New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's third-largest island, after Australia and Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2, arguably the largest wholly or within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania; the eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. The western half, referred to as either Western New Guinea or West Papua, has been administered by Indonesia since 1963 and comprises the provinces of Papua and West Papua; the island has been known by various names: The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. Its etymology is unclear; the name came from papo and ua, which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away". Ploeg reports that the word papua is said to derive from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa which means'the land below' and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera.
Whatever its origin, the name Papua came to be associated with this area, more with Halmahera, known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they referred to the island as Papua. However, the name New Guinea was used by Westerners starting with the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, referring to the similarities of the indigenous people's appearance with the natives of the Guinea region of Africa; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. The Dutch, who arrived under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island, but this name was used only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island; when the Dutch colonized it as part of Netherlands East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea.
The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as "Irian Jaya Province". The name was promoted in 1945 by brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo, it is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, means "to rise", or "rising spirit". Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui and Waropen; the name was used until 2001, when the name Papua was again used for the province. The name Irian, favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, but south of the equator, it is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York peninsula, west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands Archipelago. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua.
The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. The shape of New Guinea is compared to that of a bird-of-paradise, this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest, the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km from the'head' to the'tail' of the island, with many high mountains over 4,000 m; the western-half of the island of New Guinea contains the highest mountains in Oceania, rising up to 4,884 m high, higher than Mont Blanc in Europe, ensuring a steady supply of rain from the equatorial atmosphere. The tree line is around 4,000 m elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The highest peaks on the island of New Guinea are: Puncak Jaya, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist-covered limestone mountain peak on the Indonesian side of the border. At 4,884 metres, Puncak Jaya makes New Guinea the world's fourth-highest landmass after Afro-Eurasia and Antarctica. Puncak Mandala located in Papua, is the second-highest peak on the island at 4,760 metres. Puncak Trikora in Papua, is 4,750 metres. Mount Wilhelm is the highest peak on the PNG side of the border at 4,509 metres, its granite peak is the highest point of the Bismarck Range. Mount Giluwe 4,368 metres is the second-highest summit in PNG, it is the highest volcanic peak in Oceania. Another major habitat featur
George Harrison was an English musician, singer-songwriter and film producer who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles. Referred to as "the quiet Beatle", Harrison embraced Indian culture and helped broaden the scope of popular music through his incorporation of Indian instrumentation and Hindu-aligned spirituality in the Beatles' work. Although the majority of the band's songs were written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, most Beatles albums from 1965 onwards contained at least two Harrison compositions, his songs for the group included "Taxman", "Within You Without You", "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", "Here Comes the Sun" and "Something". Harrison's earliest musical influences included Django Reinhardt. By 1965, he had begun to lead the Beatles into folk rock through his interest in Bob Dylan and the Byrds, towards Indian classical music through his use of the sitar on "Norwegian Wood". Having initiated the band's embracing of Transcendental Meditation in 1967, he subsequently developed an association with the Hare Krishna movement.
After the band's break-up in 1970, Harrison released the triple album All Things Must Pass, a critically acclaimed work that produced his most successful hit single, "My Sweet Lord", introduced his signature sound as a solo artist, the slide guitar. He organised the 1971 Concert for Bangladesh with Indian musician Ravi Shankar, a precursor to benefit concerts such as Live Aid. In his role as a music and film producer, Harrison produced acts signed to the Beatles' Apple record label before founding Dark Horse Records in 1974 and co-founding HandMade Films in 1978. Harrison released several best-selling singles and albums as a solo performer. In 1988, he co-founded the platinum-selling supergroup the Traveling Wilburys. A prolific recording artist, he was featured as a guest guitarist on tracks by Badfinger, Ronnie Wood and Billy Preston, collaborated on songs and music with Dylan, Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr and Tom Petty, among others. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".
He is a two-time Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee – as a member of the Beatles in 1988, posthumously for his solo career in 2004. Harrison's first marriage, to model Pattie Boyd in 1966, ended in divorce in 1977; the following year he married Olivia Arias, with whom he had Dhani. Harrison died from lung cancer in 2001 at the age of 58, two years after surviving a knife attack by an intruder at his Friar Park home, his remains were cremated and the ashes were scattered according to Hindu tradition in a private ceremony in the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India. He left an estate of £100 million. Harrison was born at 12 Arnold Grove in Wavertree, Liverpool, on 25 February 1943, he was the youngest of four children of Harold Hargreaves Louise. Harold was a bus conductor who had worked as a ship's steward on the White Star Line, Louise was a shop assistant of Irish Catholic descent, he had one sister and two brothers and Peter. According to Boyd, Harrison's mother was supportive: "All she wanted for her children is that they should be happy, she recognized that nothing made George quite as happy as making music."
Louise was an enthusiastic music fan, she was known among friends for her loud singing voice, which at times startled visitors by rattling the Harrisons' windows. When Louise was pregnant with George, she listened to the weekly broadcast Radio India. Harrison's biographer Joshua Greene wrote, "Every Sunday she tuned in to mystical sounds evoked by sitars and tablas, hoping that the exotic music would bring peace and calm to the baby in the womb."Harrison lived the first four years of his life at 12 Arnold Grove, a terraced house on a cul-de-sac. The home had an outdoor toilet and its only heat came from a single coal fire. In 1949, the family was moved to 25 Upton Green, Speke. In 1948, at the age of five, Harrison enrolled at Dovedale Primary School, he passed the eleven-plus exam and attended Liverpool Institute High School for Boys from 1954 to 1959. Though the institute did offer a music course, Harrison was disappointed with the absence of guitars, felt the school "moulded into being frightened".
Harrison's earliest musical influences included George Formby, Cab Calloway, Django Reinhardt and Hoagy Carmichael. In early 1956 he had an epiphany: while riding his bicycle, he heard Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" playing from a nearby house, the song piqued his interest in rock and roll, he sat at the back of the class drawing guitars in his schoolbooks, commented, "I was into guitars." Harrison cited Slim Whitman as another early influence: "The first person I saw playing a guitar was Slim Whitman, either a photo of him in a magazine or live on television. Guitars were coming in."Although Harold Harrison was apprehensive about his son's interest in pursuing a music career, in 1956 he bought George a Dutch Egmond flat top acoustic guitar, which according to Harold, cost £3.10. One of his father's friends taught Harrison how to play "Whispering", "Sweet Sue" and "Dinah", inspired by Donegan's music, Harrison formed a skiffle group called the Rebels with his brother Peter and a friend, Arthur Kelly.
On the bus to school, Harrison met Paul McCartney, who attended the Liverpool Institute, the pair bonded over their shared
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Aleut, Tlingit, Tsimshian, a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures. They are defined by their language groups. Many Alaska Natives are enrolled in federally recognized Alaska Native tribal entities, who in turn belong to 13 Alaska Native Regional Corporations, who administer land and financial claims. Ancestors of Alaska Natives migrated into the area thousands of years ago, in at least two different waves; some are descendants of a third wave of migration in which people settled across the northern part of North America. They never migrated to southern areas. For this reason, genetic studies show they are not related to Native Americans in South America. Throughout the Arctic and the circumpolar north, the ancestors of Alaska Natives established varying indigenous, complex cultures that have succeeded each other over time, they developed sophisticated ways to deal with the challenging climate and environment, cultures rooted in the place.
Historic groups have been defined by their languages, which belong to several major language families. Today, Alaska Natives comprise over 15% of the population of Alaska. Below is a full list of the different Alaska Native peoples, which are defined by their historic languages. Within each culture are many different tribes. Ancient Beringian Alaskan Athabaskans Ahtna Deg Hit'an Dena'ina Gwich'in Hän Holikachuk Koyukon Lower Tanana Tanacross Upper Tanana Upper Kuskokwim Eyak Tlingit Haida Tsimshian Eskimo Iñupiat, an Inuit group Yupik Siberian Yupik Yup'ik Cup'ik Nunivak Cup'ig Sugpiaq ~ Alutiiq Chugach Sugpiaq Koniag Alutiiq Aleut The Alaska Natives Commission estimated that there were about 86,000 Alaska Natives living in Alaska in 1990, with another 17,000 who lived outside Alaska. A 2013 study by the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development documented over 120,000 Alaska Native people in Alaska. While the majority of Alaska Natives live in small villages or remote regional hubs such as Nome and Bethel, the percentage who live in urban areas has been increasing.
In 2010, 44 % lived compared to 38 % in the 2000 census. The modern history of Alaskan natives begins with the arrival of Europeans. Unusually for North America it was the Russians, coming from Siberia in the eighteenth century, who were the first to make contact. British and American traders did not reach the area until the nineteenth century, in some cases missionaries were not active until the twentieth century. Arriving from Siberia by ship in the mid-eighteenth century, Russians began to trade with Alaska Natives. New settlements around trading posts were started by Russians, including Russian Orthodox missionaries; these were the first to translate Christian scripture into Native languages. In the 21st century, the numerous congregations of Russian Orthodox Christians in Alaska are composed of Alaska Natives. Rather than hunting the marine life, the Russians forced the Aleuts to do the work for them; as word spread of the riches in furs to be had, competition among Russian companies increased and they forced the Aleuts into slavery.
Catherine the Great, who became Empress in 1763, proclaimed good will toward the Aleut and urged her subjects to treat them fairly. The growing competition between the trading companies, merging into fewer and more powerful corporations, created conflicts that aggravated the relations with the indigenous populations. Over the years, the situation became catastrophic for the natives; as the animal populations declined, the Aleuts too dependent on the new barter economy created by the Russian fur trade, were coerced into taking greater risks in the dangerous waters of the North Pacific to hunt for more otter. As the Shelikhov-Golikov Company and Russian-American Company developed as a monopoly, it used skirmishes and systematic violence as a tool of colonial exploitation of the indigenous people; when the Aleut revolted and won some victories, the Russians retaliated, killing many and destroying their boats and hunting gear, leaving them no means of survival. The most devastating effects were from disease: during the first two generations of Russian contact, 80 percent of the Aleut population died from Eurasian infectious diseases.
These were endemic among the Europeans, but the Aleut had no immunity against the new diseases. Geopolitical reasons drove the Tsarist government to expand into Indigenous territory in present day Alaska, spreading Russian Orthodoxy and consuming the natural resources of the territory along their way, their movement into these populated areas of Indigenous communities altered the demographic and natural landscape. Historians have suggested that the Russian-American Company exploited Indigenous peoples as a source of inexpensive labour; the fur trade led the Russian American Company to not only use Indigenous populations for labour, but to use them as hostages to acquire iasak. Iasak, a form of taxation used by the Russians, was a tribute in the form of otter pelts, it was a taxation method the Russians had found useful in their early encounter with Indigenous communities of Siberia during the Siberian fur trade. Beaver pelts were customary to be given to fur traders upon first contact with various communities.
The Russian American Company used military force on Indigenous families as they were taken hostage and held until the male community members brought forth furs. Otter furs on Kodiak Island and Aleutian Islands enticed the Russians to start these taxations. Robbery and maltreatment in the form of corporal punishment and the withholding of food was present upon the arrival of fur traders. Catherine the Great dissolv
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see; the process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς, meaning "light," and γραφή, meaning "drawing, writing," together meaning "drawing with light." The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based "heliography" process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura, followed a few years but Niépce's process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required. In 1829 Niépce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre and the two collaborated to work out a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niépce's death in 1833 Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He exposed a silver-plated copper sheet to iodine vapor, creating a layer of light-sensitive silver iodide, he named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. Other inventors soon made improvements which reduced the required exposure time from a few minutes to a few seconds, making portrait photography practical and popular; the daguerreotype had shortcomings, notably the fragility of the mirror-like image surface and the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive. Inventors set about working out improved processes. By the end of the 1850s the daguerreotype had been replaced by the less expensive and more viewed ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the introduced collodion process.
Glass plate collodion negatives used to make prints on albumen paper soon became the preferred photographic method and held that position for many years after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871. Refinements of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing in the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, glass a variety of flexible plastic films, along with various types of paper for the final prints. Color photography is as old as black-and-white, with early experiments including John Herschel's Anthotype prints in 1842, the pioneering work of Louis Ducos du Hauron in the 1860s, the Lippmann process unveiled in 1891, but for many years color photography remained little more than a laboratory curiosity, it first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but the plates were expensive and not suitable for casual snapshot-taking with hand-held cameras.
The mid-1930s saw the introduction of Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. These early processes produced transparencies for use in slide projectors and viewing devices, but color prints became popular after the introduction of chromogenic color print paper in the 1940s; the needs of the motion picture industry generated a number of special processes and systems the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process. Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image. To produce a positive image, the negative is most transferred onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films. Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image; such positive images are mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition.
Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film. All photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become available until the 1940s or 1950s, so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color. Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera, which achieves its effect through a wider film format. APS has been discontinued; the advent of the microcomputer and d
The Rarámuri or Tarahumara are a group of indigenous people of the Americas living in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. They are renowned for their long-distance running ability. Inhabitants of much of Chihuahua, the Rarámuri retreated to the high sierras and canyons such as the Copper Canyon in the Sierra Madre Occidental on the arrival of Spanish invaders in the 16th century; the area of the Sierra Madre Occidental which they now inhabit is called the Sierra Tarahumara because of their presence. Estimates put the population of the Rarámuri in 2006 at between 70,000 people. Most still practice a traditional lifestyle, inhabiting natural shelters such as caves or cliff overhangs, as well as small cabins of wood or stone. Staple crops are corn and beans. All Rarámuri migrate in some form or another in the course of the year; the Rarámuri language belongs to the Uto-Aztecan family. Although it is in decline under pressure from Spanish, it is still spoken. In the language, the term rarámuri refers to the men, women are referred to as mukí and as omugí or igómale.
The Rarámuri are believed to be descended from a people of the Mogollon culture. The Rarámuri repulsed and were never conquered by the Spanish conquistadors or converted by the Jesuit missionaries; when the Spanish arrived in the 1500s, they called this native people the "Tarahumara". By the early 17th century, the Spanish had established mines in Tarahumara territory and made some slave raids to obtain workers for the mines. Jesuit Juan Fonte established a mission, San Pablo Balleza, at the southern end of Tarahumara territory, expanding from missionary work with the Tepehuan to the south; the Tepehuan's violent resistance to Spanish incursion in the Tepehuan revolt of 1616 killed Fonte and seven other Jesuit missionaries, closing the mission for over a decade. The discovery of the mines of Parral, Chihuahua, in 1631 increased Spanish presence in Tarahumara lands, bringing more slave raids and Jesuit missionaries. Missions were established at Las Bocas, San Felipe and Satevo. In 1648, the Tarahumara waged war against the Spanish.
They gathered at Fariagic and destroyed the mission of San Francisco de Borja. Two of the leaders of this attack were executed. Shortly afterward, the Spanish established Villa de Aguilar in the heart of the upper Tarahumara country. From on, the Tarahumara split into two groups; those in the lower missions continued to move into the general Christian population and lost their tribal identity. Those in the upper areas went to war under the leadership of Tepóraca and others, driving the Jesuits and Spanish settlers from the area; the Jesuits returned in the 1670s and baptized thousands of Tarahumara, but these people retained a separate identity. Tepóraca was executed by the Spanish in 1690. From 1696 to 1698, the Tarahumara again were defeated. An important 1691 Jesuit report concerned the resistance of the Tarahumara to evangelization, Historia de la tercera rebelión tarahumara. By 1753, the Jesuits turned over the lower Tarahumara missions to secular priests, in 1767 the Jesuits were expelled in Spanish territories.
Most missions in Tarahumara country were turned over to Franciscans. Despite devoted and enthusiastic efforts, the Franciscans could not match the Jesuits’ feats, the missions declined; the Jesuits reestablished the missions in the early 20th century. The Tarahumara word for themselves, Rarámuri, means "runners on foot" or "those who run fast" in their native tongue according to some early ethnographers like Norwegian Carl Lumholtz, though this interpretation has not been agreed upon. With dispersed settlements, these people developed a tradition of long-distance running up to 200 miles in one session, over a period of two days through their homeland of rough canyon country, for inter-village communication and hunting; the Tarahumara's use of huaraches, a traditional form of minimal footwear, when running has been the subject of scientific study as well as journalistic discourse. In his book, Born to Run, author Christopher McDougall argues in favor of the endurance running hypothesis and the barefoot running movement based on his time with the Tarahumara people and their running in huaraches.
The award-winning documentary GOSHEN Film, features Christopher McDougall speaking about the Tarahumara tribe's athletic abilities linked to their footwear and diet. The long-distance running tradition has ceremonial and competitive aspects. Men kick wooden balls as they run in "foot throwing", rarajipari and women use a stick and hoop; the foot throwing races are relays where the balls are kicked by the runners and relayed to the next runner while teammates run ahead to the next relay point. These races can last anywhere from a few hours to a couple of days without a break; the Tarahumara hunt with bow and arrows, but are known for their ability to run down deer and wild turkeys. Anthropologist Jonathan F. Cassel describes the Tarahumaras’ hunting abilities: "the Tarahumara run the birds to death. Forced into a rapid series of takeoffs, without sufficient rest periods between, the heavy-bodied bird does not have the strength to fly or run away from the Tarahumara hunter." The Rarámuri religion is a mélange of Roman Catholicism.
