Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si
Llandaff is a district and coterminous electoral ward in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It was incorporated into the city in 1922, it is the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff, whose diocese within the Church in Wales covers the most populous area of South Wales. Most of the history of Llandaff centres on its role as a religious site. Before the creation of Llandaff Cathedral, it became established as a Christian place of worship in the 6th century AD because of its location as the first firm ground north of the point where the river Taff met the Bristol Channel, because of its pre-Christian location as a river crossing on a north-south trade route. Evidence of Romano-British ritual burials have been found under the present cathedral; the date of the moving of the cathedral to Llandaff is disputed, but elements of the fabric date from the 12th century, such as the impressive Romanesque Urban Arch, named after the 12th century Bishop, Urban. It has had a history of continual destruction and restoration, as a result of warfare and natural disaster.
Llandaff has been a focal point of devastating attacks by Oliver Cromwell. It was the second most damaged cathedral in the UK, following Luftwaffe bombing during World War II, subsequently restored by the architect George Pace. One of its main modern points of interest is the aluminium figure of Christ in Majesty, by Jacob Epstein, suspended above the nave. In 2007, a lightning strike to its spire sent a surge through the building, its replacement, the largest to be built in the UK for over 40 years, was inaugurated in 2010. A bishop's palace, now in ruins, lies to the south of the cathedral, it is believed it was constructed at a similar date in the late 13th century. It is believed it was abandoned after being attacked and damaged by Glyndŵr in the 15th century; the gatehouse of the Palace survives, the courtyard is now a public garden. Llandaff never developed into a chartered borough, by the 19th century, was described as "reduced to a mere village... It consists of little more than two short streets of cottages, not lighted or paved, terminating in a square, into which the great gateway of the old palace opened, where are still several genteel houses."
Llandaff was informally known as a'city', because of its status as the seat of the Bishop of Llandaff. This city status was never recognised because the community did not possess a charter of incorporation; the ancient parish of Llandaff included a wide area. Apart from Llandaff itself, it included the townships of Canton, Ely and Gabalfa. During the development of the South Wales coalfield and Cardiff Docks, the parish was absorbed into the Borough of Cardiff during the 19th and 20th centuries. Seen as a clean and green up-market countrified village location close to the fast developing city, many of the better-off coal merchants and business people chose to live in Llandaff, including the Insole family; the house now known as Insole Court dates from 1856. Llandaff itself became a civil parish, from 1894 to 1922, was part of the Llandaff and Dinas Powis Rural District. On 9 November 1922, the county borough of Cardiff was extended to include the area. At the United Kingdom Census 2011, the population of the Llandaff was 8,997.
91.6% were recorded as being of various white ethnicities. 65% of the population were returned as Christian, with about 1.5% each being Hindu or Muslim, 30% having no religion or no stated religion. In the 2011 census, 15.3% of the population over 3 years old in Llandaff were recorded as speaking Welsh, or 1,337 people. This was a small drop compared to the 2001 census figure, 15.4%. The headquarters of BBC Cymru Wales is in Llandaff. Research by Owen John Thomas shows the historical strength of the Welsh language in Llandaff. According to his book:'Yr Iaith Gymraeg yng Nghaerdydd c. 1800–1914’, the nonconformist church in Cardiff Road was a Welsh-language church in 1813. His work shows that Welsh was the main language of the street in Llandaff in the 17th century. Llandaff is both an electoral ward, a community of the City of Cardiff. There is no community council for the area; the electoral ward of Llandaff is bounded by Morganstown to the north west. The ward is represented by two councillors on Cardiff Council, Sean Driscoll and Philippa Hill-John, both members of the Conservative Party.
In the UK Parliament, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West. Its most prominent MPs were former Speaker of the House of Commons; the current MP is Labour's Kevin Brennan, elected in 2001. In the Welsh Assembly, Llandaff is part of the constituency of Cardiff West, whose current AM since 2011 is Mark Drakeford of Labour; the constituency falls within the electoral region of South Wales Central, whose four current AMs are Conservatives Andrew R. T. Davies and David Melding. Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff campus St. Michael's College, Anglican theological college Bishop of Llandaff Church in Wales High School, English medium. Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf, Welsh medium. Danescourt Primary School, English medium. Ll
Gap creationism is a form of old Earth creationism that posits that the six-yom creation period, as described in the Book of Genesis, involved six literal 24-hour days, but that there was a gap of time between two distinct creations in the first and the second verses of Genesis, which the theory states explains many scientific observations, including the age of the Earth. It differs from day-age creationism, which posits that the'days' of creation were much longer periods, from young Earth creationism, which although it agrees concerning the six literal 24-hour days of creation, does not posit any gap of time. Gap creationism became attractive near the end of the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries, because the newly established science of geology had determined that the Earth was far older than common interpretations of Genesis and the Bible-based flood geology would allow. Gap creation allowed religious geologists to reconcile their faith in the Bible with the new authority of science.
According to the doctrine of natural theology, science was in this period considered a second revelation, God's word in nature as well as in Scripture, so the two could not contradict each other. From 1814, gap creationism was popularized by Thomas Chalmers, who attributed the concept to the 17th-century Dutch Arminian theologian Simon Episcopius. Chalmers became a divinity professor at the University of Edinburgh, founder of the Free Church of Scotland, author of one of the Bridgewater Treatises. Other early proponents included Oxford University geology professor and fellow Bridgewater author William Buckland, Sharon Turner and Edward Hitchcock, it gained widespread attention when a "second creative act" was discussed prominently in the reference notes for Genesis in the influential 1917 Scofield Reference Bible. In 1954, a few years before the re-emergence of young Earth flood geology eclipsed Gap creationism, influential evangelical theologian Bernard Ramm wrote in The Christian View of Science and Scripture: "The gap theory has become the standard interpretation throughout hyper-orthodoxy, appearing in an endless stream of books, Bible studies, periodical articles.
In fact, it has become so sacrosanct with some that to question it is equivalent to tampering with Sacred Scripture or to manifest modernistic leanings". This book by Ramm was influential in the formation of another alternative to gap creationism, that of progressive creationism, which found favour with more conservative members of the American Scientific Affiliation, with the more modernist wing of that fellowship favouring theistic evolution. Religious proponents of this form of creationism have included Oral Roberts, Cyrus I. Scofield, Harry Rimmer, Jimmy Swaggart, Perry Stone, G. H. Pember, L. Allen Higley, Arthur Pink, Peter Ruckman, Finis Jennings Dake, Chuck Missler, E. W. Bullinger, Donald Grey Barnhouse, Herbert W. Armstrong, Garner Ted Armstrong, Michael Pearl and Clarence Larkin; some gap creationists may believe that science has proven beyond reasonable doubt that the Earth is far older than can be accounted for by, for instance, adding up the ages of Biblical patriarchs and comparing it with secular historical data, as James Ussher famously attempted in the 17th century when he developed the Ussher chronology.
For some, the gap theory allows both the Genesis creation account and geological science to be inerrant in matters of scientific fact. Gap creationists believe that certain facts about the past and the age of the Earth have been omitted from the Genesis account. By positing such an event, various observations in a wide range of fields, including the age of the Earth, the age of the universe, fossils, ice cores, ice ages, geological formations are allowed by adherents to have occurred as outlined by science without contradicting their literal belief in Genesis; because there is no specific information given in Genesis concerning the proposed gap of time, other scriptures are used to support and explain what may have occurred during this period and to explain the specific linguistic reasoning behind this interpretation of the Hebrew text. A short list of examples is given below: The word "was" in Genesis 1:2 for some adherents is more translated "became"; such a word choice makes the gap interpretation easier to see in modern English.
God is perfect and everything He does is perfect, so a newly created earth from the hand of God should not have been without form and void and shrouded in darkness. Deuteronomy 32:4, Isaiah 45:18 1 John 1:5 The Holy Spirit was "renewing" the face of the earth as he hovered over the face of the waters. Psalms 104:30 Angels existed in a state of grace when God "laid the foundations of the Earth", so there had been at least one creative act of God before the six days of Genesis. Job 38:4-7 Satan and his angels caused war in Heaven and had fallen from grace "in the beginning" which, since the serpent tempted Adam and Eve, had to have occurred before the Fall of man. Isaiah 14:12-15, Ezekiel 28:11-19, John 8:44 Answers in Genesis Dating Creation Yom Chafer, Lewis Sperry. Satan: His Motive and Methods. Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-22361-X. Custance, Arthur C.. Without Form and Void: A Study of the Meaning of Genesis 1:2. Classic Reprint Press. ISBN 978-1934251331. Gaebelein, Arno; the H
The Bampton Lectures at the University of Oxford, were founded by a bequest of John Bampton. They have taken place since 1780, they were a series of annual lectures. They continue to concentrate on Christian theological topics; the lectures have traditionally been published in book form. On a number of occasions, notably at points during the 19th century, they attracted great interest and controversy. 1780 – James Bandinel Eight Sermons preached before the University of Oxford 1781 – Timothy Neve Eight Sermons preached before the University of Oxford 1782 – Robert Holmes The Prophecies and Testimony of John the Baptist, the parallel Prophecies of Jesus Christ 1783 – John Cobb Eight sermons preached before the University of Oxford 1784 – Joseph White Mahometism and Christianity 1785 – Ralph Churton On the Prophecies Respecting the Destruction of Jerusalem 1786 – George Croft Eight Sermons preached before the University of Oxford 1787 – William Hawkins Discourses on Scripture Mysteries 1788 – Richard Shepherd The Ground and Credibility of the Christian Religion 1789 – Edward Tatham Chart and Scale of Truth 1790 – Henry Kett A Representation of the Conduct and Opinions of the Primitive Christians, with Remarks on Gibbon and Priestley 1791 – Robert Morres Eight sermons preached before the University of Oxford 1792 – John Eveleigh Eight Sermons Preached before the University of Oxford 1793 – James WilliamsonThe Truth, Inspiration and End of the Scriptures and defended 1794 – Thomas Wintle Expediency and Accomplishment of the Christian Redemption Illustrated 1795 – Daniel Veysie The Doctrine of Atonement illustrated and defended 1796 – Robert Gray, Sermons on the Principles Upon Which the Reformation of the Church of England was Established 1797 – William Finch Objections of Infidel Historians and Other Writers Against Christianity 1798 – Charles Henry Hall Fulness of Time 1799 – William Barrow Answers to some Popular Objections against the Necessity or the Credibility of the Christian Revelation 1800 – George Richards The Divine Origin of Prophecy Illustrated and Defended 1801 – George Stanley Faber Horae Mosaicae 1802 – George Frederic Nott Religious Enthusiasm 1803 – John Farrer Sermons on the Mission and Character of Christ and on the Beatitudes 1804 – Richard Laurence An attempt to illustrate those articles of the Church of England, which the Calvinists improperly consider as Calvinistical 1805 – Edward Nares A View of the Evidences of Christianity at the End of the Pretended Age of Reason 1806 – John Browne, Fellow of Corpus Christi College Sermons preached before the University of Oxford 1807 – Thomas Le Mesurier The Nature and Guilt of Schism 1808 – John Penrose An Attempt to Prove the Truth of Christianity 1809 – John Bayley Somers Carwithen A view of the Brahminical religion 1810 – Thomas Falconer Certain Principles in Evanson's Dissonance of the'Four received Evangelists' 1811 – John Bidlake The Truth and Consistency of Divine Revelation 1812 – Richard Mant An Appeal to the Gospel 1813 – John Collinson A Key to the Writings of the Principal Fathers of the Christian Church who flourished during the first three centuries 1814 – William Van Mildert The General Principles of Scripture-Interpretation 1815 – Reginald Heber The Personality and Office of the Christian Comforter 1816 – John Hume Spry Christian Union Doctrinally and Historically Considered 1817 – John Miller The Divine Authority of Holy Scripture 1818 – Charles Abel Moysey The Doctrines of Unitarians Examined 1819 – Hector Davies Morgan A Compressed View of the Religious Principles and Practices of the Age 1820 – Godfrey Faussett The Claims of the Established Church to exclusive attachment and support, the Dangers which menace her from Schism and Indifference, considered 1821 – John Jones The Moral Tendency of Divine Revelation 1822 – Richard Whately The Use and Abuse of Party Feeling in Matters of Religion 1823 – Charles Goddard The Mental Condition Necessary to a due Inquiry into Religious Evidence 1824 – John Josias Conybeare An Attempt to Trace the History and to Ascertain the Limits of the Secondary and Spiritual Interpretation of Scripture 1825 – George Chandler The Scheme of Divine Revelation Considered 1826 – William Vaux The Benefits Annexed to a Participation in the Two Christian Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper 1827 – Henry Hart Milman Character and Conduct of the Apostles Considered as an Evidence of Christianity 1828 – Thomas Horne The Religious Necessity of the Reformation 1829 – Edward Burton Inquiry into the Heresies of the Apostolic Age 1830 – Henry Soames An inquiry into the doctrines of the Anglo-Saxon church 1831 – Thomas William Lancaster The Popular Evidence of Christianity 1832 – Renn Dickson Hampden The Scholastic Philosophy considered in its relation to Christian Theology 1833 – Frederick Nolan Analogy of Revelation and Science Established 1834 – Richard Laurence An Attempt to illustrate those Articles of the Church of England which the Calvinists improperly consider as Calvinistical 1836 – Charles Atmore Ogilvie Eight Sermons 1837 – Thomas S. L. Vogan The Principal Objections against the Doctrine of the Triniy 1838 – Henry Arthur Woodgate The Authoritative Teaching of the Church 1839 – William Daniel Conybeare An analytical examination into... the writings of the Christian Fathers during the Ante-Nicene period 1840 – Edward Hawkins Connected Principles 1841 – Samuel Wilberforce was invited to lecture butwithdrew following the death of his wife Emily 1842 – James Garbett Christ, as Prophet and King 1843 – Anthony Grant The Past and Prospective Extension of the Gospel By Missions to the Heathen 1844 – Richard Wiliam Jelf An inquiry into the means of grace, their mutual connection, combined use, with especial reference to the Church of England
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Mary Anning was an English fossil collector and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in the cliffs along the English Channel at Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset in Southwest England. Her findings contributed to important changes in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth. Anning searched for fossils in the area's Blue Lias cliffs during the winter months when landslides exposed new fossils that had to be collected before they were lost to the sea, she nearly died in 1833 during a landslide. Her discoveries included the first ichthyosaur skeleton identified, her observations played a key role in the discovery that coprolites, known as bezoar stones at the time, were fossilised faeces. She discovered that belemnite fossils contained fossilised ink sacs like those of modern cephalopods; when geologist Henry De la Beche painted Duria Antiquior, the first circulated pictorial representation of a scene from prehistoric life derived from fossil reconstructions, he based it on fossils Anning had found, sold prints of it for her benefit.
A Dissenter and a woman, Anning did not participate in the scientific community of 19th-century Britain, who were Anglican gentlemen. She struggled financially for much of her life, her family was poor, her father, a cabinetmaker, died when she was eleven. She became well known in geological circles in Britain and America, was consulted on issues of anatomy as well as about collecting fossils. Nonetheless, as a woman, she was not eligible to join the Geological Society of London and she did not always receive full credit for her scientific contributions. Indeed, she wrote in a letter: "The world has used me so unkindly, I fear it has made me suspicious of everyone." The only scientific writing of hers published in her lifetime appeared in the Magazine of Natural History in 1839, an extract from a letter that Anning had written to the magazine's editor questioning one of its claims. After her death in 1847, her unusual life story attracted increasing interest. An uncredited author in All the Year Round, edited by Charles Dickens, wrote of her in 1865 that "he carpenter's daughter has won a name for herself, has deserved to win it."
It has been claimed that her story was the inspiration for the 1908 tongue-twister "She sells seashells on the seashore" by Terry Sullivan. In 2010, one hundred and sixty-three years after her death, the Royal Society included Anning in a list of the ten British women who have most influenced the history of science. Anning was born in Lyme Regis in England, her father, Richard Anning, was a cabinetmaker who supplemented his income by mining the coastal cliff-side fossil beds near the town, selling his finds to tourists. He married Mary Moore, known on 8 August 1793 in Blandford Forum; the couple lived in a house built on the town's bridge. They attended the Dissenter chapel on Coombe Street, whose worshippers called themselves independents and became known as Congregationalists. Shelley Emling writes that the family lived so near to the sea that the same storms that swept along the cliffs to reveal the fossils sometimes flooded the Annings' home, on one occasion forcing them to crawl out of an upstairs bedroom window to avoid being drowned.
Richard and Molly had ten children. The first child, was born in 1794, she was followed by another girl, who died at once. In December that year, the oldest child four years old, died after her clothes caught fire while adding wood shavings to the fire; the incident was reported in the Bath Chronicle on 27 December 1798: "A child, four years of age of Mr. R. Anning, a cabinetmaker of Lyme, was left by the mother for about five minutes... in a room where there were some shavings... The girl's clothes caught fire and she was so dreadfully burnt as to cause her death." When another daughter was born just five months she was named Mary after her dead sister. More children were born after her. Only Mary and Joseph survived to adulthood; the high childhood mortality rate for the Anning family was not unusual. Half the children born in Britain throughout the 19th century died before the age of 5, in the crowded living conditions of early 19th century Lyme Regis, infant deaths from diseases like smallpox and measles were common.
On 19 August 1800, when Anning was 15 months old, an event occurred. She was being held by a neighbour, Elizabeth Haskings, standing with two other women under an elm tree watching an equestrian show being put on by a travelling company of horsemen, when lightning struck the tree killing all three women below. Onlookers rushed the infant home. A local doctor declared her survival miraculous, her family said she had been a sickly baby before the event but afterwards she seemed to blossom. For years afterward members of her community would attribute the child's curiosity and lively personality to the incident, her education was limited. She was able to attend a Congregationalist Sunday school where she learned to write. Congregationalist doctrine, unlike that of the Church of England at the time, emphasised the importance of education for the poor, her prized possession was a bound volume of the Dissenters' Theological Magazine and Re
Axminster is a market town and civil parish on the eastern border of the county of Devon in England, some 28 miles from the county town of Exeter. The town is built on a hill overlooking the River Axe which heads towards the English Channel at Axmouth, is in the East Devon local government district. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 5,626; the town contains two electoral wards the total sum of both wards being a population of 7,110. The market is still held every Thursday. Axminster gave its name to a type of carpet. An Axminster-type power loom is capable of weaving high quality carpets with many varying colours and patterns. While Axminster carpets are made in the town by Axminster Carpets Ltd, this type of carpet is now manufactured all over the world; the town dates back to the Celtic times of around 300 BC. It lies on two major Roman roads: the Fosse Way from Lincoln to Seaton, the Dorchester to Exeter road. There was a Roman fort on the crossroads at Woodbury Farm, just south of the present town.
Axminster appears on one of only 15 British towns on that Roman era map. Axminster was recorded in the late 9th century as Ascanmynster and in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Aixeministra; the name is a mixture of languages. The history of the town is much linked to the carpet industry, started by Thomas Whitty at Court House near the church in 1755; the completion of the early hand tufted carpets was marked by a peal of bells from the parish church as it took a great amount of time and labour to complete them. In 1210, a charter was granted to the town that included the right to hold a weekly cattle market which took place in the market square until it was moved to Trinity Square in 1834, it moved in October 1912 to a site off South Street where it was held for 94 years. It closed in 2006 in the aftermath of the 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak. A building on the site continued to be used for a general auction until all the buildings were demolished and replaced by a housing development.
The town was on the coaching route from London to Exeter. In 1760 a coaching inn named The George Hotel was opened on the corner of Lyme Street and Chard Street on the site of an old inn called the Cross Keys, destroyed by fire in 1759. Over 16 coaches a day would stop at the hotel in its heyday for refreshments and to change horses, the building is now under refurbishment. Axminster was on the route of The Trafalgar Way, the name given to the historic route used to carry dispatches with the news of the Battle of Trafalgar overland from Falmouth, Cornwall, to the Admiralty in London in 1805 and there is a plaque commemorating this fact in the town centre. Part of the parish of Axminster had been an exclave of Dorset until the Counties Act 1844, when it was incorporated into Devon. Axminster railway station was opened on 19 July 1860, with the London and South Western Railway offering direct services between Queen Street station in Exeter and Yeovil; the station building was designed by the LSWR's architect Sir William Tite in mock gothic style.
In 1903, the branch line from Axminster to Lyme Regis was opened. This branch line was closed in the 1960s. One engine has been preserved on the Bluebell Line, in Sussex, while the station was dismantled and reconstructed at New Alresford, on the Watercress Line, in Hampshire. Axminster is the southern starting point of the Taunton Stop Line, a World War II defensive line consisting of pillboxes and anti-tank obstacles, which runs north to the Somerset coast near Highbridge. Nearby Kilmington was used as a location for the 1998 LWT adaptation of Tess of the d'Urbervilles; the celebrity chef and TV presenter Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall has his River Cottage H. Q. at a 60-acre farm in the Axe valley. He has since purchased an old inn that once provided the ballroom of the town, now converted to an organic produce shop/market and canteen; the hamlet of Abbey Gate lies to the south of the town near the A358 intersection. Other villages within 5 miles of Axminster include Chardstock, Combpyne, Hawkchurch, Membury, Raymond's Hill, Shute, Tytherleigh and Whitford.
Axminster Museum Blackdown Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty East Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty East Devon Way Forde Abbey Jurassic Coast Lambert's Castle Loughwood Meeting House Musbury Castle Shute Barton The town has Cloakham Lawns, the Axe Valley Sports Centre and Flamingo Swimming Pool, a library, several churches and a museum of local history. Shops include three supermarkets, a small department store, Trinity House, several independent retailers; the Guildhall is a theatre with meeting rooms that hosts many events and clubs such as Axminster Drama Club and Axminster Operatic Society. The town is home to a small, local hospital. Axe Valley Academy Axminster Community Primary School St. Mary's Primary School All Saints Community Primary School Axminster is at the crossroads of the A358, which links with the A303 at Ilminster, the A35 from Southampton to Honiton, diverted by a bypass to the south of the town. Axminster railway station is on the West of England Main Line that runs from Exeter via Salisbury to London Waterloo.
Douvres-la-Délivrande, France Steve Benbow, folk musician William Buckland and palaeontologist Taunton Stop Line Mee, A. The King's England: Devon. Mills, A. D. Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280074-4