreds found in most other English counties, each ward was composed of a number of parishes, areas originally formed for ecclesiastical administration. In common with other counties of northern England, many parishes in Cumberland were very large, often consisting of a number of distinct townships, many of these subdivisions were eventually to become civil parishes and form the lowest level of local government. The wards and their constituent parishes in 1821 were, Parts or all of parishes and townships constituted the City of Carlisle. The ward of Cumberland was one of the ancient divisions of the county of Cumberland, England. In most other counties these divisions were called hundreds or Wapentakes, the ward included Carlisle and Wigton and took in parts of Inglewood Forest.
It was bounded on the north and east by Eskdale Ward, on the south by Leath Ward, the parish of Stanwix just to the north of Carlisle was partly in both Eskdale and Cumberland wards
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions, therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or more correctly highly oriented pyrolytic graphite refers to graphite with a spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. The name graphite fiber is sometimes used to refer to carbon fibers or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. Graphite occurs in rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism. It occurs in rocks and in meteorites. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz, calcite and tourmaline, in meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate minerals. Small graphitic crystals in meteoritic iron are called cliftonite, Graphite is not mined in the United States, but U. S. production of synthetic graphite in 2010 was 134 kt valued at $1.07 billion.
Graphite has a layered, planar structure, the individual layers are called graphene. In each layer, the atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice with separation of 0.142 nm. Atoms in the plane are bonded covalently, with three of the four potential bonding sites satisfied. The fourth electron is free to migrate in the plane, making graphite electrically conductive, however, it does not conduct in a direction at right angles to the plane. Bonding between layers is via weak van der Waals bonds, which allows layers of graphite to be easily separated, the two known forms of graphite and beta, have very similar physical properties, except for that the graphene layers stack slightly differently. The alpha graphite may be flat or buckled. The alpha form can be converted to the form through mechanical treatment. The acoustic and thermal properties of graphite are highly anisotropic, since phonons propagate quickly along the tightly-bound planes, graphites high thermal stability and electrical and thermal conductivity facilitate its widespread use as electrodes and refractories in high temperature material processing applications.
However, in oxygen containing atmospheres graphite readily oxidizes to form CO2 at temperatures of 700 °C, Graphite is an electric conductor, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. It can conduct electricity due to the vast electron delocalization within the carbon layers and these valence electrons are free to move, so are able to conduct electricity
Fellow of the Royal Society
As of 2016, there are around 1600 living Fellows and Honorary Members. Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually usually in May, each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS, see Category, Fellows of the Royal Society and Category, Female Fellows of the Royal Society. Every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members, like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science. As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS, see Category, Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters HonFRS.
Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include David Attenborough and John Palmer, prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain, H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category, Fellows of the Royal Society. The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows, Prince of Wales, Princess Royal, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Andrew, Duke of York. Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow. The election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination, each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal.
Previously, nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, the certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April, a candidate is elected if he or she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A further maximum of six can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows, nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with fifteen members and a chair
The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the worlds largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the citys 1st arrondissement, approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as a fortress in the late 12th century under Philip II, remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the expansion of the city, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function and. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace, in 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nations masterpieces.
The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum renamed Musée Napoléon, the collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic, whether this was the first building on that spot is not known, it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den, in the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris to a monastery. This territory probably did not correspond exactly to the modern site, the Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvres holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa.
After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed, however, on 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. Under Louis XVI, the museum idea became policy. The comte dAngiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the French Museum, many proposals were offered for the Louvres renovation into a museum, none was agreed on. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution, during the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences, on 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property
Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, and since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria. The town, in the Lake District National Park, just north of Derwentwater, among the towns annual events is the Keswick Convention, an Evangelical gathering attracting visitors from many countries. Keswick became widely known for its association with the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge, together with their fellow Lake Poet William Wordsworth, based at Grasmere,12 miles away, they made the scenic beauty of the area widely known to readers in Britain and beyond. The town is first recorded in Edward Is charter of the 13th century, among the scholars supporting the cheese farm toponymy are Eilert Ekwall and A D Mills, and Diana Whaley, for the English Place-Name Society. Evidence of prehistoric occupation in the area includes the Castlerigg stone circle on the fringe of the town. Neolithic-era stone tools were unearthed inside the circle and in the centre of Keswick during the 19th century, the antiquary W G Collingwood, commenting in 1925 about finds in the area, wrote that they showed Stone Age man was fairly at home in the Lake District.
