William Gascoigne (scientist)
William Gascoigne was an English astronomer and maker of scientific instruments from Middleton, Leeds who invented the micrometer. He was one of a group of astronomers in the north of England who followed the astronomy of Johannes Kepler which included, Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree. Gascoigne was born in Leeds in 1611, the son of a minor country gentleman, his father was Henry Gascoigne, Esq. of Thorpe-on-the-Hill in the parish of Rothwell, near Leeds, Yorkshire. His mother was daughter of William Cartwright. Little is known of his early life, he claimed. In the late 1630s, was working on a Keplerian optical arrangement when a thread from a spider’s web happened to become caught at the combined optical focal points of the two lenses; when he looked through the arrangement Gascoigne saw the web bright and sharp within the field of view. He realized that he could more point the telescope using the line as a guide, went on to invent the telescopic sight by placing crossed wires at the focal point to define the centre of the field of view.
He added this arrangement to a sextant modelled on the instrument used by Tycho Brahe, although Tycho’s sextant was only a naked-eye instrument. Gascoigne's sextant was five feet in radius, measured the distance between astronomical bodies to an unprecedented degree of accuracy. Gascoigne realised that by introducing two points, whose separation could be adjusted using a screw, he could measure the size of the image enclosed by them. Using the known pitch of the screw, knowing the focal length of the lens producing the image, he could work out the size of the object, such as the Moon or the planets, to a hitherto unattainable degree of accuracy. Gascoigne met the Lancashire astronomer William Crabtree in 1640. After making observations at Gascoigne's home, Crabtree was much taken with these inventions and saw their significance. On his return to his home in Broughton, just outside Manchester, he wrote to Gascoigne asking if he might obtain such instruments and wrote to his friend Jeremiah Horrocks about them.
He wrote again to Gascoigne on 28 December 1640 saying, My friend Mr. Horrox professeth that little touch which I gave him hath ravished his mind quite from itself and left him in an Exstasie between Admiration and Amazement. I beseech slack not your Intentions for the Perfection of your begun Wonders. Sadly, Horrocks died before he could try out the instruments, but Crabtree and Gascoigne did use them to try to corroborate Horrocks's theories about the elliptical orbit of the Moon; this invention was taken up and improved by the scientist and astronomer Richard Towneley, the nephew of Gascoigne's friend Christopher Towneley. Towneley brought the instrument to the attention of Robert Hooke, who used it to calculate the size of comets and other celestial bodies; the micrometer, as it became known, was to lie at the heart of astronomical measurement down to the twentieth century. In 1642, civil war broke out in England, Gascoigne received a commission as Providore for Yorkshire in the army of King Charles I.
Crabtree lived in Broughton, just outside Manchester, on the parliamentary side and all correspondence between the two ceased. Gascoigne died at the Battle of Marston Moor, Yorkshire, on 2 July 1644 as did Charles Towneley, the father of his friend Richard Towneley. After Gascoigne's death some of his papers and fragments of correspondence between Crabtree and Gascoigne came into the possession of Christopher and Richard Towneley, they brought them to the attention of John Flamsteed, the first Astronomer Royal, who came to see Horrocks and Gascoigne as the founding fathers of British research astronomy and the intellectual heirs of Galileo and Kepler. He began his massive three-folio volume Historia Coelestis Britannica by printing five pages of their surviving letters and observations, made between 1638 and 1643. Many of Gascoigne's papers and correspondence were lost during the English Civil War and in the Great Fire of London, but most of what is known to remain is kept in the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford.
In March 2018 Leeds Civic Trust unveiled a blue plaque in the city honouring Gascoigne. It was unveiled, David Sellers, who has written a biography of Gascoigne, who said: Although his name is known by astronomers, his role as a pioneer in precision astronomy deserves wider public recognition. I hope that this plaque will help to achieve this and will encourage young people to follow his lead and inspire an interest in the natural world. Local MP Hilary Benn was present. Chapman, A. Transits of Venus, History Results and Legacy Goward, K. Jeremiah Horrocks and the Transit of Venus Sellers, David. A Letter from William Gascoigne to Sir Kenelm Digby. Cambridge, England: Science History Publications Ltd. pp. 405–416. ISSN 0021-8286. Sellers, David. In Search of William Gascoigne, Seventeenth Century Astronomer. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4614-4097-0
Manchester Grammar School
Manchester Grammar School is the largest independent day school for boys in the United Kingdom and is located in Manchester, England. Founded in 1515 as a free grammar school, it was adjacent to Manchester Parish Church until 1931 when it moved to its present 28-acre site at Fallowfield. In accordance with its founder's wishes, MGS has remained a predominantly academic school and belongs to the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. In the post-war period, MGS was a direct-grant grammar school, it chose to become an independent school in 1976 after the Labour government abolished the Direct Grant System. Fees for 2016–2017 were £11,970 per annum; the school's motto is Sapere Aude, the motto of the council of the former County Borough of Oldham, granted on 7 November 1894. Sapere aude is a quotation from Horace, famously used by Immanuel Kant and the motto of the Enlightenment; the Senior School badge is an outline of an owl. This is a heraldic "canting" reference to its founder, Hugh Oldham, the badge should be read as "owl-dom".
This suggests that he pronounced his name, as the local accent in Oldham still tends to do, as "Owdem". Owls are to be seen in the shield of the Borough of Oldham. There is a second significance to the "dom" of which Hugh Oldham, as a bishop, would have been well aware. D. O. M. was and is a standard abbreviation for Deo Optimo Maximo meaning "To God, the Best and the Greatest", a phrase of dedication required to be written by schoolboys before the Reformation and in Roman Catholic education since, at the head of a new piece of work, a practice continued into adult life by many as they committed a new undertaking into God's hands. This badge replaced the original one when the school colours changed from red and yellow to dark and light blue to reflect its connection with the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; the Junior School badge, which depicts the face of an owl, was introduced to blazers and ties in 2008. The founder, Hugh Oldham, a Manchester-born man, attended Exeter College and Queens' College, after having been tutored in the house of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby.
Historical accounts suggest that he was not a learned man, but was in Royal service, being a favoured protégé of Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII, became recognised for his administrative abilities. He was appointed Bishop of Exeter in 1505, his great wealth came from his water-powered corn mills on the River Irk near Manchester, which were subsequently used to fund the school's endowment. On 2 July 1515 he signed an endowment trust deed establishing the Manchester Free Grammar School for Lancashire Boys. A site was purchased in September 1516 and construction took place between April 1517 and August 1518; the combined cost was £218.13s.5d given by Oldham, but with the help of his and the Bexwyke family who had provided an earlier endowment for a school within the parish church. A more elaborate deed in 1525 set the detailed rules for the school until the late 19th century; the original deed promoted "Godliness and good learning" and established that any boy showing sufficient academic ability, regardless of background, might attend, free of charge.
The school was situated between Manchester Cathedral a collegiate church, the church's domestic quarters, subsequently Chetham's School of Music. Oldham's great friend Richard Foxe, the Bishop of Winchester, wished to found a monastery. Oldham, convinced him instead to found Corpus Christi College in Oxford and contributed 6000 marks. Oldham had a hand in the founding of Brasenose College, Oxford; the original foundation provided a school house in the curtilage of Manchester's Parish Church and two graduates to teach Latin and Greek, to any children who presented themselves. The school was intended to prepare pupils for university and the Church or the legal profession. Pupils would have stayed for 8 to 10 years before leaving for university. There was enough money to fund bursaries or exhibitions for pupils. In 1654, the world's first free public library was formed next door to MGS in what had been the church's living quarters; this was facilitated by a bequest from a wealthy businessman Humphrey Chetham, which served to create a bluecoat orphanage there, schooling 40 poor boys.
