Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club
Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Nottinghamshire; the club's limited overs team is called the Notts Outlaws. The county club was founded in 1841 but Nottinghamshire teams formed by earlier organisations the old Nottingham Cricket Club, had played top-class cricket since 1771 and the county club has always held first-class status. Nottinghamshire have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club plays most of its home games at the Trent Bridge cricket ground in West Bridgford, a venue for Test matches. The club has played matches at numerous other venues in the county, their kit colours are dark green with a gold/yellow trim for the Natwest T20 Blast and more yellow dominant for the Royal London One Day Cup. Champion County – 1865, 1871, 1872, 1875, 1880, 1884, 1885, 1886.
The outcome of the game was "not determined on account of a dispute having arisen by one of the Sheffield players being jostled"! The match is the first important inter-county match involving teams from either Nottinghamshire or Yorkshire; this match involved the old Nottingham town club which continued to play important matches into the 19th century. Nottinghamshire as a county team, played its first inter-county match versus Sussex at Brown's Ground, Brighton on 27, 28 and 29 August 1835. Nottinghamshire was recognised as a first-class county team, rather than a town club team, from 1835 but it is doubtful if the organisation at this time was a formally constituted club; the formal creation of Nottinghamshire CCC was enacted in March or April 1841. Founding club captain William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven team which included great players such as Fuller Pilch and Alfred Mynn, it was Clarke's successor as Nottinghamshire captain, George Parr, who first captained a united England touring team in 1859.
Early professional greats such as Alfred Shaw and Arthur Shrewsbury ensured that Notts were a force in the period before 1900. Thanks to the outstanding bowling combination of Tom Wass and Albert Hallam, the county won the County Championship in 1907 when George Gunn, John Gunn and Wilfred Payton were prominent. Between the wars Notts enjoyed the services of the famous bowlers Harold Bill Voce. Strong batting from George Gunn, Arthur Carr and Dodger Whysall saw them emerge as champions in 1929 after losing the title on the final day of the season in 1927. Prior to the second war, opening batsman Walter Keeton gained Test recognition, though the bowling was less effective. Through the early fifties the team was weak; the signing of the Australian leg break bowler Bruce Dooland, arrested the decline but until the signing of the incomparable Garfield Sobers in 1968, the team was weak. Sobers hit Malcolm Nash of Glamorgan for six sixes in an over in a County Championship game at Swansea in his first season.
Mike Harris scored in the 1970s, including nine centuries in 1971 but apart from Barry Stead, the bowling lacked penetration. Nottinghamshire enjoyed one of their strongest teams in the late seventies and early eighties when the New Zealand all-rounder Richard Hadlee, South African captain Clive Rice and England batsman Derek Randall led the team to the County Championship in 1981; the club's most successful season came in 1987, as Rice and Hadlee marked their departure with the double of County Championship and NatWest Trophy. Chris Broad and Tim Robinson continued the club's long tradition of batting excellence into the England team but for some years the club struggled to repeat those achievements, although they did claim a Benson & Hedges Cup in 1989 and a Sunday League title in 1991 under Robinson's captaincy. Former Warwickshire off spinner Eddie Hemmings made a significant contribution whil
Spin bowling is a bowling technique in cricket and the bowler is referred to as a spinner. The main aim of spin bowling is to bowl the cricket ball with rapid rotation so that when it bounces on the pitch it will deviate from its normal straight path, thus making it difficult for the batsman to hit the ball cleanly; the speed the ball travels is not critical, is slower than that for fast bowling. A typical spin delivery has a speed in the range 70–90 km/h. However, in 2010 Shahid Afridi of Pakistan bowled the fastest spin delivery of 134 km/h in a T20 match against New Zealand. Spin bowling is divided into four different categories, depending on the particular physical technique used. There is no overlap between the two basic biomechanical techniques of wrist spin and finger spin. Off break – Right-handed with finger spin technique. Left-arm orthodox spin – Left-handed with finger spin technique. Leg break – Right-handed with wrist spin technique. Left-arm unorthodox spin – Left-handed with wrist spin technique.
Depending on technique, a spin bowler uses either predominant wrist or finger motion to impart spin to the ball around a horizontal axis, at an oblique angle to the length of the pitch. This sort of spin means it is possible for the Magnus effect to cause the ball to deviate sideways through the air, before it bounces; such deviation is called drift. The combination of drift and spin can make the ball's trajectory complex, with a change of direction at the bounce; this variety of trajectories achievable by a spin bowler can bewilder poor batsmen. Spin bowlers are given the task of bowling with an old, worn cricket ball. A new cricket ball better suits the techniques of fast bowling than spin bowling, while a worn one grips the pitch better and achieves greater spin. Spin bowlers are more effective in a game, as the pitch dries up and begins to crack and crumble; this again produces greater deviation. Spin bowlers that open the bowling are rare, but became a more a viable option with the introduction of Twenty20 cricket when pitch conditions are in their favour, the ball generally drifts more in the air.
Both finger spin and wrist spin bowlers use a range of different angles of spin to confuse the batsman and dismiss him. Many of these variations have direct equivalents in the other discipline, but the names used for the various deliveries may be different. In recent times, spin bowling has been a forte of the bowlers from the South Asian sub-continent; the primary reason for, that the pitches in the sub-continent provide more help to the spin bowlers. The faster the pitch degenerates, the earlier the spinners come into the picture. Australian and South African pitches are very hard and bouncy, helping the fast bowlers more, they do not break up much during the duration of the match. In contrast, pitches in the sub-continent are not that hard, they are not held together by the grass as much. In general, leg-spin is considered to be one of the toughest types of bowling in which to keep control of the ball, but it is effective in picking off wickets, it is customary among cricket commentators to describe and judge the quality of spin bowling in terms of the characteristics flight, bounce and dip.
All these are arts to require lots of practice. The basic trajectory of spin bowling is two-lines-at-an-angle, but the above characteristics modify this'normal' trajectory into more complex shapes. Turn: How much the ball turns after pitching, it depends on the direction of revolutions of the ball. The movement and rotation of the ball varies, depending on the position of the finger. An occasional unexpected straight ball can usefully be included in an attack, but spin variation is the main technique used to deceive the batsman and take wickets. A high rate of turn is above 33 rev/second, or 2000 rpm, which Graeme Swann spin over 2000 rpm, the most amongst English spinners until Liam Dawson topped 35 rev/second, or 2100 rpm; the slower the ball, it tends to deviate more. For an offspinner, you will have to bowl from a wider of off-stump to get the ball to turn into the right-handed batsman and force them to nick off the edge to a fielder or into the top of off stump. Bounce: Getting the ball to bounce more than normal, so that the ball meets the batsman at a greater height than expected.
Sometimes, if the ball spins horizontally, the batsman will not be able to make contact with the ball and it may hit the stumps before the second bounce. Drift: Getting the ball to move sideways while in air. Late drift causes the batsman to cover the wrong line and the ball may catch the edge of the bat. Dip: Getting the ball to pitch at a shorter distance than normal. Late dip causes the batsman to misjudge the length of the ball. Flight: throwing the ball up a bit more than normal, so that its time in the air before pitching is longer. A slow ball with extra flight may deceive the batsman into thinking it is slower than it is and therefore mistiming his shot; this is effective for offspinners. A spin bowler relies on tricks during flight to produce turn, bounce and dip, or combinations of them. Cricket terminology Seam bowling Swing bowling Surya Prakash Chaturvedi,Bharat
The Bell Inn
The Bell Inn is an ancient pub in Nottingham, England. Dating from around 1437, it claims, along with Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem and Ye Olde Salutation Inn, to be the oldest pub in the city. In 1982 the pub became a Grade II listed building. Sometime before 1271 Nottingham Whitefriars established a friary on what is now Friar Lane with lands that included a guesthouse on the site of what is now the Bell Inn; the building was constructed as a refectory for the monks of the monastery on Beastmarket Hill. It became a secular alehouse in 1539, following the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII, taking its name from the Angelus bell that hung outside; the earliest known written reference to the property dates from 1638, when on the death of Robert Sherwin, a former Lord Mayor and Sheriff of Nottingham, his rights to half the rental income of the Inn were bequeathed to several churches for them to distribute to the poor of Nottingham. John White bequeathed the freehold of the Inn to his wife Mary in 1732 and two years she sold it to a wealthy local banker, Abel Smith.
The freehold subsequently passed down the Smith family line to the politician and banker Abel Smith, in 1756, to Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington, in 1782. Jane Lart purchased the freehold from Lord Carrington in 1803 and the leasehold from the Church in 1806 combining the two legally. Under the terms of the lease she undertook extensive repairs of the building and constructed a Georgian frontage that allowed for the preservation of the rare crown post structure to this day; the cricketer William Clarke gave up his bricklaying job to become landlord of the Inn in 1812 before going on to marry the landlady of the Trent Bridge Inn where he established the famous Trent Bridge cricket ground. Rioters protesting against the Reform Act gathered at the Inn on Goose Fair night 1831 and smashed the windows before going on to burn down many of the city's prominent buildings, including Nottingham Castle and Colwick Hall. Tory politician John Walters established his campaign headquarters at the Inn for the 1841 British general election and had to take refuge here when he was set upon by an angry mob in the Square.
The Charity Commission sold the Inn in 1888 to A. W. Hickling for £7,210, it subsequently became a tied house to a brewery for the first time in its history. Joseph Jackson bought the Inn on 21 October 1898 for £12,500. Mary Jackson succeeded her husband as proprietor in 1913 and established the famous two course Market Dinners of Stilton cheese and vegetables, a pint of Nottingham ale for one shilling. Following her death a quirk in her will meant; the Inn was purchased for £26,000, by her youngest son Robert who in 1928 converted the stable courtyard at the rear of the premises into the café bar style Snack Bar which included a large cabinet radio gramophone and catered to the workers building the new Nottingham Council House nearby. Robert's widow Dorothy continued the business following his death in 1934 and was joined by their son David in 1953. Extensive renovations opened up the family's first floor accommodation to public use as the clubroom. In 1957 the Jacksons established the Presentation of the President's Tankard ceremony which takes place on the first Wednesday in November and sees the President of the University of Nottingham Students' Union receive an engraved silver tankard and a public banquet of two roasted pigs with stuffing and apple sauce.
A plaque engraved with a list of all the Presidents since is on display in the snack bar In 1982 the Inn became a Grade II listed building. Dorothy died in 1984 and David continued running the business with his two sons Paul and Richard. Another period of renovation concluded with the extension of the Snack Bar in 1991; the Jackson family celebrated 100 years of ownership in 1998 and the Inn was featured along with its rivals Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem Inn and Ye Olde Salutation Inn in an episode of the Channel 4 TV series History Hunters which used records, building architecture and timbers, local legends to decide, the oldest. The Inn was sold to Hardys & Hansons in 2002, in turn sold to Greene King in 2006. Entrance to the bars is via the central passageway, that used to lead to the stables where the Snack Bar now stands, which retains its original flagstones. To the right of the entranceway are the leprosy windows where customers had their fingers counted before being allowed to enter; the original bars known as The Long Room and The Elizabethan Bar date back to 1437 and the original timber crown-posts and cross beams have been preserved.
The Tudor Bar features a piece of the original wallpaper amongst other historical artifacts on display. Lizzies Bar is dominated by a large stained glass window and restoration work in 2002 uncovered the original wooden floor showing evidence of where the bar was once located; the Snack Bar was an outdoor courtyard with two wells used for brewing, converted to its current form by Robert Jackson in 1928 and extended by his son and grandson in 1991 to include a stage for live music performances. The original living quarters, with a bedroom and bathroom featuring two front-facing windows overlooking the Old Market Square, were opened to the public as the Clubroom by the Jackson family in 1953; the oak panelled low-beamed room which features an original fireplace now houses The Belfry restaurant. The Crown Post Room is an extension to The Belfry, used for private functions and features the unusual crown post roof supports; the cellars are loc
George Parr (cricketer)
George Parr was an English cricketer whose first-class career lasted from 1844 to 1870. Known popularly as the "Lion of the North", Parr was a right-handed batsman and bowled occasional right-handed underarm deliveries. Throughout his career he played for Nottinghamshire, was club captain from 1856 to 1870, he made occasional appearances for other counties and for Marylebone Cricket Club. He was a stalwart of the All-England Eleven and was captain of the first England touring team, which went to North America in 1859, he captained England's second tour to Australia and New Zealand in 1864, returning home unbeaten. Parr played in 207 first-class had 358 innings, in 30 of which he was not out. Parr is considered as the best cricket player in the world in his time, he scored 6,626 runs at a time when conditions favoured bowlers. His highest score was 130 for Nottinghamshire, against Surrey at The Oval on 14 July 1859, he took 126 catches. He took 29 wickets in his career with a best analysis of 6/42.
The Parr Stand, replaced at Trent Bridge was named in his honour. Notes SourcesH S Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1, George Allen & Unwin, 1926 Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999 Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970 Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volumes 3–9, Lillywhite, 1862–1867 John Major, More Than A Game, HarperCollins, 2007 – includes the famous 1859 touring team photo taken on board ship at Liverpool Chris Harte, A History of Australian Cricket, Andre Deutsch, 1993 Media related to George Parr at Wikimedia Commons George Parr at ESPNcricinfo
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
Trent Bridge Inn
The Trent Bridge Inn is a pub in West Bridgford, England. It is an important landmark, notable as the Trent Bridge Cricket Ground was placed here in a field behind this pub; the ground by the pub was the first home of the Notts County Football Club. The pub is now operated by Wetherspoons; the Trent Bridge Inn in West Bridgford existed. It was located just outside the walls of the city of Nottingham where travellers could stay whilst they waited to enter the city the following morning; the inn was owned by the Musters family. At the time because of a different boundary the inn was in Nottingham, there was no licensed property at all in West Bridgford; the inn was instrumental in creating the cricket ground, set up in competition to the one owned by the town council. The first cricket match here was created by William Clarke in 1838, the captain of the Nottinghamshire cricket team, he had married Mary Chapman, the landlady of the Trent Bridge Inn, they had arranged for the land behind the inn to be made available..
The Clarkes had the land cleared and a fence was erected. Matches were held here in preference to the former location within the city, used since 1835; the players were able to stay at the inn during the matches. The cricket matches did not attract large crowds and publican William Clarke experimented with other attractions. In 1845 Clarke decided to move to London to found the All England Eleven which became a nationally known touring cricket team. John Chapman, Clarke's step son took over the management of the ground for some time but he and his successor enjoyed no great success.1861 saw the launch of the Easter Colts Trials where 22 players were invited to take on the first eleven in competition. This match was arranged by a local solicitor, John Johnson, who since 1859 had reinvigorated the club organising a committee and a first brick pavilion; the new match attracted audiences to see, the best combined batter and bowler and of the first 22 contestants, seven went on to play first class cricket for Nottinghamshire.
Richard Daft was a well known cricketer at Trent Bridge and he ran the inn at one time as he was a partner in the Radcliffe Brewery. He is remembered for captaining the club for ten years but he died a bankrupt in 1900. In 1883 the nearby land was used by the Notts County Football Club who created a ground on the eastern side. However, by 1895 they were to move grounds until they found their current home in 1910. At the end of the First World War the Musters family sold the Inn and the ground to the cricket club; the club only owned the inn as they resold it to a brewery for a sum in excess of the money they had paid to the Musters. However the Inn was given the right to supply food to the ground in perpetuity; the pub was bought by Wetherspoons and a sum of 3 million pounds was spent in a refurbishment. It features four bars. On the outside of the building is a bench mark which records the pub's precise location; the Trent Bridge Inn, Nottingham at J D Wetherspoon
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC