The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley. Between 1842 and 1866, the newspaper bore the name New-York Daily Tribune. From the 1840s through the 1860s it was the dominant Whig Party and Republican newspaper in the United States; the paper achieved a circulation of 200,000 in the 1850s, making it the largest daily paper in New York City. The Tribune's editorials were read and copied in other city newspapers, helping to shape national American opinion, it was one of the first papers in the north to send reporters and illustrators to cover the campaigns of the American Civil War. In 1924, after 83 years of independent existence, the New-York Tribune merged with another major daily newspaper in New York City, the New York Herald, to form the New York Herald Tribune; the "Trib", as it was known, ceased publication in 1966. The Tribune was created by Horace Greeley in 1841 with the goal of providing a straightforward, trustworthy media source.
Greeley had published a weekly newspaper, The New Yorker, in 1833, was publisher of the Whig Party's political organ, Log Cabin. In 1841, he merged operations of these two publications into a new newspaper that he named, the New-York Tribune. Greeley sponsored a host of reforms, including pacifism and feminism and the ideal of the hard-working free laborer. Greeley demanded reforms to make all citizens would be equal, he envisioned virtuous citizens. He talked endlessly about progress and freedom, while calling for harmony between labor and capital. Greeley's editorials promoted social democratic reforms, were reprinted, they influenced the free-labor ideology of the Whigs and the radical wing of the Republican Party in promoting the free-labor ideology. Before 1848 he sponsored an American version of Fourierist socialist reform, but backed away after the failed revolutions of 1848 in Europe. To promote multiple reforms Greeley hired a roster of writers who became famous in their own right, including Margaret Fuller, Charles Anderson Dana, George William Curtis, William Henry Fry, Bayard Taylor, George Ripley, Julius Chambers and Henry Jarvis Raymond, who co-founded The New York Times.
In 1852-62, the paper retained Karl Marx as its London-based European correspondent. Friedrich Engels submitted articles under Marx's by-line. Founded in a time of civil unrest, the paper joined the newly formed Republican Party in 1854, named it after the party of Thomas Jefferson, emphasized its opposition to slavery; the paper generated a large readership, with a circulation of 200,000 during the decade of the 1850s. This made the paper the largest circulation daily in New York City — gaining commensurate influence among voters and political decision-makers in the process. During the Civil War Greeley crusaded against slavery, lambasting Democrats while calling for a mandatory draft of soldiers for the first time in the U. S; this led to an Irish mob attempting to burn down the Tribune building in lower Manhattanan during the Draft Riots.. After failing to unseat Ulysses S. Grant in his bid for a second term as President in the 1872 Election, Whitelaw Reid assumed control of the Tribune. Greeley checked into Dr. George C.
S. Choate's Sanitarium. In 1886, with Reid's support, the Tribune became the first publication in the world to be printed on a linotype machine, invented by a German immigrant, inventor Ottmar Mergenthaler; this technique allowed them to exceed the standard newspaper size of only eight pages while still speeding up printing time per copy, thereby increasing the overall number of copies that could be printed. Under Reid's son, Ogden Mills Reid, the paper acquired and merged with the New York Herald in 1924 to form the New York Herald Tribune; the New York Herald Tribune continued to be run by Ogden M. Reid until his death in 1947. A "new" New York Tribune debuted in 1976 in New York City; the paper, named The News World and changed to The New York City Tribune, was published by News World Communications, Inc. owned by the Unification Church. It was published in the former Tiffany and Company Building at 401 Fifth Avenue until it printed its last edition on January 3, 1991, its sister paper, The Washington Times, is circulated in the nation's capital.
The Tribune carried an expansive "Commentary" section of editorials. Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch was one of the columnists; the New York Tribune building was the first home of Pace University. Today, the site where the building once stood is now the One Pace Plaza complex of Pace University's New York City campus. Dr. Choate’s residence and private hospital, where Horace Greeley died, today is part of the campus of Pace University in Pleasantville, New York. On December 15, 1921, The New York Tribune bought two plots of ground at 219 and 220 West 40th Street; the headquarters that The New York Tribune built at that site is now the home of the City University of New York Graduate School of Journalism. The Tribune was referenced in one rendition of the popular 19th-century ballad, "No Irish Need Apply", as performed by Tony Pastor, as the paper of choice for the anti-Irish antagonist in the song. Copies of the New-York Tribune are available on microfilm at many large libraries and online at the Library of Congress.
Indices from selected years in the late nineteenth century are available on the Library of Congress' website. The original paper articles from the newspaper's morgue are kept at The Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin. Anon. "The New York Tribu
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Utah. With an estimated population of 190,884 in 2014, the city is the core of the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a population of 1,153,340. Salt Lake City is further situated within a larger metropolis known as the Salt Lake City–Ogden–Provo Combined Statistical Area, a corridor of contiguous urban and suburban development stretched along a 120-mile segment of the Wasatch Front, comprising a population of 2,423,912, it is one of only two major urban areas in the Great Basin. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City; the city was founded in 1847 by followers of the church, led by Brigham Young, who were seeking to escape persecution that they had experienced while living farther east. The Mormon pioneers, as they would come to be known, at first encountered an arid, inhospitable valley that they extensively irrigated and cultivated, thereby establishing the foundation to sustain the area's present population.
Salt Lake City's street grid system is based on the north-south east-west grid plan developed by early church leaders, with the Salt Lake Temple constructed at the grid's starting point. Due to its proximity to the Great Salt Lake, the city was named Great Salt Lake City. In 1868, the 17th Utah Territorial Legislature dropped the word "Great" from the city's name. Immigration of international members of the church, mining booms, the construction of the first transcontinental railroad brought economic growth, the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West, it was traversed by the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental highway, in 1913. Two major cross-country freeways, I-15 and I-80, now intersect in the city. Salt Lake City has developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based on skiing, the city hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics, it is the industrial banking center of the United States. Before settlement by members of the LDS Church, the Shoshone and Paiute had dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years.
At the time of Salt Lake City's founding, the valley was within the territory of the Northwestern Shoshone. One local Shoshone tribe, the Western Goshute tribe, referred to the Great Salt Lake as Pi'a-pa, meaning "big water", or Ti'tsa-pa, meaning "bad water"; the land was treated by the United States as public domain. The first American explorer in the Salt Lake area was Jim Bridger in 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. US Army officer John C. Frémont surveyed the Great Salt Lake and the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845; the Donner Party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846. The valley's first permanent settlements date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints in July 1847, they had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States into Mexican Territory seeking a secluded area to safely practice their religion away from the violence and the persecution they experienced in the Eastern United States.
Upon arrival at the Salt Lake Valley, president of the church Brigham Young is recorded as stating, "This is the right place, drive on." Brigham Young claimed to have seen the area in a vision prior to the wagon train's arrival. They found. Four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the building site for the Salt Lake Temple; the Salt Lake Temple, constructed on the block called Temple Square, took 40 years to complete. Construction started in 1853, the temple was dedicated on April 6, 1893; the temple serves as its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake meridian, for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley; the pioneers organized a state called State of Deseret, petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congress rebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size, designated Fillmore as its capital city. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1856, the name was shortened to Salt Lake City.
The city's population continued to swell with an influx of converts to the LDS Church and Gold Rush gold seekers, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West. Explorer and author Richard Francis Burton traveled by coach in the summer of 1860 to document life in Great Salt Lake City, he was granted unprecedented access during his three-week visit, including audiences with Brigham Young and other contemporaries of Joseph Smith. The records of his visit include sketches of early city buildings, a description of local geography and agriculture, commentary on its politics and social order, essays and sermons from Young, Isaac Morley, George Washington Bradley and other leaders, snippets of everyday life such as newspaper clippings and the menu from a high-society ball. Disputes with the federal government ensued over the church's practice of polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanan declared the area in rebellion after Brigham Young refused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War.
A division of the United States Army, comman
Nyack, New York
Nyack is a village located in the town of Orangetown in Rockland County, New York, United States. Incorporated in 1872, it retains a small western section in Clarkstown, it is an inner suburb of New York City lying 19 miles north of the Manhattan boundary near the west bank of the Hudson River, situated north of South Nyack, east of Central Nyack, south of Upper Nyack, southeast of Valley Cottage. Nyack had a population of 6,765 as of the 2010 census. Most of Rockland County's local music scene is based in Nyack. Nyack is one of five southeastern Rockland County villages and hamlets that constitute "The Nyacks" – Nyack, Central Nyack, South Nyack, Upper Nyack and West Nyack. Named after the Native Americans who resided there before European colonization, the village consists of low-rise buildings lying on the hilly terrain that meets the western shore of the Hudson River. Adjacent South Nyack is the western terminus of the Tappan Zee Bridge, connected across the Hudson River to Tarrytown in Westchester County by U.
S. Interstate 87, an important commuter artery; the village is 1.6 square miles in area, over 50% of which falls within the Hudson River. It is in the Nyack School District. Native American stone relics and oyster middens found along the shore of the Hudson indicate today's Nyack was a favorite pre-Colonial fishing spot; the first Europeans settled in there in 1675, calling the general area "Tappan". Harman Douwenszen is thought to be the first white settler, he grew up in Bergen, New Jersey. In the State Archives in Albany there is a 1687 letter on file petitioning Governor Dongan to buy a strip of land in the west hills of Tappan, in which he had lived on for 12 years, his partition was granted and he bought the land from the Native Americans. He called his farm New Orania; this section of Nyack became known as Orangetown in 1683. The Tappan Register of 1707 claimed. Nyack became part of Rockland County in 1798. Harman's younger brother Theius changed the family name from Douwse to Talma, his children became Talman and Tallmans.
The New Orania farm became the Tallman homestead, at the northeast corner of what is now Broadway and Tallman Place. The building was demolished in 1914. Letter dated 8/31/1687 on file at New York State Archives at Albany: The humble Peticon of Harman Dowse of Tappan Neare Ye River Side, Alias New Orania farm... your peticonr is a farmer that hath nothing wot comes by his hard labour but by God's Blessing out ye Produce and ye ground, hath a family to provide for. On the north wall of the Key Bank building at South Broadway and Burd Street in Nyack is a plaque installed in 1938 that reads: The Tappan Indians, from time immemorial, occupied these lands fronting the river shore. Here, in summer they lived upon fish and oysters. In Algonkian dialect spoken by them they called this location NAY-ACK; the first settlement of white people within the limits of the present Rockland County, New York, took place in 1675 when Harmen Dowesen, a young Dutchman of Bergen, New Jersey relocated here. The Tallmans erected a mill upon a stream.
Abraham Lydecker purchased land from the Tallmans when there were but seven homes in Nyack in 1813. Nyack became an incorporated village in 1872 according to the same plaque on the Midland Trust Building. Three major industries once thrived in Nyack: sandstone quarrying for New York City buildings. Following the extension of the Northern Railroad of New Jersey into the community in the mid-19th century, rapid growth ensued; because town government was no longer seen as an effective way to deal with the community's needs, village incorporation was discussed. Fearing higher taxes, those in what would have become the northern part of Nyack village formed their own municipal corporation first, named Upper Nyack. Nyack village was incorporated. Residents in the southern part of Nyack village, soon became dissatisfied with the notion of paying taxes that more benefited the rest of the village. After succeeding in dissolving Nyack's corporation, the southern portion of the former village incorporated as the village of South Nyack.
The area between Upper Nyack and South Nyack was reincorporated again as Nyack. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, Nyack was known for its shipbuilding and was the commercial center of Rockland County. In the 19th century, a number of factories manufactured shoes; the Erie Railroad connected with Jersey City, New Jersey, where ferries took passengers to Chambers Street, New York City, until it was discontinued in 1966. With the completion of the Tappan Zee Bridge in December 1955, connecting South Nyack with Tarrytown in Westchester County, the population increased and Nyack's commercial sector expanded. In the 1980s, the village underwent a major urban revitalization project to commercialize the downtown area and to expand its economy; the Helen Hayes Theatre was built, the downtown area became home to many new business establishments. In 1991 the landmark court case Stambovsky v. Ackley ruled that a house at 1 LaVeta Place on the Hudson River was haunted and that the owner was required to disclose that to prospective buyers.
The owner, Helen Ackley, earlier had organized haunted house tours and was party to an article about it in Reader's Digest. After Ackley sold the house to another buyer there were no subsequent repo
1936 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1936 was the thirty-eighth quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1936. In the midst of the Great Depression, incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Governor Alf Landon of Kansas. Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular and electoral vote since the uncontested 1820 election; the sweeping victory consolidated the New Deal Coalition in control of the Fifth Party System. Roosevelt and Vice President John Nance Garner were re-nominated without opposition. With the backing of party leaders, Landon defeated progressive Senator William Borah at the 1936 Republican National Convention to win his party's presidential nomination; the populist Union Party nominated Congressman William Lemke for president. The election took place. Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had enacted, such as Social Security and unemployment benefits, had proven to be popular with most Americans.
Landon, a political moderate, accepted much of the New Deal but criticized it for waste and inefficiency. Although some political pundits predicted a close race, Roosevelt went on to win the greatest electoral landslide since the beginning of the current two-party system in the 1850s. Roosevelt took 60.8% of the popular vote, while Landon won 36.5% and Lemke won just under 2%. Roosevelt carried every state except Vermont, which together cast eight electoral votes. By winning 523 electoral votes, Roosevelt received 98.49% of the electoral vote total, which remains the highest percentage of the electoral vote won by any candidate since 1820. Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular vote since 1820, though Lyndon B. Johnson would win a higher share of the popular vote in the 1964 election. Before his assassination, there was a challenge from Louisiana Senator Huey Long. But, due to his untimely death, President Roosevelt faced only one primary opponent other than various favorite sons. Henry Skillman Breckinridge, an anti-New Deal lawyer from New York, filed to run against Roosevelt in four primaries.
Breckinridge's challenge of the popularity of the New Deal among Democrats failed miserably. In New Jersey, President Roosevelt did not file for the preference vote and lost that primary to Breckinridge though he did receive 19% of the vote on write-ins. Roosevelt's candidates for delegates swept the race in elsewhere. In other primaries, Breckinridge's best showing was 15% in Maryland. Overall, Roosevelt received 93% of the primary vote, compared to 2% for Breckinridge; the Democratic Party Convention was held in Philadelphia between July 23 and 27. The delegates unanimously re-nominated incumbents President Roosevelt and Vice-President John Nance Garner. At Roosevelt's request, the two-thirds rule, which had given the South a de facto veto power, was repealed; the 1936 Republican National Convention was held in Cleveland, between June 9 and 12. Although many candidates sought the Republican nomination, only two, Governor Landon and Senator William Borah from Idaho, were considered to be serious candidates.
While favorite sons County Attorney Earl Warren from California, Governor Warren Green of South Dakota, Stephen A. Day from Ohio won their respective primaries, the seventy-year-old Borah, a well-known progressive and "insurgent," won the Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Oregon primaries, while performing quite in Knox's Illinois and Green's South Dakota; the party machinery, however uniformly backed Landon, a wealthy businessman and centrist, who won primaries in Massachusetts and New Jersey and dominated in the caucuses and at state party conventions. With Knox withdrawing to become Landon's selection for vice-president and Day and Warren releasing their delegates, the tally at the convention was as follows: Alf Landon 984 William Borah 19 Many people, most Democratic National Committee Chairman James Farley, expected Huey Long, the colorful Democratic senator from Louisiana, to run as a third-party candidate with his "Share Our Wealth" program as his platform. Polls made during 1934 and 1935 suggested Long could have won between six and seven million votes, or fifteen percent of the actual number cast in the 1936 election.
However, Long was assassinated in September 1935. Some historians, including Long biographer T. Harry Williams, contend that Long had never, in fact, intended to run for the presidency in 1936. Instead, he had been plotting with Father Charles Coughlin, a Catholic priest and populist talk radio personality, to run someone else on the soon-to-be-formed "Share Our Wealth" Party ticket. According to Williams, the idea was that this candidate would split the left-wing vote with President Roosevelt, thereby electing a Republican president and proving the electoral appeal of Share Our Wealth. Long would wait four years and run for president as a Democrat in 1940. Prior to Long's death, leading contenders for the role of the sacrificial 1936 candidate included Idaho Senator William Borah, Montana Senator and running mate of Robert La Follette in 1924 Burton K. Wheeler, Governor Floyd B. Olson of the Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party. After Long's assassination, the two senators lost interest in the idea, while Olson was diagnosed with terminal stomach cancer.
Father Coughlin, who had allied himself with Dr. Francis Townsend, a left-wing political activist, pushing for the creation of an old-age pension system, Rev. Gerald L. K. Smith, was forced to run Representative William Lemke (R-North D
The Spokesman-Review is a daily broadsheet newspaper in the northwest United States, based in Spokane, Washington. It has the third highest readership among daily newspapers in the state, with most of its readership base in Eastern Washington; the Spokesman-Review was formed from the merger of the Spokane Falls Review and the Spokesman in 1893 and first published under the present name on June 29, 1894. It absorbed its competing sister publication, the Spokane Chronicle, the afternoon paper whose final edition was in 1992 on Friday, July 31. Long co-owned, the two combined their sports departments in late 1981 and news staffs in early 1983; the newspaper published three editions, a metro edition covering Spokane and the outlying areas, a Spokane Valley edition and an Idaho edition covering northern Idaho. After a large downsizing of the newsroom staff in November 2007, the paper moved to a single zoned edition emphasizing localized "Voices" sections staffed by non-union employees; the "Voices" section still caters to the three original editions, publishing a Valley "Voices," a North Spokane "Voices" and a South Spokane "Voices."
Owner of both papers since 1897, W. H. Cowles set the Chronicle on a course to be independent and The Spokesman-Review to support Republican Party causes. Time magazine related the papers' success gaining lowered rates for freight carried to the Northwest and an improved park system and that helped the region. Increasing its reputation for comprehensive local news and by opposing "gambling and prostitution," The Spokesman-Review gained popularity; the paper's opposition to building the Grand Coulee Dam was not quite so universally applauded, when it opposed the New Deal and the Fair Deal, it so disturbed President of the United States Harry Truman that he declared The Spokesman-Review to be one of the "two worst" newspapers in the United States. The Scripps League's Press closed in 1939. Cowles created the Idaho Farmer, Washington Farmer, Oregon Farmer and Utah Farmer. Cowles died in 1946; when William H. Cowles Jr. succeeded his father as publisher, James Bracken received much more news and editorial control as managing editor.
Despite its hometown feel, The Spokesman-Review has been known to take a moderate-to-liberal stance when it comes to opinions ranging from tackling city hall to hate groups in the region. Those groups have threatened to attack the paper, at times have made good on that promise. In 1997, three extreme-right militants were tried and convicted of bombing the office of The Spokesman-Review as well as an abortion clinic; the Spokesman-Review is one of the few remaining family-owned newspapers in the United States. It is owned by Cowles Company, which owns KHQ-TV/Spokane and The KHQ Television Group. While the newspaper wins awards, it is burdened with local critics and activists who suspect the Cowles family of using its alleged vast local media influence to sway public opinion. In particular, a issue regarding a public-private partnership wherein the Cowles family may have profited, some claim, up to $20 million; this is referred to as the "River Park Square Parking Garage" issue. The newspaper underwent an independent review by the Washington News Council regarding its River Park Square coverage and was found to be at fault for its news bias.
In 2004, Spokane mayor James E. West became the target of a sting operation conducted by The Spokesman-Review; some journalists and academics criticized the paper for. West was cleared of criminal charges by the FBI but not before the mayor lost a recall vote by the citizens of Spokane in December 2005. In the summer of 2006, West died of cancer. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, as reported in the Puget Sound Business Journal April 29, 2010, the newspaper's average Sunday circulation totaled 95,939. Weekly circulation averaged 76,291; that represented a year-over-year decrease of about 10.5 percent. With the demise of the print edition of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, The Spokesman-Review is the state's third-largest paper, after the Seattle Times and the News-Tribune of Tacoma. Jim Kershner, "The Spokesman-Review," History Link, July 26, 2012. Greg Lamm, "Washington's Dailies See Subscriber Exodus," Puget Sound Business Journal, April 29, 2010; the Spokesman-Review official website The Spokesman Review Google News archive, news.google.com/ —PDFs of 31,191 issues dated 1889 to 2007.
PBS Frontline report A Hidden Life
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC
Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City. Published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, essays on many subjects, humor, alongside illustrations, it carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War, including many illustrations of events from the war. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast. Along with his brothers James and Wesley, Fletcher Harper began the publishing company Harper & Brothers in 1825. Following the successful example of The Illustrated London News, Harper started publishing Harper's Magazine in 1850; the monthly publication featured established authors such as Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray, within several years, its circulation and interest grew enough to sustain a weekly edition. In 1857, his company began publishing Harper's Weekly in New York City. By 1860 the circulation of the Weekly had reached 200,000.
Illustrations were an important part of the Weekly's content, it developed a reputation for using some of the most renowned illustrators of the time, notably Winslow Homer, Granville Perkins and Livingston Hopkins. Among the recurring features were the political cartoons of Thomas Nast, recruited in 1862 and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years. Nast was a feared caricaturist, is called the father of American political cartooning, he was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party. He drew the legendary character of Santa Claus. Harper's Weekly was the most read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War. So as not to upset its wide readership in the South, Harper's took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery prior to the outbreak of the war. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as "Harper's Weakly"; the Weekly had supported the Stephen A. Douglas presidential campaign against Abraham Lincoln, but as the American Civil War broke out, it supported Lincoln and the Union.
A July 1863 article on the escaped slave Gordon included a photograph of his back scarred from whippings. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist; some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harper's reporting on the war. Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine published illustrations by Theodore R. Davis, Henry Mosler, the brothers Alfred and William Waud. In 1863, George William Curtis, one of the founders of the Republican Party, became the political editor of the magazine, remained in that capacity until his death in 1892, his editorials advocated civil service reform, low tariffs, adherence to the gold standard. After the war, Harper's Weekly more supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, contributed to the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 and 1872, it supported the Radical Republican position on Reconstruction. In the 1870s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William "Boss" Tweed.
Nast turned down a $500,000 bribe to end his attack. Tweed was convicted of fraud. Nast and Harper's played an important part in securing Rutherford B. Hayes' 1876 presidential election. On Hayes remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid had". After the election, Nast's role in the magazine diminished considerably. Since the late 1860s, Nast and George W. Curtis had differed on political matters and on the role of cartoons in political discourse. Curtis believed that mockery by caricature should be reserved for Democrats, did not approve of Nast's cartoons assailing Republicans such as Carl Schurz and Charles Sumner, who opposed policies of the Grant administration. Harper's publisher Fletcher Harper supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis. In 1877, Harper died, his nephews, Joseph W. Harper Jr. and John Henry Harper, assumed control of the magazine. They were more sympathetic to Curtis' arguments for rejecting cartoons that contradicted his editorial positions. In 1884, however and Nast agreed that they could not support the Republican candidate James G. Blaine, whose association with corruption was anathema to them.
Instead they supported Grover Cleveland. Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected president since 1856. In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, "it was conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected. In his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact,'made a president.'"Nast's final contribution to Harper's Weekly was his Christmas illustration in December 1886. Journalist Henry Watterson said that "in quitting Harper's Weekly, Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance." Nast's biographer Fiona Deans Halloran says "the former is true to a certain extent, the latter unlikely. Readers may have missed Nast's cartoons, but Harper's Weekly remained influential." After 1900, Harper's Weekly devoted more print to political and social issues, featured articles by some of the more prominent political figures of the time, such as Theodore Roosevelt. Harper's editor George Harvey was an early supporter of Woodrow Wilson's candidacy, proposing him for the Presidency at a Lotos Club dinner in 1906.
After that dinner, Harvey would make sure that he "emblazoned each issue of Harper's We