During the late 1600s and early 1700s, there was strong Jesuit mission activity, met by resistance. When the Jesuit order was expelled, the Rarámuri were left free to interpret, maintain or promulgate Catholic beliefs and practic
Sápmi is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sámi people. Sápmi includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia; the region stretches over four countries: Norway, Sweden and Russia. On the north it is bounded by the Barents Sea, on the west by the Norwegian Sea and on the east by the White Sea. Despite being the namesake of the region, the Sami people are estimated to only make up around 5% of its total population. No political organization advocates secession, although several groups desire more territorial autonomy and/or more self-determination for the region's indigenous population; the area is referred to in English as Lapland. Sápmi refers to both the Sami people. In fact, the word "Sámi" is only the accusative-genitive form of the noun "Sápmi"—making the name's meaning "people of Sápmi." The origin of the word is speculated to be related to the Baltic word *žēmē that means "land". "Häme", the Finnish name for Tavastia, a historical province of Finland, is thought to have the same origin, the same word is at least speculated to be the origin of "Suomi", the Finnish name for Finland.
Sápmi is the name in North Sami, while the Julev Sami name is Sábme and the South Sami name is Saepmie. In Norwegian and Swedish the term Sameland is used. In modern Swedish and Norwegian, Sápmi is known as "Sameland", but in older Swedish it was known as "Lappmarken", "Lappland", Finnmark, respectively; these two names did refer to the entire Sápmi, but subsequently became applied to areas inhabited by the Sami. "Lappland" became the name of Sweden's northernmost province which in 1809 was split into one part that remained Swedish and one part falling under Finland. "Lappland" survives as the name of both Sweden's northernmost province and Finland's containing part of the old Ostrobothnian province. In older Norwegian, Sápmi was known as "Finnmork" or "Finnmark". Both Northern Norway and Murmansk Oblast are sometimes marketed as Norwegian Lapland and Russian Lapland, respectively. In the 17th century, Johannes Schefferus assumed the etymology of the lesser used term "Lapland" to be related to the Swedish word for "running", "löpa".
The largest part of Sápmi lies north of the Arctic Circle. The western portion is an area of fjords, deep valleys and mountains, the highest point being Mount Kebnekaise, in Swedish Lapland; the Swedish part of Sápmi is characterized by great rivers running from the northwest to the southeast. From the Norwegian province of Finnmark and eastward, the terrain is that of a low plateau with many marshes and lakes, the largest of, Lake Inari in Finnish Lapland; the extreme northeastern section lies within the tundra region. In the 19th century scientific expeditions to Sápmi were undertaken, for instance by Jöns Svanberg; the climate is subarctic and vegetation is sparse, except in the densely forested southern portion. The mountainous west coast has milder winters and more precipitation than the large areas east of the mountain chain. North of the Arctic Circle polar night characterize the winter season and midnight sun the summer season—both phenomena are longer the further north you go. Traditionally, the Sami divide the year in eight seasons instead of four.
Reindeer, wolf and birds are the main forms of animal life, in addition to a myriad of insects in the short summer. Sea and river fisheries abound in the region. Steamers are operated on some of the lakes, many ports are ice-free throughout the year. All ports along the Norwegian Sea in the west and the Barents Sea in the northeast to Murmansk are ice-free all year; the Gulf of Bothnia freezes over in winter. The ocean floor to the north and west of Sápmi has deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Sápmi contains valuable mineral deposits iron ore in Sweden, copper in Norway, nickel and apatite in Russia. East Sápmi consists of the Kola peninsula and the Lake Inari region, is home to the eastern Sami languages. While being the most populated part of Sápmi, this is the region where the indigenous population and their culture is weakest. Corresponds to the regions marked 6 through 9 on the map below. Central Sápmi consists of the western part of Finland's Sami Domicile Area, the parts of Norway north of the Saltfjellet mountains and areas on the Swedish side corresponding to this.
Central Sápmi is the region where Sami culture is strongest, home to North Sami—the most used Sami language. In the southernmost part of this subregion, Sami culture is rather weak—this is where the moribound Bithun Sami language is used; the areas around the Tysfjord fjord in Norway and the river Lule in Sweden are home to the Julev Sami language, one of the more used Sami languages. These correspond to the regions marked 3 through 5 on the map below. South Sápmi consists of the areas south of Saltfjellet and corresponding areas in Sweden, is home to the southern languages. In this area Sami culture is visible inland and on the coast of Baltic Sea, the languages are spoken by few. Corresponds to the regions marked 1 and 2 on the map below plus Dalarna County to the south-east of region 1 in Sweden; the inner parts of Sápmi are referred to as Lappi. The name is found on the Russian side as Laplandige and the Norwegian county of Finnmark is sometimes titled the "Norwegian Lapland" by the travel industry.
Lappi- appears as a common component o
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York