Durham University is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years, after Oxford and Cambridge, is one of the institutions to be described as the third-oldest university in England; as a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and its 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide teaching to students, while the colleges are responsible for their domestic arrangements and welfare; the university is a member of the Russell Group of British research universities after being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is affiliated with the regional N8 Research Partnership and international university groups including the Matariki Network of Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university estate includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle to a 1930s Art Deco chapel.
The university owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle, Palace Green, the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library. Among British universities, it had the eighth highest average UCAS Tariff for new entrants in 2016 and the third lowest proportion of state-school educated students starting courses in 2016, at 62.9 per cent. The university is ranked 5th to 7th by recent national league tables of the British universities, 74th to 114th in three of the four major global tables and in the 201–300 range in the fourth, it was Sunday Times University of the Year for 2005, the Times and Sunday Times Sports University of the Year for 2015, was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2018. The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in 2012. Current and emeritus academics include 14 Fellows of the Royal Society, 17 Fellows of the British Academy, 14 Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, 5 Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2 Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
Durham graduates have long used the Latin post-nominal letters Dunelm after their degree, from Dunelmensis. The strong tradition of theological teaching in Durham gave rise to various attempts to form a university there, notably under King Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell, who issued letters patent and nominated a proctor and fellows for the establishment of a college in 1657. However, there was deep concern expressed by Oxford and Cambridge that the awarding of degree powers could hinder their position, it was not until 1832 when Parliament, at the instigation of Archdeacon Charles Thorp and with the support of the Bishop of Durham, William van Mildert, passed "an Act to enable the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral to appropriate part of the property of their church to the establishment of a University in connection therewith" that the university came into being. The act received Royal Assent from King William IV on 4 July 1832; the university opened on 28 October 1833. In 1834 all but two of the bishops of the Church of England confirmed that they would accept holders of Durham degrees for ordination.
In 1835 a fundamental statute was passed by the Dean and Chapter, as governors of the University, setting up Convocation and laying down that Durham degrees would only be open to members of the Church of England. Regulations for degrees were finalised in 1836 and the university was incorporated by Royal Charter granted by William IV on 1 June 1837 as the "Warden and Scholars of the University of Durham", with the first students graduating a week later. Accommodation was provided in the Archdeacon's Inn from 1833 to 1837. On the accession of Queen Victoria an order of the Queen-in-Council was issued granting the use of Durham Castle to the university. In 1846, Bishop Hatfield's Hall was founded, providing the opportunity for students to obtain affordable lodgings with catered communal eating, a revolutionary idea at the time, endorsed by a Royal Commission in 1862 and spread to other universities; those attending University College were expected to bring a servant with them to deal with cooking, cleaning and so on.
The level of applications to Bishop Hatfield's Hall led to a second hall along similar lines, Bishop Cosin's Hall, being founded in 1851, although this only survived until 1864. Elsewhere, the university expanded from Durham into Newcastle in 1852 when the medical school there became a college of the university; this was joined in 1871 by the College of Physical Sciences. St Cuthbert's Society was founded in 1888 for non-collegiate mature, male students as a non-residential society run by the students themselves. Two teacher-training colleges – St Hild's for women, established in 1858, The College of the Venerable Bede for men, established in 1839 existed in the city and these merged to form the mixed College of St Hild and St Bede in 1975. From 1896 these were associated with the university and graduates of St Hild's were the first female graduates from Durham in 1898. During its expansion phase the University became the first English university to establish relationships with overseas institutions.
University of Bristol
The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1909, although like the University of the West of England and the University of Bath, it can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, founded as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers, its key predecessor institution, University College, had been in existence since 1876. Bristol is organised into six academic faculties composed of multiple schools and departments running over 200 undergraduate courses situated in the Tyndalls Park area of the city; the university had a total income of £642.7 million in 2017/18, of which £164.0 million was from research grants and contracts. It is the largest independent employer in Bristol; the University of Bristol is ranked 44th by the QS World University Rankings 2018, is ranked amongst the top 10 of UK universities by QS, THE, ARWU. A selective institution, it has an average of 6.4 to 13.1 applicants for each undergraduate place.
It was ranked 9th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. Current academics include 21 fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences, 13 fellows of the British Academy, 13 fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 44 fellows of the Royal Society; the university has been associated with 13 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, Dorothy Hodgkin, Hans Albrecht Bethe, Max Delbrück, Gerhard Herzberg, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, Sir Paul Nurse, Harold Pinter, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio and most 2015 Economics Nobel Prize winner Angus Deaton. Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, the European-wide Coimbra Group and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the university's previous vice-chancellor, Eric Thomas, was chairman from 2005 to 2007. In addition, the university holds an Erasmus Charter, sending more than 500 students per year to partner institutions in Europe.
The earliest antecedent of the university was the engineering department of the Merchant Venturers' Technical College which became the engineering faculty of Bristol University. The university was preceded by Bristol Medical School and University College, founded in 1876, where its first lecture was attended by only 99 students; the university was able to apply for a royal charter due to the financial support of the Wills and Fry families, who made their fortunes in tobacco plantations and chocolate, respectively. The Wills Family made a vast fortune from the tobacco industry and gave generously to the city and university; the royal charter was gained in May 1909, with 288 undergraduates and 400 other students entering the university in October 1909. Henry Overton Wills III became its first chancellor; the University College was the first such institution in the country to admit women on the same basis as men. However, women were forbidden to take examinations in medicine until 1906. Since the founding of the university itself in 1909, it has grown and is now one of the largest employers in the local area, although it is smaller by student numbers than the nearby University of the West of England.
Bristol is spread over a considerable geographic area. Most of its activities, are concentrated in the area of the city centre, referred to as the "University Precinct", it is a member of the Russell Group of research-led UK universities, the Coimbra Group of leading European universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. After the founding of the University College in 1876, Government support began in 1889. After mergers with the Bristol Medical School in 1893 and the Merchant Venturers' Technical College in 1909, this funding allowed the opening of a new medical school and an engineering school—two subjects that remain among the university's greatest strengths. In 1908, gifts from the Fry and Wills families £100,000 from Henry Overton Wills III, were provided to endow a University for Bristol and the West of England, provided that a royal charter could be obtained within two years. In December 1909, the King erected the University of Bristol. Henry Wills became Conwy Lloyd Morgan the first vice-chancellor.
Wills died in 1911 and in tribute his sons George and Harry built the Wills Memorial Building, starting in 1913 and finishing in 1925. Today, it houses parts of the academic provision for earth sciences and law, graduation ceremonies are held in its Great Hall; the Wills Memorial Building is a Grade II* listed building. In 1920, George Wills bought the Victoria Rooms and endowed them to the university as a Students' Union; the building now is a Grade II * listed building. At the point of foundation, the university was required to provide for the local community; this mission was behind the creation of the Department of Extra-Mural Adult Education in 1924 to provide courses to the local community. This mission continues today. Among the famous names associated with Bristol in this early period is Paul Dirac, who graduated in 1921 with a degree in engineering, before obtaining a second degree in mathematics in 1923 from Cambridge. For his subsequent pioneering work on quantum mechanics, he was awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics.
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as
University of Reading
The University of Reading is a public university located in Reading, England. It was founded in 1892 as Reading, a University of Oxford extension college; the institution received the power to grant its own degrees in 1926 by Royal Charter from King George V and was the only university to receive such a charter between the two world wars. The university is categorised as a red brick university, reflecting its original foundation in the 19th century, it has four major campuses. In the United Kingdom, the campuses on London Road and Whiteknights are based in the town of Reading itself, Greenlands is based on the banks of the River Thames, Buckinghamshire, it has a campus in Iskandar Puteri, Malaysia. The university has been arranged into 16 academic schools since 2016. Reading was ranked 35th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 28th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. In total, 98% of the University's research is labelled as'internationally recognised', 78% as'internationally excellent and 27% as'world leading'.