By the 18th century, there are thought to have been between 50 and 100 boys in the grammar school at any one time, three or four of whom each year were awarded exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge. An extra room had been built onto the school house for boys who needed instruction in English before they started Latin, another master was employed to teach them; the 1515 building was replaced on the same site in 1776. This was on two levels, an Upper School for the Latin and Greek pupils, a Lower School for the English pupils. Boarding-houses were added and many of the Upper School pupils were boarders from surrounding counties; when De Quincy came as a boarder in 1800, classes were held at 7.00am to 9.00, 9.30 to 12.00 and 3.00pm to 5.00. By 1808 consideration was being given to moving from the site, as it was becoming insalubrious, but this proved impossible as the deed could not be changed except by Act of Parliament. Going from the Old Church to Long Millgate... one is in an undisguised working men's quarter, for the shops and beerhouses hardly take the trouble to exhibit a trifling degree of cleanliness... is a narrow, coal black, foul smel
Manchester Town Hall
Manchester Town Hall is a Victorian, Neo-gothic municipal building in Manchester, England. It is the ceremonial headquarters of Manchester City Council and houses a number of local government departments; the building faces Albert Square to the north and St Peter's Square to the south, with Manchester Cenotaph facing its southern entrance. Designed by architect Alfred Waterhouse, the town hall was completed in 1877; the building contains offices and grand ceremonial rooms such as the Great Hall, decorated with Ford Madox Brown's imposing Manchester Murals illustrating the history of the city. The entrance and Sculpture Hall contain busts and statues of influential figures including Dalton and Barbirolli; the exterior is dominated by the clock tower which rises to 280 feet and houses Great Abel, the clock bell. In 1938, a detached Town Hall Extension was completed and is connected by two covered bridges over Lloyd Street; the town hall, granted Grade I listed building status on 25 February 1952, is regarded as one of the finest interpretations of Gothic revival architecture in the world.
Manchester's original civic administration was housed in the Police Office in King Street. It was replaced by the first Town Hall, to accommodate the growing local government and its civic assembly rooms; the Town Hall located in King Street at the corner of Cross Street, was designed by Francis Goodwin and constructed during 1822–25, much of it by David Bellhouse. The building was designed with a screen of Ionic columns across a recessed centre, in a classicising manner influenced by John Soane; the building was 134 feet long and 76 feet deep, the ground floor housed committee rooms and offices for the Chief Constable, Treasurer, other officers and clerks. The first floor held the Assembly Rooms; the building and land cost £39,587. As the size and wealth of the city grew as a result of the textile industry, its administration outstripped the existing facilities, a new building was proposed; the King Street building was subsequently occupied by a lending library and Lloyds Bank. The facade was removed to Heaton Park in 1912, when 53 King Street was erected on the site.
Planning for the new town hall began in 1863. Manchester Corporation demanded it be,'equal if not superior, to any similar building in the country at any cost which may be reasonably required'; the choice of location was influenced by a desire to provide a central, but quiet site in a respectable district, close to Manchester's banks and municipal offices, next to a large open area, suitable for the display of a fine building. After investigating suitable sites, including Piccadilly, an oddly shaped plot facing Albert Square was chosen; the Albert Square frontage measures 323 feet, Lloyd Street is 350 feet, Princess Street the longest at 383 feet and Cooper Street measures 94 feet. On this tight site, the corporation built a grand hall, a suite of reception rooms, quarters for the lord mayor, offices and a council chamber; the second stage of a competition to design the town hall which attracted 137 entries was judged by Thomas Leverton Donaldson, a classicist, gothicist George Edmund Street.
The eight finalists were Waterhouse, William Lee, Speakman & Charlesworth, Cuthbert Brodrick, Thomas Worthington, John Oldrid Scott, Thomas Henry Wyatt and Edward Salomons. In terms of design and aesthetics, Waterhouse's proposal was placed fourth behind those of Speakman & Charlesworth, Oldrid Scott and Worthington but his design was considered much superior for its architectural quality and use of light and he was appointed architect on 1 April 1868; the foundation stone was laid on 26 October 1868 by Robert Neill. Construction used 14 million bricks. Estimates for the cost of construction vary from £775,000 to around £1,000,000 translating to between £70,320,000 and £90,730,000 in 2019; when Queen Victoria refused to attend, Manchester Town Hall was opened on 13 September 1877 by the mayor, Abel Heywood, who had championed the project. In 1927, a competition to design the Town Hall Extension was won by Emanuel Vincent Harris, the architect who won a competition to design the city's Central Library.
Work began on the extension in 1934 and was completed by 1938. Charles Herbert Reilly, a contemporary architecture critic, thought the extension was'dull' and'drab' while Nikolaus Pevsner considered it was Harris's best work, it is linked to the town hall by glazed pedestrian bridges at first-floor level. By late 2014, the Town Hall was being described as "being in urgent need of essential repair" and modernisation. In a 2014 report, Manchester City Council highlighted the need to replace the building's heating and electrical systems, refurbish windows and high-level stonework and repair parts of the roofing; the cost of this work, including work on improving the adjoining square, are estimated to £2.2million. The rapid growth and accompanying pollution in Victorian cities caused great problems for architects including denial of light, awkward sites, noise and visibility of buildings, air pollution. Provision for "the sufficiency of window light supplied throughout the building" was addressed by the use of architectural devices: suspended first floor rooms, made possible by the use of iron-framed construction, extra windows and dormers, "borrowed lights" for interior spaces and glazed white bricks in conjunction with mosaic marble paving in areas where the light was "less strong".
Clear glass was used in important rooms, with light-coloured tints for coloured glazing, as "the sky of Manchester does not favour the employment of stained glass."The building exemplifies the Victorian Gothic revival style of archit
Manchester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Mary, St Denys and St George, in Manchester, England, is the mother church of the Anglican Diocese of Manchester, seat of the Bishop of Manchester and the city's parish church. It is on Victoria Street in Manchester city centre; the main body of the cathedral is in the Perpendicular Gothic style. James Stanley was responsible for commissioning the late-medieval wooden furnishings, including the pulpitum, choir stalls and the nave roof supported by angels with gilded instruments; the medieval church was extensively refaced and extended in the Victorian period, again following bomb damage in the 20th century. The cathedral is one of fifteen Grade I listed buildings in Manchester; the origins of Manchester's first churches are obscure. The Angel Stone, a small carving of an angel with a scroll is preserved in the cathedral, it was discovered in the wall of the cathedral's south porch providing evidence of an earlier Saxon, church.
It has been dated to around 700 AD, however the Corpus of Anglo-Saxon sculpture dates the sculpture to the twelfth century. Its Latin inscription translates as "into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit"; the first church sited on or near the site of St Ann's Church, was destroyed by Danish invaders in 923 and a church dedicated to St Mary, built by King Edward the Elder where St Mary's Gate joins Exchange Street, was mentioned in the Domesday Book in 1086. The Domesday Book entry for Manchester reads "the Church of St Mary and the Church of St Michael hold one carucate of land in Manchester exempt from all customary dues except tax". Construction of the predecessor parish church between the Rivers Irk and Irwell and an ancient watercourse crossed by the Hanging Bridge started in 1215 within the confines of the Baron's Court beside the manor house on the site of Manchester Castle; the lords of the manor were the Grelleys. The Grelleys acted as stewards and endowing the first chancery, the St Nicholas Chancery.
In 1311, the Grelley estate passed by marriage to the de la Warres. In 1349 the St Nicholas Chancery was endowed by the de Traffords. In 1382 Thomas de la Warre, became its rector; the church had a six-bay aisled nave and six-bay chancel with aisles and a west tower in the perpendicular style of the late-medieval period. Thomas de la Warre became Baron de la Warre in 1398. A priest for more than 50 years, he was granted a licence from King Henry V and Pope Martin V to establish a collegiate church in Manchester in 1421; the college was established by royal charter, with a warden, eight fellows, four singing clerks and eight choristers. The parish church was dedicated to St Mary and to that dedication were added St George, the patron saint of England, St Denys, the patron saint of France reflecting de la Warre's French heritage, or Henry V's claim to the French throne; the college of priests was housed in new buildings on the site of the former manor house that survive as Chetham's Library paid for by de la Warre.
He appointed John Huntingdon as the college's first warden who, between 1422 and 1458, rebuilt the eastern arm of the parish church to provide the collegiate choir. Huntington is commemorated in a rebus, carvings of a man hunting and a man with a tun, on either side of the arch accessing the Lady Chapel; the church's 14th-century west tower and Lady Chapel were incorporated into the current structure although little or no fabric of that date is still visible. Traditionally the third warden, Ralph Langley, is credited with rebuilding the nave but the nave and choir were reconstructed again by James Stanley a few years when he raised the clerestory and provided the richly decorated timber roofs and choir stalls, his stepmother, Lady Margaret Beaufort was mother of Henry VII and through their alliance with the Tudor dynasty the Stanleys acquired fabulous wealth and access to architects and craftsmen working on royal commissions. On stylistic grounds, the arcades and clerestory of the cathedral are attributed to John Wastell, the architect for the completion of Kings College Chapel.