In Roman Britain Cumbria was the territory of the Carvetii, as the site of the western part of Hadrians Wall, it was of strategic importance. Such nearby settlements as can be traced from the era of the Romans, many local place names from the period, including that of the River Derwent, are Celtic, some closely related to Welsh equivalents. The former, the pupil and friend of St Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, lived as a hermit on an island in Derwentwater, now named after him. Kentigern, who lived and preached in the area before moving to Wales, is held to have founded Crosthwaite Church. Keswicks recorded history starts in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria in the seventh century, but Northumbria was destroyed by the Vikings in the late ninth. In the early tenth century the British Kingdom of Strathclyde seized the area, and it remained part of Strathclyde until about 1050, when Siward, Earl of Northumbria, conquered Cumbria. In 1181 Jocelyn of Furness wrote of a new church at Crosthwaite, founded by Alice de Romilly, the Lady of Allerdale, in 1189, Richard I granted the rectory of Crosthwaite to the Cistercian order of Fountains Abbey.
During the 13th century, agricultural land around the town was acquired by Fountains, the latter, already prosperous from the wool trade, wished to expand its sheep farming, and in 1208 bought large tracts of land from Alice de Romilly. She negotiated with Fountains Abbey, to which she sold Derwent Island in Derwentwater, land at Watendlath, Keswick was at the hub of the monastic farms in the area, and Fountains based a steward in the town, where tenants paid their rents. Furness enjoyed profitable rights to the extraction of iron ore, Keswick was granted a charter for a market in 1276 by Edward I. This market has a history lasting for more than 700 years. According to local tradition these stout walls and the entrances to the yards were for defence against marauding Scots
National Library of Australia
In 2012–2013, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia, from its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a truly national collection. The present library building was opened in 1968, the building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden. The foyer is decorated in marble, with windows by Leonard French. In 2012–2013 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, the Librarys collections of Australiana have developed into the nations single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are actively sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas, approximately 92. 1% of the Librarys collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue.
The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, and maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson, the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Librarys considerable collections of general overseas and rare materials, as well as world-class Asian. The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings, the Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection. The Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers, williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Librarys catalogue. The National Library holds a collection of pictures and manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space, the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific.
The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have received as part of formed book collections. Examples are the papers of Alfred Deakin, Sir John Latham, Sir Keith Murdoch, Sir Hans Heysen, Sir John Monash, Vance Palmer and Nettie Palmer, A. D. Hope, Manning Clark, David Williamson, W. M. The Library has acquired the records of many national non-governmental organisations and they include the records of the Federal Secretariats of the Liberal party, the A. L. P, the Democrats, the R. S. L. Finally, the Library holds about 37,000 reels of microfilm of manuscripts and archival records, mostly acquired overseas and predominantly of Australian, the National Librarys Pictures collection focuses on Australian people and events, from European exploration of the South Pacific to contemporary events. Art works and photographs are acquired primarily for their informational value, media represented in the collection include photographs, watercolours, lithographs, engravings and sculpture/busts
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship, and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering, though Brunels projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. Brunel set the standard for a railway, using careful surveys to minimise grades and curves. This necessitated expensive construction techniques, new bridges, new viaducts, one controversial feature was the wide gauge, a broad gauge of 7 ft 1⁄4 in, instead of what was to be known as standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. Brunel astonished Britain by proposing to extend the Great Western Railway westward to North America by building steam-powered iron-hulled ships and he designed and built three ships that revolutionised naval engineering, the Great Western, the Great Britain, and the Great Eastern. In 2002, Brunel was placed second in a BBC public poll to determine the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2006, the bicentenary of his birth, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work under the name Brunel 200.
Brunels name is an amalgamation of his parents names and he inherited the family name of his father, and his middle name is his mothers surname. Brunels first name, comes from his fathers middle name, Isambard is a Norman name of Germanic origin, meaning iron-bright. A cognate name is the German surname Eisenbarth, which can still be found today among Bavarians and German-Americans and he had two older sisters and Emma, and the whole family moved to London in 1808 for his fathers work. Brunel had a childhood, despite the familys constant money worries. His father taught him drawing and observational techniques from the age of four, during this time he learned fluent French and the basic principles of engineering. He was encouraged to draw interesting buildings and identify any faults in their structure, when Brunel was eight he was sent to Dr Morrells boarding school in Hove, where he learned the classics. When Brunel was 15, his father Marc, who had accumulated debts of over £5,000, was sent to a debtors prison.
After three months went by with no prospect of release, Marc let it be known that he was considering an offer from the Tsar of Russia. In August 1821, facing the prospect of losing a prominent engineer, Brunel subsequently studied under the prominent master clockmaker and horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet, who praised Brunels potential in letters to his father. In late 1822, having completed his apprenticeship, Brunel returned to England, Brunels father, was the chief engineer, and the project was funded by the Thames Tunnel Company. The composition of the riverbed at Rotherhithe was often more than waterlogged sediment. The latter incident, in 1828, killed the two most senior miners, and Brunel himself narrowly escaped death and he was seriously injured, and spent six months recuperating
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition