Mount Washington, Pittsburgh (mountain)
Mount Washington is a hill in Pittsburgh, on the southern banks of the Monongahela River and Ohio River. In the early history of Pittsburgh, Mount Washington was known as Coal Hill, but Coal Hill was on the south bank of the Monongahela River. Easy access to the Pittsburgh coal seam's outcrop near the base of Mt. Washington allowed several mines to operate there. Rock was quarried from the hill. Gray sandstone, for example, was quarried at Coal Hill for the second Allegheny County Courthouse. By 1876, the name had been changed to Mount Washington, a year the view of the City of Pittsburgh was first drawn from Mt. Washington. Many photos of the Pittsburgh skyline are from Mt. Washington, due to the elevation of the hill overlooking the river valley and Downtown Pittsburgh below; the original switchback trails that wound up the steep slopes of Mt. Washington were passable to a team of horses pulling a loaded wagon. Immigrants, predominantly from Germany, settled Mount Washington by the early 19th century and worked in the plants adjacent to the Monongahela River.
They became weary of climbing steep footpaths and steps to their homes, from the river valley, after work. They remembered the standseilbahns of their former country, proposals were advanced to construct one or more of them along Coal Hill; the Monongahela Incline was the first of these to be built in 1869–1870. The Duquesne Incline opened to the public in May 1877, it was one of four inclined planes climbing Mount Washington that carried passengers and freight to the residential area that had spread along the top of the bluff; as the hilltop communities were inaccessible by any other means, many of Pittsburgh's inclines carried horses and wagons as well as foot passengers. All carried some light freight. A third incline, the Castle Shannon Incline, which closed in 1964 served the hilltop community on Mt. Washington with a lower station at the corner of East Carson Street and Arlington Avenue, just east of the present Station Square Transit Station; this incline was closed by its owner, the Pittsburgh Railways Company, just prior to all of their streetcar and bus routes being taken over by the Port Authority.
The Monongahela and Duquesne Inclines allow access to Mt. Washington's overlook of the downtown area of Pittsburgh. Tourists marvel at the view; the inclines remain the best way for thousands of Pittsburghers on Mt. Washington to get to their jobs and shopping in downtown Pittsburgh and Station Square. In the 1930s, a huge neon billboard sign, 226 feet wide and 30 feet high, was erected on the Mount Washington hillside near the Duquesne Incline tracks, its earliest known advertisers were Iron City Beer, Clark's Teaberry Gum and WTAE-TV Channel 4. In 1967, the Alcoa aluminum company took over the sign and changed its plain background into a gray-and-white mosaic font pattern that spelled out "PITTSBURGH" when seen in the daytime, giving the sign new popularity. Alcoa became the sign's most well-known advertiser. In 1992, Miles Laboratories moved their U. S. headquarters became the sign's new advertiser. In April 1995, the Miles brand name was absorbed by its parent company, Bayer AG and the sign was changed to feature the Bayer name and its circular cross logo.
Bayer AG declined to renew their lease on the sign in 2014. As of May 2015, Lamar Advertising and the City of Pittsburgh were in disagreement over the proper use and maintenance responsibilities of the sign. In June 2016, Lamar Advertising erected a new sign over the old neon sign for the Sprint Corporation. Many Pittsburgh natives reacted negatively to the wording "black & yellow" as opposed to the city's traditional "black & gold" moniker; the first tunnel through Mt. Washington was the Pittsburgh and Castle Shannon Tunnel, which began life as a coal mine but was extended through from the Mt. Washington Coal Incline to Saw Mill Run in 1861; this was followed by the Mount Washington Transit Tunnel for Pittsburgh Railways and Wabash Tunnel for the Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Railway, both in opening in 1904. The former continues in use by Pittsburgh Light Rail and the latter as a High Occupancy Vehicle tunnel; the Liberty Tunnel through Mt. Washington opened in 1928; the Fort Pitt Tunnel beneath and through Mt. Washington opened September 1, 1960
Jared M. Brush
Jared M. Brush was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1869 to 1872. Jared Brush was born on October 1814 at the corner of Third Street and Cherry Way, he became a carpenter, a contractor. He married Sarah Dithridge, they had nine children of whom only two lived to adulthood. Brush was Overseer of the Poor of Pitt Township from 1842 to 1845. In 1854, Brush was elected a city councilman. During the American Civil War, Brush worked with the United States Sanitary Commission, a relief agency that ministered to the soldiers, he was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1869 to 1872. Brush's administration was praised because of his extensive street construction projects and the establishment of the first full-time Fire Department. After his term ended, Brush served successively as a school director, superintendent of the city poor farm and clerk in the assessor's office and that of the treasurer, he was appointed as a police magistrate in 1888. Brush served as director of several Pittsburgh banks, he died on November 1895, of pneumonia.
Brushton, Pennsylvania was named in his honor. List of mayors of Pittsburgh Jared M. Brush at Political Graveyard
Robert W. Lyon
Robert W. Lyon was Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1881 to 1884. Mayor Lyon was born in Butler County, Pennsylvania north of Pittsburgh in 1842, he joined the 102nd Pennsylvania Volunteers during the American Civil War. When he came home from war Lyon made a small fortune in the petroleum industry. Mayor Lyon won election in 1881 and was best known as "the working man's mayor." He guided city hall into the completion of the Smithfield Street Bridge and the successful annexation of the Garfield neighborhood. The AFL, forerunner to the AFL-CIO, was founded in Pittsburgh under his administration. In 1884, he went to work in a steel mill and worked in county government until his death in 1904, he was buried in Calvary Cemetery in the west suburb of McKees Rocks. List of mayors of Pittsburgh
William J. Howard
William Jordan Howard, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1845 to 1846. Howard was born in Wilmington and went to Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Wakefield, he worked as a merchant. His business was destroyed in the Great Fire of April 10, 1845; the conflagration decimated one third of the city. Mayor Howard's administration was dedicated to helping Pittsburgh to rise from her ashes. Howard served for many years as the President of The Board of Guardians of the Poor. List of Mayors of Pittsburgh South Pittsburgh Development Corporation Political Graveyard
John B. Guthrie
John B. Guthrie, a Democrat, was twice elected Mayor of Pittsburgh and served from 1851 to 1853. John Brandon Guthrie was born in Kittanning, the son of shipbuilder James V. Guthrie and Martha Brandon, daughter of Revolutionary War captain John Brandon; when Guthrie was young, his family moved from Armstrong County to Pittsburgh. Guthrie married Catherine Murray, daughter of Magnus Miller Murray, the lawyer and two-time mayor of Pittsburgh. Guthrie served in the Mexican War with the Duquesne Grays, he was appointed "Collector of Customs" for the port of Pittsburgh. Guthrie served two terms as mayor. During his terms, Guthrie appointed a new police force who ended the lawlessness of 1851 in Pittsburgh. Guthrie was the father of George W. Guthrie, who would serve as mayor. Guthrie was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1872-73, he died in 1885 in Pennsylvania. He is buried in Allegheny Cemetery. List of Mayors of Pittsburgh Political Graveyard
History of Pittsburgh
The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as "Dionde:gâ'" in the Seneca language.' French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, which leads to the Mississippi River. The area became a battleground when Britain fought for control in the 1750s; when the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi. Following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow; the region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey. The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass and glass products. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875. During the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer.
Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning down buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines and more than 1,000 cars. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nation's steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932; the soaring unemployment of the Great Depression, the New Deal relief programs and the rise of powerful labor unions in the 1930s turned the city into a liberal stronghold of the New Deal Coalition under powerful Democratic mayors. In World War II, it was the center of the "Arsenal of Democracy", producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the steel industry, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s.
In 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region as early as 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the future site of McKees Rocks, about three miles from the head of the Ohio; the Indian Mound, a burial site, was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, the Shawnee, who had migrated up from the south.
With the arrival of European explorers, these tribes and others had been devastated by European infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles and malaria, to which they had no immunity. In 1748, when Conrad Weiser visited Logstown, 18 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, he counted 789 warriors gathered: the Iroquois included 163 Seneca, 74 Mohawk, 35 Onondaga, 20 Cayuga, 15 Oneida. Other tribes were 165 Lenape, 162 Shawnee, 100 Wyandot, 40 Tisagechroami, 15 Mohican. Shannopin's Town, a Seneca tribe village on the east bank of the Allegheny, was the home village of Queen Aliquippa, it was deserted after 1749. Sawcunk, on the mouth of the Beaver River, was a Lenape settlement and the principal residence of Shingas, a chief of theirs. Chartier's Town was a Shawnee town established in 1734 by Peter Chartier. Kittanning was a Shawnee village on the Allegheny, with an estimated 300 -- 400 residents; the first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.
Europeans first began to settle in the region in 1748, when the first Ohio Company, an English land speculation company, won a grant of 200,000 acres in the upper Ohio Valley. From a post at present-day Cumberland, the company began to construct an 80-mile wagon road to the Monongahela River employing a Delaware Indian chief named Nemacolin and a party of settlers headed by Capt. Michael Cresap to begin widening the track into a road, it followed the same route as an ancient Amerindian trail, now known as Nemacolin's Trail. The river crossing and flats at Redstone creek, was the earliest point and shortest distance for the descent of a wagon road. In the war, the site fortified as Fort Burd was one of several possible destinations. Another alternative was the divergent route that became Braddock's Road a few years through present-day New Stanton. In the event, the colonists did not succeed in improving the Amerindian path to a wagon road much beyond the Cumberland Narrows pass before they were confronted by hostile Native Americans.
The colonists mounted a series of expeditions in order to accomplish piecemeal improvements to the track. The French had built nearby Logstown as a trade and council center for the Native Americans to increase their influence in the Ohio Valley. Between June
Bernard J. McKenna
Bernard J. McKenna was the Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1893 to 1896. McKenna was served in the American Civil War. After returning home to Pittsburgh he worked in the iron industry becoming a labor union official. McKenna was active in the volunteer and professional Pittsburgh fire department. In 1875, he was elected to the city council. From his home at 6325 Marchand Street he launched a successful bid to become Mayor in 1893, his administration oversaw the completion of the Highland Park Zoo, the Carnegie Library's main branch was completed during his time in office. McKenna died in 1903 and is buried in St. Mary's Cemetery in the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Lawrenceville