Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen was Queen of the United Kingdom and Queen of Hanover as the wife of King William IV. Adelaide was the daughter of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, is named after her. Adelaide was born on 13 August 1792 at Meiningen, Germany, the eldest child of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, she was titled Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony with the style Serene Highness from her birth until the Congress of Vienna, when the entire House of Wettin was raised to the style of Highness. She was baptised at the castle chapel on 19 August, her godparents numbered twenty-one, including her mother, the Holy Roman Empress, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Crown Princess of Saxony, the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, the Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. Saxe-Meiningen was a small state.
It was the most liberal German state and, unlike its neighbours, permitted a free press and criticism of the ruler. At the time, no statute existed which barred a female ruling over the small duchy and it was not until the birth of her brother, Bernhard, in 1800, that the law of primogeniture was introduced. By the end of 1811, King George III was incapacitated and, although still King in name, his heir-apparent and eldest son George was Prince Regent. On 6 November 1817 Princess Charlotte, died in childbirth. Princess Charlotte was second in line to the throne: had she outlived her father and grandfather, she would have become queen. With her death, the King was left with no legitimate grandchildren; the Prince Regent was estranged from his wife, forty-nine years old, thus there was little likelihood that he would have any further legitimate children. To secure the line of succession, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, the other sons of George III sought quick marriages with the intent of producing offspring who could inherit the throne.
William had ten children by the popular actress Dorothea Jordan, being illegitimate, they were barred from the succession. Considerable allowances were to be voted by Parliament to any royal duke who married, this acted as a further incentive for William to marry. Adelaide was a princess from an unimportant German state, but William had a limited choice of available princesses and, after deals with other candidates fell through, a marriage to Adelaide was arranged; the allowance proposed was slashed by Parliament, the outraged Duke considered calling off the marriage. However, Adelaide seemed the ideal candidate: amiable, home-loving, willing to accept William's illegitimate children as part of the family; the arrangement was settled and William wrote to his eldest son, "She is doomed, poor dear innocent young creature, to be my wife."Adelaide's dowry was set at 20,000 florins, with additional three separate annuities being promised by her future husband, the English regent, the State of Saxe-Meiningen.
Adelaide married William in a double wedding with William's brother, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, his bride Victoria, Dowager Princess of Leiningen, on 11 July 1818, at Kew Palace in Surrey, England. They had only met for the first time about a week earlier, on 4 July at Grillon's Hotel in Bond Street. Neither William nor Adelaide had been married before, William was twenty-seven years her senior. Despite these unromantic circumstances, the couple settled amicably in Hanover, by all accounts were devoted to each other throughout their marriage. Adelaide improved William's behaviour. Observers thought them parsimonious, their lifestyle simple boring. William accepted the reduced increase in his allowance voted by Parliament. On the Continent, Adelaide became pregnant, but in her seventh month of pregnancy, she caught pleurisy and gave birth prematurely on 27 March 1819 during the illness, her daughter, lived only a few hours. Another pregnancy in the same year caused William to move the household to England so his future heir would be born on British soil, yet Adelaide miscarried at Calais or Dunkirk during the journey on 5 September 1819.
Back in London, they moved into Clarence House, but preferred to stay at Bushy House near Hampton Court where William had lived with Dorothea Jordan. She became pregnant again, a second daughter, was born on 10 December 1820. Elizabeth seemed strong but died less than three months old on 4 March 1821 of "inflammation in the Bowels". William and Adelaide had no surviving children. Twin boys were stillborn on 8 April 1822, a possible brief pregnancy may have occurred within the same year. Princess Victoria of Kent came to be acknowledged as William's heir presumptive, as Adelaide had no further pregnancies. While there were rumours of pregnancies well into William's reign, they seem to have been without basis. At the time of their marriage, William was not heir-presumptive to the throne, but became so when his brother Frederick, Duke of York, died childless in 1827. Given the small likelihood of his older brothers producing heirs, William's relative youth and good health, it had long been considered likely that he would become king in due course.
In 1830, on the death of his elder brother, George IV, Wil
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent funded institution led by eminent artists and architects, its purpose is to promote the creation and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions and debate. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition; the motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgement in the arts, to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest among the public based on recognised canons of good taste. Fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works.
From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, provided an early venue for contemporary artists in Britain. The success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were exhibiting societies; the combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a national school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies; the origin of the Royal Academy of Arts lies in an attempt in 1755 by members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, principally the sculptor Henry Cheere, to found an autonomous academy of arts. Prior to this a number of artists were members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, including Cheere and William Hogarth, or were involved in small-scale private art academies, such as the St Martin's Lane Academy.
Although Cheere's attempt failed, the eventual charter, called an'Instrument', used to establish the Royal Academy of Arts over a decade was identical to that drawn up by Cheere in 1755. It was Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect and head of the British government's architects' department, the Office of Works, who used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support for the Academy in 1768; the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president, Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788. The instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40; the founder members were Reynolds, John Baker, George Barret, Francesco Bartolozzi, Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Augustino Carlini, Charles Catton, Mason Chamberlin, William Chambers, Francis Cotes, George Dance, Nathaniel Dance, Thomas Gainsborough, John Gwynn, Francis Hayman, Nathaniel Hone the Elder, Angelica Kauffman, Jeremiah Meyer, George Michael Moser, Mary Moser, Francis Milner Newton, Edward Penny, John Inigo Richards, Paul Sandby, Thomas Sandby, Dominic Serres, Peter Toms, William Tyler, Samuel Wale, Benjamin West, Richard Wilson, Joseph Wilton, Richard Yeo, Francesco Zuccarelli.
William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members. Among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, two sets of brothers; the Royal Academy was housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, designed by Chambers, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy's first treasurer; the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the completed National Gallery. These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions. In 1868, 100 years after the Academy's foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, used rent-free by the Royal Academy; the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769.
136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its exhibition programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters, following the cessation of a similar annual exhibition at the British Institution; the range and frequency of these loan exhibitions have grown enormously since that time, making the Royal Academy a leading art exhibition institution of international importance. Britain's first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, as another way to fulfil its mission. Led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, J. M. W. Turner; the last three were all graduates of the RA School, which for a long time was the only established art school in the Royal Academy. In 2018, the Academy's 250th anniversary, the results of a major refurbishment were unveiled.
The project began on 1 January 2008 with the appointment of David Chipperfield Architects. Heritage Lottery
Art UK is a registered charity in the United Kingdom known as the Public Catalogue Foundation. It was founded for the project, completed between 2003 and 2012, of obtaining sufficient rights to enable the public to see images of all the 210,000 oil paintings in public ownership in the United Kingdom; the paintings were made accessible through a series of affordable book catalogues by county. The same images and information were placed on a website in partnership with the BBC called Your Paintings, hosted as part of the BBC website; the renaming in 2016 coincided with the transfer of the website to a stand-alone site. Works by some 40,000 painters held in over 3,000 collections are now on the website. Future plans include a similar project to cover sculptures in public collections, which will begin in 2017. From June 2016 museums and other organisations will be able to upload images of their watercolour paintings and prints to the Art UK website; the catalogues and website allow readers to see an illustration in colour, short description of every painting in the UK's national collections.
This information has significant educational benefits and constitutes the building blocks for art historical research. Revenue from catalogue sales made by collections is dedicated to the conservation and restoration of oil paintings in their care. Coverage includes national and local museums and council collections, paintings in universities, bishop's palaces of the Church of England, the properties owned by the National Trust, some other private institutions such as the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge universities; the collections of bodies such as Arts Council England, English Heritage and the Government Art Collection are included. However the Royal Collection is not included. Art UK receives funding from other sources. Of the 210,000 oil paintings in public ownership in the UK, around 80% are not on public view. Many are held in storage or civic buildings without routine public access. At the same time, many of these collections have incomplete cataloguing records. Since 2003, The Public Catalogue Foundation has been working to rectify this through a series of colour catalogues.
Before these were completed it was clear that a website was the best way to reach the wider public, a key aim of the project, so a combined approach was adopted. The Oil Paintings in Public Ownership book series is published by The PCF on a collection or county-by-county basis; each volume brings together all the oil and tempera paintings in a county's museum collections, together with paintings held in civic buildings such as town halls, universities and fire stations. Each county catalogue contains a colour photograph and basic information about each painting. All paintings are reproduced regardless of condition; the PCF’s first catalogue was published in June 2004, the series is now complete in 85 volumes. The Public Catalogue Foundation worked with the BBC to put all of the UK's publicly owned oil paintings online. In January 2009 a partnership with the BBC was announced with the aim to place the entire catalogue of publicly owned oil paintings online by 2012. On 4 October 2012 it was announced that the project had photographed every painting that it intended to and all 210,000 would shortly be available.
A section of the BBC website, Your Paintings, was launched in 2011. The PCF completed the digitisation of the entire national collection and celebrated their success in February 2013. An innovative crowdsourcing project, Your Paintings Tagger went online in 2011, to generate the metadata necessary to make Your Paintings searchable; the high-quality digital files, have not been made available to the public, paintings on the BBC site can only be'saved' as a'personal collection' on the site, not downloaded. In March 2013 the BBC revealed that an unknown painting by Anthony van Dyck had been discovered because of the Your Paintings website; the painting of Olivia, wife of Endymion Porter, had been discovered on-line and although it was thought it to be in the style of the Van Dyck, experts now agreed that the painting was an unknown original. Olivia, the subject of the painting, who died in 1663, was a lady-in-waiting to queen consort Henrietta Maria, she had married Endymion Porter, a patron of Anthony van Dyck.
A Culture Show TV programme noted that the painting had not been published and it was the Your Paintings website that had allowed this attribution. Art UK collaborates in making the BBC Four television series Britain's Lost Masterpieces. In 2016 Your Paintings was moved to a new dedicated website for Art UK, which will in time feature a much wider range of artworks; the earlier catalogues published are listed below. Oil paintings in public ownership in West Yorkshire: Leeds, The Public Catalogue Foundation, Lucy Ellis, 2004, ISBN 9781904931003 Oil Paintings in Public Ownership in Kent, The Public Catalogue Foundation, 2004 ISBN 9781904931027 Oil paintings in public ownership in West Sussex, The Public Catalogue Foundation, 2005, ISBN 9781904931041 Oil paintings in public ownership in London: The Slade School of Fine Art & University College London Art Collections, The Public Catalogue Foundation, 2005, ISBN 9781904931065 Oil paintings in public ownership in East Sussex, The Public Catalogue Foundation, 2005, ISBN 9781904931089 Oil paintings in public ownership in Suffolk, T
Royal Society of Arts
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley as the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, it was granted a Royal Charter in 1847, the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908; the shorter version, The Royal Society of Arts and the related RSA acronym, are used more than the full name. Notable past fellows include Charles Dickens, Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Hawking, Karl Marx, Adam Smith, Nelson Mandela, David Attenborough, William Hogarth, John Diefenbaker, Tim Berners-Lee. Today, the RSA has Fellows elected from 80 countries worldwide; the RSA award three medals, the Albert Medal, the Benjamin Franklin Medal and the Bicentenary Medal. Medal winners include Nelson Mandela, Sir Frank Whittle, Professor Stephen Hawking; the RSA members are innovative contributors to the human knowledge, as shown by the Oxford English Dictionary, which records the first use of the term "sustainability" in an environmental sense of the word in the RSA Journal in 1980.
On the RSA building's frieze The Royal Society of Arts words are engraved, although its full name is Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts and Commerce. The short name and the related R S of A abbreviation is used more than the full name; the RSA's mission expressed in the founding charter was to "embolden enterprise, enlarge science, refine art, improve our manufacturers and extend our commerce", but of the need to alleviate poverty and secure full employment. On its website, the RSA characterises itself as "an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges"; the RSA's Patron is HM Elizabeth II, the RSA's President is HRH The Princess Royal, its Chairman is Vikki Heywood, its Chief Executive is Matthew Taylor. 1755–1761: The Viscount Folkestone 1761–1793: The Lord Romney 1794–1815: The Duke of Norfolk 1816–1843: HRH The Duke of Sussex 1843–1861: HRH The Prince Consort 1862–1862: William Tooke 1863–1901: HRH The Prince of Wales 1901–1901: Sir Frederick Bramwell 1901–1910: HRH The Prince of Wales 1910–1910: The Lord Alverstone 1911–1942: HRH The Duke of Connaught 1942–1943: Sir Edward Crowe 1943–1945: E. F. Armstrong 1945–1947: The Viscount Bennett 1947–1952: The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh 1952–2011: HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 2011–present: HRH The Princess Royal Prospective fellows can apply for membership.
There have been nearly 28,000 Fellows since 1754. Fellows must have demonstrated a high level of achievement related to the arts and commerce and more "share the values" of the RSA and be "committed to supporting the mission of the RSA"; this change coincided with a rebranding of the RSA mission as a "21st century enlightenment" and its approach as "The Power to Create", which aims at broadening the RSA's impact through increasing its Fellowship. Life Fellows must have demonstrated exceptionally high achievement; the RSA says: "The RSA Fellowship is an international community achievers and influencers from a wide array of backgrounds and professions, distinguished by the title'FRSA'. Fellows are social entrepreneurs to scientists, community leaders to commercial innovators and journalists to architects and engineers, many more." Fellows of the RSA are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSA. Fellowship is regarded as an honour and privilege. Modelled on the Dublin Society for improving Husbandry and other Useful Arts, the RSA, from its foundation, offered prizes through a Premium Award Scheme that continued for 100 years.
Medals and, in some cases, money were awarded to individuals who achieved success in published challenges within the categories of Agriculture, Polite Arts, Manufacture and Trade, Chemistry and Mechanics. Successful submission included agricultural improvements in the cultivation of crops and reforestation, devising new forms of machinery, including an extendable ladder to aid firefighting that has remained in use unchanged, artistic skill, through submissions by young students, many of whom developed into famous artists i.e. Edwin Landseer who at the age of 10 was awarded a silver medal for his drawing of a dog; the RSA specifically precluded premiums for patented solutions. Today the RSA continues to offer premiums. In 1936, the RSA awarded the first distinctions of Royal Designers for Industry, reserved for "those few who in the judgment of their peers have achieved'sustained excellence in aesthetic and efficient design for industry'". In 1937 "The Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry" was established as an association with the object of "furthering excellence in design and its application to industrial purposes": membership of the Faculty is automatic for all RDIs and HonRDIs.
The Faculty has 120 Royal Designers and 45 Honorary Royal Designers: the number of designers who may hold the distinction of RDI at any one time is limited. The Faculty consists of the world’s leading practitioners from fields as disparate as engineering, furniture and textiles, graphics and film design. Early members include Eric Gill, Enid Marx, Sir Frank Whittle and numerous ot
Sir Thomas Lawrence PRA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and the fourth president of the Royal Academy. Lawrence was a child prodigy, he was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper at the Bear Hotel in the Market Square. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. At eighteen he went to London and soon established his reputation as a portrait painter in oils, receiving his first royal commission, a portrait of Queen Charlotte, in 1790, he stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, in 1830. Self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint, he became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1791, a full member in 1794, president in 1820. In 1810 he acquired the generous patronage of the Prince Regent, was sent abroad to paint portraits of allied leaders for the Waterloo chamber at Windsor Castle, is remembered as the Romantic portraitist of the Regency.
Lawrence's love affairs were not happy and, in spite of his success, he spent most of life deep in debt. He never married. At his death, Lawrence was the most fashionable portrait painter in Europe, his reputation waned during Victorian times, but has since been restored. Thomas Lawrence was born at 6 Redcross Street, the youngest surviving child of Thomas Lawrence, a supervisor of excise, Lucy Read, the daughter of a clergyman; the couple had 16 children but only five survived infancy: Lawrence's brother Andrew became a clergyman. Soon after Thomas was born his father decided to become an innkeeper and took over the White Lion Inn and next-door American Coffee House in Broad Street, Bristol, but the venture did not prosper and in 1773 Lawrence senior removed his family from Bristol and took over the tenancy of the Black Bear Inn in Devizes, a favourite stopping place for the London gentry who were making their annual trip to take the waters at Bath. It was during the family's six-year stay at the Black Bear Inn that Lawrence senior began to make use of his son's precocious talents for drawing and reciting poetry.
Visitors would be greeted with the words "Gentlemen, here's my son – will you have him recite from the poets, or take your portraits?" Among those who listened to a recitation from Tom, or Tommy as he was called, was the actor David Garrick. Lawrence's formal schooling was limited to two years at The Fort, a school in Bristol, when he was aged six to eight, a little tuition in French and Latin from a dissenting minister, he became accomplished in dancing, fencing and billiards. By the age of ten his fame had spread sufficiently for him to receive a mention in Daines Barrington's Miscellanies as "without the most distant instruction from anyone, capable of copying historical pictures in a masterly style", but once again Lawrence senior failed as a landlord and, in 1779, he was declared bankrupt and the family moved to Bath. From now on, Lawrence was to support his parents with the money; the family settled at 2 Alfred Street in Bath, the young Lawrence established himself as a portraitist in pastels.
The oval portraits, for which he was soon charging three guineas, were about 12 inches by 10 inches, portrayed a half-length. His sitters included the Duchess of Devonshire, Sarah Siddons, Sir Henry Harpur, Warren Hastings and Sir Elijah Impey. Talented and attractive Lawrence was popular with Bath residents and visitors: artists William Hoare and Mary Hartley gave him encouragement. Sometime before his eighteenth birthday in 1787 Lawrence arrived in London, taking lodgings in Leicester Square, near to Joshua Reynolds' studio, he was introduced to Reynolds. Lawrence installed his parents in a house in Greek Street, he exhibited several works in the 1787 Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House, enrolled as a student at the Royal Academy but did not stay long, abandoning the drawing of classical statues to concentrate on his portraiture. In the Royal Academy exhibition of 1788 Lawrence was represented by five portraits in pastels and one in oils, a medium he mastered. Between 1787 and his death in 1830 he would miss only two of the annual exhibitions: once, in 1809, in protest about the way his paintings had been displayed and once, in 1819, because he was abroad.
In 1789 he exhibited 13 portraits in oil, including one of William Linley and one of Lady Cremorne, his first attempt at a full-length portrait. The paintings received favourable comments in the press with one critic referring to him as "the Sir Joshua of futurity not far off" and, aged just twenty, Lawrence received his first royal commission, a summons arriving from Windsor Palace to paint the portraits of Queen Charlotte and Princess Amelia; the queen found Lawrence presumptuous and she did not like the finished portrait, which remained in Lawrence's studio until his death. When it was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1790
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum in London is the world's largest museum of applied and decorative arts and design, as well as sculpture, housing a permanent collection of over 2.27 million objects. It was named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; the V&A is located in the Brompton district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in an area that has become known as "Albertopolis" because of its association with Prince Albert, the Albert Memorial and the major cultural institutions with which he was associated. These include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum, the Royal Albert Hall and Imperial College London; the museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. As with other national British museums, entrance is free; the V&A covers 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. However, the art of antiquity in most areas is not collected.
The holdings of ceramics, textiles, silver, jewellery, medieval objects, sculpture and printmaking, drawings and photographs are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world. The museum owns the world's largest collection of post-classical sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy; the departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan and the Islamic world. The East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world. Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world. Since 2001 the museum has embarked on a major £150m renovation programme. New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015; these restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815. The V&A Museum of Childhood in East London is a branch of the museum, a new branch in London is being planned.
The Victoria and Albert Museum has its origins in the Great Exhibition of 1851, with which Henry Cole, the museum's first director, was involved in planning. It was known as the Museum of Manufactures, first opening in May 1852 at Marlborough House, but by September had been transferred to Somerset House. At this stage the collections covered both applied science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection. By February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive; the site was occupied by Brompton Park House. The official opening by Queen Victoria was on 20 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting; this was to enable in the words of Cole "to ascertain what hours are most convenient to the working classes"—this was linked to the use of the collections of both applied art and science as educational resources to help boost productive industry.
In these early years the practical use of the collection was much emphasised as opposed to that of "High Art" at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum. George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of wide art education through the museum collections; this led to the transfer to the museum of the School of Design, founded in 1837 at Somerset House. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the main museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the "Science Museum" had come into existence when a separate director was appointed; the laying of the foundation stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria and Albert Museum was made public. Queen Victoria's address during the ceremony, as recorded in The London Gazette, ended: "I trust that it will remain for ages a Monument of discerning Liberality and a Source of Refinement and Progress."The exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, "A Grand Design", first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999.
To accompany and support the exhibition, the museum published a book, Grand Design, which it has made available for reading online on its website. The opening ceremony for the Aston Webb building by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra took place on 26 June 1909. In 1914 the construction commenced of the Science Museum, signalling the final split of the science and art collections. In 1939 on the outbreak of World War II, most of the collection was sent to a quarry in Wiltshire, to Montacute House in Somerset, or to a tunnel near Aldwych tube station, with larger items remaining in situ, sand-bagged and bricked in. Between 1941 and 1944 some galleries were used as a school for chil