Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
In the United States government, the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs is a part of the U. S. Department of State, charged with implementing U. S. foreign policy and promoting U. S. interests in the Western Hemisphere, as well as advising the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs. It is headed by the Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Acting Assistant Secretary Francisco Palmieri; the offices of the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs direct and supervise U. S. government activities within the region, including political, consular, public diplomacy, administrative management issues. Office of Andean Affairs – Coordinates policy on Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela Office of Brazilian and Southern Cone Affairs – Coordinates policy on Argentina, Chile and Uruguay Office of Canadian Affairs – Oversees Canada–United States relations Office of Caribbean Affairs – Coordinates policy on Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, the Dutch Caribbean, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago Office of the Coordinator for Cuban Affairs – Oversees Cuba–United States relations Office of Central American Affairs – Coordinates policy on Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama Office of Economic Policy and Summit Coordination – Oversees policy related to trade, energy and the Summits of the Americas Executive Office – Responsible for human resources and management support services for the bureau's overseas missions Office of Mexican Affairs – Oversees Mexico–United States relations Office of Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs – Oversees public diplomacy activities at WHA's overseas posts Office of Policy Planning and Coordination – Responsible for the bureau's strategic planning and evaluationThe Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs oversees the United States Mission to the Organization of American States.
United States Foreign Service
The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic service of the United States federal government, under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of over 13,000 professionals carrying out the foreign policy of the United States and aiding U. S. citizens abroad. Created in 1924 by the Rogers Act, the Foreign Service combined all consular and diplomatic services of the U. S. government into one administrative unit. In addition to the unit's function, the Rogers Act defined a personnel system under which the United States Secretary of State is authorized to assign diplomats abroad. Members of the Foreign Service are selected through a series of oral examinations, they serve at any of the 265 United States diplomatic missions around the world, including embassies and other facilities. Members of the Foreign Service staff the headquarters of the four foreign affairs agencies: the Department of State, headquartered at the Harry S Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.
C.. The United States Foreign Service is managed by a Director General, an official, appointed by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate; the Director General is traditionally former Foreign Service Officer. Starting on November 23, 1975 until October 2, 2016 under a departmental administrative action, the Director General concurrently held the title of Director of the Bureau of Human Resources; the two positions are now separate. As the head of the bureau, the Director General held a rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State; the current Director General is William E. Todd, serving in an acting capacity. On September 15, 1789, the 1st United States Congress passed an Act creating the Department of State and appointing duties to it, including the keeping of the Great Seal of the United States. There were two services devoted to diplomatic and consular activity; the Diplomatic Service provided ambassadors and ministers to staff embassies overseas, while the Consular Service provided consuls to assist United States sailors and promote international trade and commerce.
Throughout the 19th century, ambassadors, or ministers, as they were known prior to the 1890s, consuls were appointed by the president, until 1856, earned no salary. Many had commercial ties to the countries in which they would serve, were expected to earn a living through private business or by collecting fees. In 1856, Congress provided a salary for consuls serving at certain posts. Lucile Atcherson Curtis was the first woman in what became the U. S. Foreign Service, she was the first woman appointed as a United States Diplomatic Officer or Consular Officer, in 1923. The Rogers Act of 1924 merged the diplomatic and consular services of the government into the Foreign Service. An difficult Foreign Service examination was implemented to recruit the most outstanding Americans, along with a merit-based system of promotions; the Rogers Act created the Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners of the Foreign Service, the former to advise the Secretary of State on managing the Foreign Service, the latter to manage the examination process.
In 1927 Congress passed legislation affording diplomatic status to representatives abroad of the Department of Commerce, creating the Foreign Commerce Service. In 1930 Congress passed similar legislation for the Department of Agriculture, creating the Foreign Agricultural Service. Though formally accorded diplomatic status, however and agricultural attachés were civil servants. In addition, the agricultural legislation stipulated that agricultural attachés would not be construed as public ministers. On July 1, 1939, both the commercial and agricultural attachés were transferred to the Department of State under Reorganization Plan No. II; the agricultural attachés remained in the Department of State until 1954, when they were returned by Act of Congress to the Department of Agriculture. Commercial attachés remained with State until 1980, when Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979 was implemented under terms of the Foreign Service Act of 1980. In 1946 Congress at the request of the Department of State passed a new Foreign Service Act creating six classes of employees: chiefs of mission, Foreign Service Officers, Foreign Service Reservists, Foreign Service Staff, "alien personnel", consular agents.