Reading was the first university to win a Queen's Award for Export Achievement, in 1989. The annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £275.3 million of which £35.4 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £297.5 million. In 2019 it was reported; the university owes its first origins to the Schools of Art and Science established in Reading in 1860 and 1870. In 1892 the College at Reading was founded as an extension college by Christ Church, a college of the University of Oxford; the first President was the geographer Sir Halford John Mackinder. The Schools of Art and Science were transferred to the new college by Reading Town Council in the same year; the new college received its first treasury grant in 1901. Three years it was given a site, now the university's London Road Campus, by the Palmer family of Huntley & Palmers fame; the same family supported the opening of Wantage Hall in 1908, of the Research Institute in Dairying in 1912. The college first was unsuccessful at that time.
However a second petition, in 1925, was successful, the charter was granted on 17 March 1926. With the charter, the college became the University of Reading, the only new university to be created in the United Kingdom between the two world wars, it was added to the Combined English Universities constituency in 1928 in time for the 1929 general election. In 1947 the university purchased Whiteknights Park, to become its principal campus. In 1984 the University started a merger with Bulmershe College of Higher Education, completed in 1989. In October 2006, the Senior Management Board proposed the closure of its Physics Department to future undergraduate application; this was ascribed to financial reasons and lack of alternative ideas and caused considerable controversy, not least a debate in Parliament over the closure which prompted heated discussion of higher education issues in general. On 10 October the Senate voted to close the Department of Physics, a move confirmed by the Council on 20 November.
Other departments closed in recent years include Music, Sociology and Mechanical Engineering. The university council decided in March 2009 to close the School of Health and Social Care, a school whose courses have been oversubscribed. In January 2008, the university announced its merger with the Henley Management College to create the university's new Henley Business School, bringing together Henley College's expertise in MBAs with the University's existing Business School and ICMA Centre; the merger took formal effect on 1 August 2008, with the new business school split across the university's existing Whiteknights Campus and its new Greenlands Campus that housed Henley Management College. A restructuring of the university was announced in September 2009, which would bring together all the academic schools into three faculties, these being the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Humanities and Social sciences, Henley Business School; the move was predicted to result in the loss of some jobs in the film and television department, which has since moved into a brand new £11.5 million building on Whiteknights Campus.
In late 2009 it was announced that the London Road Campus was to undergo a £30 million renovation, preparatory to becoming the new home of the university's Institute of Education. The Institute moved to its new home in January 2012.. The refurbishment was funded by the sale of the adjoining site of Mansfield Hall, a former hall of residence, for demolition and replacement by private sector student accommodation; the university is a lead sponsor of UTC Reading, a new university technical college which opened in September 2013. In 2016 a move to reorganise the structure of Reading University provoked student protests. On 21 March 2016, staff announced a vote of no confidence in the Vice Chancellor Sir David Bell. 88% of those who voted backed the no confidence motion. In 2019 The Guardian reported that the university was in "a financial and governance crisis" after reporting itself to regulators over a £121 million loan; the university is sole trustee of the charitable National Institute for Research in Dairying trust, after selling trust land had borrowed the £121 million proceeds from the trust, despite the potential conflict of interest in the decision making.
Including this loan, the university has debts of £300 million, as well as having an operating deficit of over £40 million for the past two years. The university maintains over 1.6 square kilometres of grounds, in four distinct c
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College and Mason Science College, making it the first English civic or'red brick' university to receive its own royal charter, it is a founding member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 14th in the UK and 79th in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2019. In 2013, Birmingham was named'University of the Year 2014' in the Times Higher Education awards; the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 142nd worldwide and 10th in the UK. Birmingham is ranked 5th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018; the student population includes 22,440 undergraduate and 12,395 postgraduate students, the fourth largest in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £673.8 million of which £134.2 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £663.2 million.
The university is home to the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, housing works by Van Gogh and Monet. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, the British composer Sir Edward Elgar and eleven Nobel laureates. Although the earliest beginnings of the university were traced back to the Queen's College, linked to William Sands Cox in his aim of creating a medical school along Christian lines, unlike the London medical schools, further research has now revealed the roots of the Birmingham Medical School in the medical education seminars of Mr John Tomlinson, the first surgeon to the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary, to the General Hospital; these classes were the first held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68. The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, opened in 1779; the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825.
Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and allowed it to be styled "The Queen's Hospital". It was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the medical college became known as Queen's College. In 1870, Sir Josiah Mason, the Birmingham industrialist and philanthropist, who made his fortune in making key rings, pen nibs and electroplating, drew up the Foundation Deed for Mason Science College; the college was founded in 1875. It was this institution that would form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy; the transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the growing importance of that college and in 1896 a move to incorporate it as a university college was made. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898, with Joseph Chamberlain becoming the President of its Court of Governors.
It was due to Chamberlain's enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900. The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July; the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title; the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Mason's legacy was his Mermaid in the sinister chief of the university shield and of his college, the double-headed lion in the dexter, it became the first civic and campus university in England. The University Charter of 1900 included provision for a commerce faculty, as was appropriate for a university itself founded by industrialists and based in a city with enormous business wealth, in effect creating the first Business School in England.
The faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university, he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock. The university's own heritage archives are accessible for research through the university's Cadbury Research Library, open to all interested researchers; the Great Hall in the Aston Webb Building was converted into the 1st Southern General Hospital during World War I, with 520 beds and treated 125,000 injured servicemen. In 1939, the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Atkinson, was opened. In 1956, the first MSc programme in Geotechnical Engineering commenced under the title of "Foundation Engineering", has been run annually at the university since, it was the
Humboldt University of Berlin
Humboldt University of Berlin is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin in 1809, opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University. During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin; the university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, offers degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level, its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin.
The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education, which has influenced other European and Western universities, the university has been called "the mother of all modern universities."As of 2017, the university has been associated with 55 Nobel Prize winners, is considered one of the best universities in Europe as well as one of the most prestigious universities in the world for arts and humanities. It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors such as Albert Einstein. Former faculty and notable alumni include eminent philosophers, artists, politicians, mathematicians and Heads of State; the University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement.
The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748-1766 for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of 1809. Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas, he submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, was not present when the school opened that fall. The first students were admitted on 6 October 1810, the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz; the university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the date of its opening. From 1828 to 1945, the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach one of the students, made a comment on the university in 1826: "There is no question here of drinking and plesant communal outings. Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses."The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.
W. F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck; the founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s; the structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that "the'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist."
In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, philosophy, history and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began. Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University's scientific fame. During this period of enlargement, the university expanded to incorporate other separate colleges in Berlin. An example would be the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. In 1717, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities; the university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington; the university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. In 2018-19, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sydney as one of the world's top 25 most reputable universities, its graduates as the top 5 most employable in the world and first in Australia. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty; the university has educated seven Australian prime ministers, two Governors-General of Australia, nine state governors and territory administrators, 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices.
Sydney has produced 110 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. The University of Sydney is a member of the Group of Eight, CEMS, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state secular university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country", it would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, before the plan was adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom. By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy; this seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889.
This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy. A significant figure from 1927 to 1958, termed'Sydney's best known academic', was the Professor of Philosophy at the University John Anderson. A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed Atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many to the point of being censured by the state parliament in 1943; the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities. At one stage, newspaper reporters descended on the university to cover brawls, secret memos and a walk-out by David Armstrong, a respected philosopher who held the Challis Chair of Philosophy from 1959 to 1991, after students at one of his lectures demanded a course on feminism.
The philosophy department split over the issue to become the Traditional and Modern Philosophy Department, headed by Armstrong and following a more traditional approach to philosophy, the General Philosophy Department, which follows the French continental approach. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989 the following bodies were incorporated into the university in 1990: Sydney Branch of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music Cumberland College of Health Sciences Sydney College of the Arts of the Institute of the Arts Sydney Institute of Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Institute of Nursing Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Guild Centre of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. Prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College; the Orange Agricultural College was transferred to the University of New England under the Act, but transferred to the University of Sydney in 1994, as part of the reforms to the University of New England undertaken by the University of New England Act 1993 and the Southern Cross University Act 1993.
In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University. In February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St John's College to develop the Sydney