Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865; the amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption, it was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery. Slavery was implicitly permitted in the original Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, which detailed how each slave state's enslaved population would be factored into its total population count for the purposes of apportioning seats in the United States House of Representatives and direct taxes among the states. Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.
On April 8, 1864, the Senate passed an amendment to abolish slavery. After one unsuccessful vote and extensive legislative maneuvering by the Lincoln administration, the House followed suit on January 31, 1865; the measure was swiftly ratified by nearly all Northern states, along with a sufficient number of border states up to the death of Lincoln, but approval came with President Andrew Johnson, who encouraged the "reconstructed" Southern states of Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to agree, which brought the count to 27 states, caused it to be adopted before the end of 1865. Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor in the South. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was cited in case law, but has been used to strike down peonage and some race-based discrimination as "badges and incidents of slavery."
The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors. The Thirteenth Amendment enables Congress to pass laws against sex trafficking and other modern forms of slavery. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Slavery existed in all of the original thirteen British North American colonies. Prior to the Thirteenth Amendment, the United States Constitution did not expressly use the words slave or slavery but included several provisions about unfree persons; the Three-Fifths Compromise, Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons".
This clause was a compromise between Southerners who wished slaves to be counted as'persons' for congressional representation and northerners rejecting these out of concern of too much power for the South, because representation in the new Congress would be based on population in contrast to the one-vote-for-one-state principle in the earlier Continental Congress. Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, "No person held to Service or Labour in one State" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9, Clause 1 allowed Congress to pass legislation outlawing the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis in Dred Scott v. Sandford for treating slaves as property.
Stimulated by the philosophy of the Declaration of Independence, between 1777 and 1804 every Northern state provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery. Most of the slaves involved were household servants. No Southern state did so, the slave population of the South continued to grow, peaking at 4 million people in 1861. An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South; the American Colonization Society, an alliance between abolitionists who felt the races should be kept separated and slaveholders who feared the presence of freed blacks would encourage slave rebellions, called for the emigration and colonization of both free blacks and slaves to Africa. Its views were endorsed by politicians such as Henry Clay, who feared that the main abolitionist movement would provoke a civil war. Proposals to eliminate slavery by constitutional amendment were introduced by Representative Arthur Livermore in 1818 and by John Quincy Adams in 1839, but failed to gain significant traction.
As the country continued to expand, the issue of slavery in its new territories became the dominant national issue. The Southern position was that slaves were property and therefore could be moved to the territories like all other forms of property; the 1820 Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, preserving the Senate's equality between the regions. In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso was introduced to a war appropriations bill to ban slavery in all territories acquired in the Mexican–Ameri
William Tharp was an American farmer and politician from Milford in Kent County, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party, who served in the Delaware General Assembly and as Governor of Delaware. Tharp was born in Farmington, the son of James and Eunice Fleming Tharp, his great grandfather had settled near Frankford, Delaware in 1735. His father died in 1829 and he married Mary A. Johnson about the same time, they had five children: Ruth, Mary Elizabeth, Martina and Ann Purnell. Through his wife that he inherited his first home on U. S. Highway 13 at Farmington, began the accumulation of a considerable amount of farmland which he managed for the rest of his life; that home, known as the Tharp House, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. When he was elected governor in 1847, the family moved to Milford and lived at the northeast corner of Church and Front Streets, they were members of the Presbyterian Church and among the organizers of a new congregation in Milford in 1849.
Throughout the 19th century Delaware politics was characterized by a conservative down state and small business majority, in opposition to a Wilmington based industrialist minority. This majority was led into the Whig Party by John M. Clayton. Having lost three straight elections for governor, the minority Democratic Party found a candidate of their own from down state in Tharp. Tharp was served in the 1839/40 and 1841/42 sessions, he sought reelection to the state senate in 1842, but after a months long recount, was found to have lost by 1 vote. He ran for governor in 1844, but lost to the Whig Party candidate, Thomas Stockton; because Stockton died in office another gubernatorial election was held in 1846, Tharp was elected, defeating Peter F. Causey, the Whig Party candidate. Although he was elected along with a Whig Party General Assembly, his term began the long dominance of the Democratic Party for the remainder of the 19th century. Tharp served a full term as governor from January 19, 1847 until January 21, 1851.
The Mexican–American War began shortly before Tharp took office, it was a war he and most Delawareans questioned the need for. Like the unwanted War of 1812, Tharp and Delaware in general responded to the recruiter, many served honorably from Buena Vista to Vera Cruz. At home Delaware handed over Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River to the U. S. government for the building of Fort Delaware. Following his term Tharp retired from public service and in 1852, was named treasurer of the Delaware Railroad. Tharp is buried there at the Christ Episcopal Churchyard, he was the grandfather of future Governor William T. Watson. Tharp is described as "a successful and progressive farmer...a strong man intellectually, a substantial citizen, prominent in his community and respected by all the people." Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1. Members of the Delaware General Assembly took office the first Tuesday of January. State senators have a four-year term; the governor has a four-year term.
Conrad, Henry C.. History of the State of Delaware. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wickersham Company. Martin, Roger A.. A History of Delaware Through its Governors. Wilmington, Delaware: McClafferty Press. Martin, Roger A.. Memoirs of the Senate. Newark, Delaware: Roger A. Martin. Scharf, John Thomas. History of Delaware 1609-1888. 2 vols. Philadelphia: L. J. Richards & Co. ISBN 0-87413-493-5. Hall of Governors Portrait Gallery. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States Delaware’s Governors William Tharp at Find a Grave The Political Graveyard Delaware Historical Society.
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Dover is the capital and second-largest city in the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the county seat of Kent County, the principal city of the Dover, DE Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Kent County and is part of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the St. Jones River in the Delaware River coastal plain, it was named by William Penn of Dover in England. As of 2010, the city had a population of 36,047. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the towns Modern Welsh forms. The city is named after Kent in England. Dover was founded as the court town for newly established Kent County in 1683 by William Penn, the proprietor of the territory known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." In 1717, the city was laid out by a special commission of the Delaware General Assembly. The capital of the state of Delaware was moved here from New Castle in 1777 because of its central location and relative safety from British raiders on the Delaware River.
Because of an act passed in October 1779, the assembly elected to meet at any place in the state they saw fit, meeting successively in Wilmington, Dover, New Castle, Lewes again, until it settled down permanently in Dover in October 1781. The city's central square, known as The Green, was the location of many rallies, troop reviews, other patriotic events. To this day, The Green remains the heart of Dover's historic district and is the location of the Delaware Supreme Court and the Kent County Courthouse. Dover was most famously the home of Caesar Rodney, the popular wartime leader of Delaware during the American Revolution, he is known to have been buried outside Dover. A cenotaph in his honor is erected in the cemetery of the Christ Episcopal Church near The Green in Dover. Dover and Kent County were divided over the issue of slavery, the city was a "stop" on the Underground Railroad because of its proximity to slave-holding Maryland and free Pennsylvania and New Jersey, it was home to a large Quaker community that encouraged a sustained emancipation effort in the early 19th century.
There were few slaves in the area, but the institution was supported, if not practiced, by a small majority, who saw to its continuation. The Bradford-Loockerman House, Building 1301, Dover Air Force Base, John Bullen House, Carey Farm Site, Christ Church, Delaware State Museum Buildings, John Dickinson House, Dover Green Historic District, Eden Hill, Delaware Governor's Mansion, Hughes-Willis Site, Loockerman Hall, Macomb Farm, Mifflin-Marim Agricultural Complex, Old Statehouse, Palmer Home, Town Point, Tyn Head Court, Victorian Dover Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dover is located at 39°09′29″N 75°31′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 22.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.32%, is water. Dover has humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid, with 23 days per year reaching or surpassing 90 °F. Brief, but heavy summer thunderstorms are common. Winters are moderated by the Delaware Bay and the partial shielding of the Appalachians, though there are 8−9 days when the daily high remains below freezing and 15 nights with lows below 20 °F. Snow is light and sporadic, averaging only 15.7 inches per season, does not remain on the ground for long.
Spring and autumn provide transitions of reasonable length and are similar, though spring is more wet. The monthly mean temperature ranges from 35.2 °F in January to 77.7 °F in July. The annual total precipitation of around 46 inches is spread rather evenly year-round. Dover averages 2300 hours of sunshine annually. In 2010, Dover had a population of 36,047 people; the racial makeup of the city was 48.3% White, 42.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. 6.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,135 people, 12,340 households, 7,502 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,435.0 people per square mile. There were 13,195 housing units at an average density of 589.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.94% White, 37.22% African American, 0.45% Native American, 3.16% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races.
4.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,340 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city of Dover the age distribution of the population shows 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.7% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,669, the median income for a family was $48,338. Males had a median income of $34,824 versus $26,061 for females; the per
A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The significant core functions of a corporate treasurer include cash and liquidity management, risk management, corporate finance; the treasury of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy and revenue. The treasurer is the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury or Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Australia, the Treasurer is a senior Minister and the second most important member of the Government after the Prime Minister. From 1867 to 1993, Ontario's Minister of Finance was called the Treasurer of Ontario; the word referred to the person in charge of the treasure of a noble. In the UK during the 17th Century, a position of Lord High Treasurer was used on several occasions as the third great officer of the Crown. Now the title First Lord of the Treasury is the official title of the British Prime Minister. In the Inns of Court, the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales, the bencher or Master of the bench who heads the Inn for that year holds the title'Master Treasurer'.
This title is used by other legal associations sharing a British heritage, such as the Law Society of Upper Canada. Many volunteer organizations not-for-profit organizations such as charities and theaters, appoint treasurers who are responsible for conservation of the treasury, whether this be through pricing of a product, organizing sponsorship, or arranging fundraising events; the treasurer would be part of the group which would oversee how the money is spent, either directly dictating expenditure or authorizing it as required. It is their responsibility to ensure that the organization has enough money to carry out their stated aims and objectives, that they do not overspend, or under spend, they report to the board meetings and/or to the general membership the financial status of the organization to ensure checks and balances. Accurate records and supporting documentation must be kept to a reasonable level of detail that provides a clear audit trail for all transactions. Bursary Certified Treasury Professional Chief financial officer Comptroller Comptroller and Auditor General Treasury Management National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee.
Spotlight on You the Treasurer. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-26-9. Treasury Management International, The Functions of a Corporate Treasury, Dr Heinrich Degenhart, Verband Deutscher Treasurer e. V. O*NET-SOC 11-3031.01 ~ Treasurers and Controllers U. S. Department of Labor SOC 11-3031 ~ Financial Managers Association of Public Treasurers of the United States and Canada California Municipal Treasurers Association Oklahoma Municipal Treasurers' Association Government Treasurers' Organization of Texas Virginia Treasurers' Association
John Dickinson, a Founding Father of the United States, was a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768. As a member of the First Continental Congress, where he was a signee to the Continental Association, Dickinson drafted most of the 1774 Petition to the King, as a member of the Second Continental Congress, wrote the 1775 Olive Branch Petition; when these two attempts to negotiate with King George III of Great Britain failed, Dickinson reworked Thomas Jefferson's language and wrote the final draft of the 1775 Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. When Congress decided to seek independence from Great Britain, Dickinson served on the committee that wrote the Model Treaty, wrote the first draft of the 1776–1777 Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Dickinson served as President of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which called for the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Dickinson attended the Convention as a delegate from Delaware. He wrote "The Liberty Song" in 1768, was a militia officer during the American Revolution, President of Delaware, President of Pennsylvania, was among the wealthiest men in the British American colonies. Upon Dickinson's death, President Thomas Jefferson recognized him as being "Among the first of the advocates for the rights of his country when assailed by Great Britain whose'name will be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution.'"Together with his wife, Mary Norris Dickinson, he is the namesake of Dickinson College, as well as of the Dickinson School of Law of Pennsylvania State University and the University of Delaware's Dickinson Complex. John Dickinson High School was opened/dedicated in 1959 as part of the public schools in northern Delaware. Dickinson was born at Croisadore, his family's tobacco plantation near the village of Trappe in Talbot County, Province of Maryland, he was the great-grandson of Walter Dickinson who emigrated from England to Virginia in 1654 and, having joined the Society of Friends, came with several co-religionists to Talbot County on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1659.
There, with 400 acres on the banks of the Choptank River, Walter began a plantation, meaning "cross of gold." Walter bought 800 acres on St. Jones Neck in what became Kent County, Delaware. Croisadore passed through Walter's son, William, to his grandson, the father of John Dickinson; each generation increased the landholdings, so that Samuel inherited 2,500 acres on five farms in three Maryland counties and over his lifetime increased that to 9,000 acres. He bought the Kent County property from his cousin and expanded it to about 3,000 acres, stretching along the St. Jones River from Dover to the Delaware Bay. There he called it Poplar Hall; these plantations were large, profitable agricultural enterprises worked by slave labor, until 1777 when John Dickinson freed the enslaved of Poplar Hall. Samuel Dickinson first married Judith Troth on April 11, 1710, they had nine children. The three eldest sons died of smallpox while in London seeking their education. Widowed, with two young children and Betsy, Samuel married Mary Cadwalader in 1731.
She was the daughter of Martha Jones and the prominent Quaker John Cadwalader, grandfather of General John Cadwalader of Philadelphia. Their sons, John and Philemon were born in the next few years. For three generations the Dickinson family had been members of the Third Haven Friends Meeting in Talbot County and the Cadwaladers were members of the Meeting in Philadelphia, but in 1739, John Dickinson's half-sister, was married in an Anglican church to Charles Goldsborough in what was called a "disorderly marriage" by the Meeting. The couple would be the grandparents of Maryland governor Charles Goldsborough. Leaving Croisadore to elder son Henry Dickinson, Samuel moved to Poplar Hall, where he had taken a leading role in the community as Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Kent County; the move placed Mary nearer her Philadelphia relations. Poplar Hall was situated on a now-straightened bend of the St. Jones River. There was plenty of activity delivering the necessities, shipping the agricultural products produced.
Much of this product was wheat that along with other wheat from the region, was milled into a "superfine" flour. Most people at this plantation were slaves of the Dickinsons. Dickinson was educated by his parents and by recent immigrants employed for that purpose. Among them was the Presbyterian minister Francis Alison, who established New London Academy in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Most important was his tutor, William Killen, who became a lifelong friend and who became Delaware’s first Chief Justice and Chancellor. Dickinson was precocious and energetic, in spite of his love of Poplar Hall and his family, was drawn to Philadelphia. At 18 he began studying the law under John Moland in Philadelphia. There he made friends among others. By 1753, John went to London for three years of study at the Middle Temple, he spent those years studying the works of Edward Coke and Francis Bacon at the Inns of Court, following in the footsteps of his lifelong friend, Pennsylvania Attorney General Benjamin Chew, in 1757 was admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar beginning his