Officers were expected to spend the bulk of their careers abroad and were commissioned officers of the United States, available for worldwide service. Reserve officers spent the bulk of their careers in Washington but were available for overseas service. Foreign Service Staff personnel included support positions; the intent of this system was to remove the distinction between Foreign Service and civil service staff, a source of friction. The Foreign Service Act of 1946 repealed as redundant the 1927 and 1930 laws granting USDA and Commerce representatives abroad diplomatic status, since at that point agricultural and commercial attachés were appointed by the Department of State; the 1946 Act replaced the Board of Foreign Service Personnel, a body concerned with adminis
United States Assistant Secretary of State
Assistant Secretary of State is a title used for many executive positions in the United States Department of State, ranking below the Under Secretaries. A set of six Assistant Secretaries reporting to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs manage diplomatic missions within their designated geographic regions, plus one Assistant Secretary dealing with international organizations. Assistant Secretaries manage individual bureaus of the Department of State; when the manager of a bureau or another agency holds a title other than Assistant Secretary, such as "Director," it can be said to be of "Assistant Secretary equivalent rank." Assistant Secretaries have a set of deputies, referred to as Deputy Assistant Secretaries. From 1853 until 1913, the Assistant Secretary of State was the second-ranking official within the U. S. Department of State. Prior to 1853, the Chief Clerk was the second-ranking officer, after 1913, the Counselor was the second-ranking position, though the Assistant Secretary continued to be a position until 1924.
From 1867, the Assistant Secretary of State was assisted by a Second Assistant Secretary of State, from 1875, by a Third Assistant Secretary of State. Specific duties of the incumbents varied over the years and included such responsibilities as supervising the Diplomatic and Consular Bureaus, general supervision of correspondence, consular appointments, administration of the Department, supervision of economic matters and various geographic divisions. Today, the title of the second-ranking position is the Deputy Secretary of State, with the next tier of State Department officials bearing the rank of Under Secretary of State; the following is a list of current offices bearing the title of "Assistant Secretary of State": Reporting directly to the United States Secretary of State: Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs: Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Management: Assistant Secretary of State for Administration Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth and the Environment: Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Energy Resources Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs: Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for International Information Programs Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs: Assistant Secretary of State for International Security and Nonproliferation Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control and Compliance Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Civilian Security and Human Rights: Assistant Secretary of State for Conflict and Stabilization Operations Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, Labor Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Population and MigrationThe following roles possess a rank equivalent to Assistant Secretary: Chief of Protocol of the United States Coordinator for Counterterrorism Executive Secretary of the Department of State Inspector General of the Department of State Legal Adviser of the Department of State Director General of the Foreign Service Director of Policy Planning United States Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues United States Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons United States Global AIDS Coordinator The Consular and Diplomatic Appropriations Act for the year ending June 30, 1867 authorized the President to appoint a Second Assistant Secretary of State.
Duties of incumbents varied less over the years than did those of the other Assistant Secretary positions. Responsibilities included: supervision of correspondence with diplomatic officers; the Foreign Service Act of 1924 abolished numerical titles for Assistant Secretaries of State. Only two people held the position from 1866 to 1924. A Federal appropriations act for the year ending Jun 30, 1875, authorized the President to appoint a Third Assistant Secretary of State; the Secretary of State was authorized to prescribe the duties of the Assistant Secretaries and other Department of State employees, "and may make changes and transfers therein when, in his judgment, it becomes necessary." The Third Assistant Secretary's duties varied over the years, including such diverse assignments as: supervision of several geographic divisions.
Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs is a position of the United States government within the Department of State that heads the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, responsible for development of policies and programs to combat international narcotics and crime. The current Assistant Secretary is William Brownfield. On October 1, 1978, Congress, in the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for fiscal Year 1979, authorized the position of Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics Matters, to be responsible for the overall coordination of the role of the Department of State in the international aspects of narcotics problems; this title had been given in full in each appointee's commission. The new Assistant Secretary, who headed the Bureau for International Narcotics Matters, replaced a Senior Adviser to the Secretary of State on Narcotics, who had served with a rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State since 1971.
The Department of State first supported the Department of the Treasury's Bureau of Narcotics in 1909. The title of this position was changed from International Narcotics Matters to International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs on February 10, 1995; the title "Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics Matters" was renamed "Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs" on February 10, 1995. Www.state.gov Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs The Office of the Historian's list of former Assistant Secretaries
Secretary's Distinguished Service Award
The Secretary’s Distinguished Service Award is an award of the United States Department of State. It is presented at the discretion of the Secretary of State in recognition of exceptionally outstanding leadership, professional competence, significant accomplishment over a sustained period of time in the field of foreign affairs; such achievements must be of notable national or international significance and have made an important contribution to the advancement of U. S. national interests. The award is authorized by the Secretary of State provided that one of the criteria eligibility in Foreign Affairs Manual is met, it may be presented to members of the foreign affairs communities. The award consists of a certificate signed by the Secretary of State; the specific criteria for the issuance of the Secretary’s Award is determined by the Secretary of State. Nominations for the Secretary's Distinguished Service Award are initiated by the Secretary of State. However, officials at assistant secretary or higher level who wish to recommend an individual for this award may do so by submitting a memorandum of justification, cleared by the Director General, to the Executive Secretary of the Department.
Upon authorization, members of the U. S. military may wear the medal and ribbon in the appropriate order of precedence as a U. S. non-military personal decoration. Kristie Kenney, former U. S Ambassador to Thailand, the Philippines and former Counselor of the State Department Marca Bristo, disability rights activist Constance Berry Newman, former U. S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, September 2005 Daniel Bennett Smith, U. S. Ambassador to Greece David Petraeus, General, U. S. Army Raymond T. Odierno, General, U. S. Army Lloyd Austin, General, U. S. Army William M. Fraser III, General, U. S. Air Force John R. Beyrle, former U. S. Ambassador to Russia and Bulgaria Llewellyn E Thompson, Jr. Ambassador to Soviet Union Awards of the United States Department of State Awards and decorations of the United States government United States Department of State U. S. Foreign Service
Craig A. Kelly
Craig Allen Kelly is a United States diplomat. He was US Ambassador to Chile from 2004-2007. Ambassador Kelly attended Servite High School and UCLA, he holds a Ph. D in Romance Languages and European History. Ambassador Kelly speaks Spanish, Italian and Portuguese
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías was a Venezuelan politician, President of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. Chávez was leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, which he led until 2012. Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas, Chávez became a career military officer, after becoming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system based on the Puntofijo Pact, he founded the clandestine Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 in the early 1980s. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an unsuccessful coup d'état against the Democratic Action government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1992, for which he was imprisoned. Pardoned from prison after two years, he founded a political party known as the Fifth Republic Movement and was elected President of Venezuela in 1998, he was re-elected again in 2006 with over 60 % of the votes. After winning his fourth term as president in the October 2012 presidential election, he was to be sworn in on 10 January 2013, but Venezuela's National Assembly postponed the inauguration to allow him time to recover from medical treatment in Cuba.
Suffering a return of the cancer diagnosed in June 2011, Chávez died in Caracas on 5 March 2013 at the age of 58. Following the adoption of a new constitution in 1999, Chávez focused on enacting social reforms as part of the Bolivarian Revolution. Using record-high oil revenues of the 2000s, his government nationalized key industries, created participatory democratic Communal Councils and implemented social programs known as the Bolivarian missions to expand access to food, housing and education. Venezuela received high oil profits in the mid-2000s, resulting in temporary improvements in areas such as poverty, income equality and quality of life occurring between 2003 and 2007, though these gains started to reverse after 2012 and it has been argued that government policies did not address structural inequalities. Chávez's populist policies led to a severe socioeconomic crisis in Venezuela. On 2 June 2010, Chávez declared an "economic war" due to shortages in Venezuela, beginning the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela.
By the end of Chávez's presidency in the early 2010s, economic actions performed by his government during the preceding decade such as deficit spending and price controls proved to be unsustainable, with Venezuela's economy faltering while poverty and shortages increased. Chávez's presidency saw significant increases in the country's murder rate and continued corruption within the police force and government, his use of enabling acts and his government's use of Bolivarian propaganda were controversial. Internationally, Chávez aligned himself with the Marxist–Leninist governments of Fidel and Raúl Castro in Cuba, as well as the socialist governments of Evo Morales, Rafael Correa and Daniel Ortega, his presidency was seen as a part of the socialist "pink tide" sweeping Latin America. Chávez described his policies as anti-imperialist, being a prominent adversary of the United States's foreign policy as well as a vocal critic of U. S.-supported laissez-faire capitalism. He described himself as a Marxist.
He supported Latin American and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in setting up the pan-regional Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Bank of the South and the regional television network TeleSUR. Chavez's ideas and style form the basis of "Chavismo", a political ideology associated with Bolivarianism and socialism of the 21st century, he was born on 28 July 1954 in his paternal grandmother Rosa Inéz Chávez's home, a modest three-room house located in the rural village Sabaneta, Barinas State. The Chávez family were of Afro-Venezuelan and Spanish descent, his parents, Hugo de los Reyes Chávez, described as a proud COPEI member, Elena Frías de Chávez, were schoolteachers who lived in the small village of Los Rastrojos. Hugo was born the second of seven children. Hugo described his childhood as "poor... happy", though his childhood of supposed poverty has been disputed as Chávez changed the story of his background for political reasons.
Attending the Julián Pino Elementary School, Chávez was interested in the 19th-century federalist general Ezequiel Zamora, in whose army his own great-great-grandfather had served. With no high school in their area, Hugo's parents sent Hugo and his older brother Adán to live with their grandmother Rosa, who lived in a lower middle class subsidized home provided by the government, where they attended Daniel O'Leary High School in the mid-1960s. Hugo described his grandmother as being "a pure human being... pure love, pure kindness". She was a devout Roman Catholic and Hugo was an altar boy at a local church, his father, despite having the salary of a teacher, helped pay for college for Chávez and his siblings. Aged 17, Chávez studied at the Venezuelan Academy of Military Sciences in Caracas, following a curriculum known as the Andrés Bello Plan, instituted by a group of progressive, nationalistic military officers; this new curriculum encouraged students to learn not only military routines and tactics but a wide variety of other topics, to do so civilian professors were brought in from other universities to give lectures to the military cadets.
Living in Caracas, he saw more of the endemic poverty faced by working class Venezuelans, said that this experience only made him further committed