The choir stalls, carved at the workshop of William Brownflet of Ripon, are the finest of a series which includes the surviving stalls at Ripon Cathedral, Beverley Minster and Bridlington Priory. The carving of the misericord seats is exceptionally fine. James Stanley was responsible for the embellishment of the nave roof with supports in the form of fourteen life-size angel minstrels, each playing a different late-medieval instrument. In the early 16th century an complete sequence of chantry chapels was constructed along the north and south sides of the church creating a double aisle around the parochial nave, much wider than it is long. Manchester is claimed to have the widest nave of any cathedral in England. On the south side, the oldest of the chantry chapels, the St Nicholas Chapel, was rebuilt by the de Traffords in 1470. St George's Chapel was endowed by William Galley in 1503 and Richard Beswick endowed the Jesus Chapel in 1506. On the north side, William Radcliffe of Ordsall Hall endowed the Holy Trinity Chapel in the northwest corner in 1498.
Huntington left money and land for the St James' Chapel, built in 1507. The largest of the chantries, the St John the Baptist Chapel, was begun by James Stanley the Bishop of Ely in 1513. A chapel to commemorate James Stanley, the Ely Chapel, has been demolished; the college was dissolved in 1547 in the reign of Edward VI by the Chantries Act, but refounded by his sister Mary. Its future was un
Jeremiah Horrocks, sometimes given as Jeremiah Horrox, was an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate, his early death and the chaos of the English Civil War nearly resulted in the loss to science of his treatise on the transit, Venus in sole visa. Jeremiah Horrocks was born at Lower Lodge Farm in Toxteth Park, a former royal deer park near Liverpool, Lancashire, his father James had moved to Toxteth Park to be apprenticed to Thomas Aspinwall, a watchmaker, subsequently married his master's daughter Mary. Both families were well educated Puritans. For their unorthodox beliefs the Puritans were excluded from public office, which tended to push them towards other callings. Jeremiah was introduced early to astronomy. In 1632 Horrocks matriculated at Emmanuel College at the University of Cambridge as a sizar. At Cambridge he associated with the platonist John Worthington. At that time he was one of only a few at Cambridge to accept Copernicus's revolutionary heliocentric theory, he studied the works of Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe and others.
In 1635, for reasons not clear, Horrocks left Cambridge without graduating. Marston suggests that he may have needed to defer the extra cost this entailed until he was employed, whilst Aughton speculates that he may have failed his exams due to concentrating too much on his own interests, or that he did not want to take Anglican orders, so a degree was of limited use to him. Now committed to the study of astronomy, Horrocks began to collect astronomical books and equipment. Liverpool was a seafaring town so navigational instruments such as the astrolabe and cross staff were easy to find, but there was no market for the specialised astronomical instruments he needed, so his only option was to make his own. He was well placed to do this, he helped with the family business by day and, in return, the watchmakers in his family supported his vocation by assisting in the design and construction of instruments to study the stars at night. Horrocks owned a three-foot radius astronomicus – a cross staff with movable sights used to measure the angle between two stars – but by January 1637 he had reached the limitations of this instrument and so built a larger and higher precision version.
While a youth he read most of the astronomical treatises of his day and marked their weaknesses. Tradition has it that after he left home he supported himself by holding a curacy in Much Hoole, near Preston in Lancashire, but there is little evidence for this. According to local tradition in Much Hoole, he lived at Carr House, within the Bank Hall Estate, Bretherton. Carr House was a substantial property owned by the Stones family who were prosperous farmers and merchants, Horrocks was a tutor for the Stones' children. Horrocks was the first to demonstrate that the Moon moved in an elliptical path around the Earth, he posited that comets followed elliptical orbits, he supported his theories by analogy to the motions of a conical pendulum, noting that after a plumb bob was drawn back and released it followed an elliptical path, that its major axis rotated in the direction of revolution as did the apsides of the moon's orbit. He anticipated Isaac Newton in suggesting the influence of the Sun as well as the Earth on the moon's orbit.
In the Principia Newton acknowledged Horrocks's work in relation to his theory of lunar motion. In the final months of his life Horrocks made detailed studies of tides in attempting to explain the nature of lunar causation of tidal movements. In 1627, Johannes Kepler had published his Rudolphine Tables and two years he published extracts from the tables in his pamphlet De raris mirisque Anni 1631 which included an admonitio ad astronomos concerning a transit of Mercury in 1631 and transits of Venus in 1631 and 1761. Horrocks' own observations, combined with those of his friend and correspondent William Crabtree, had convinced him that Kepler's Rudolphine tables, although more accurate than the used tables produced by Philip Van Lansberg, were still in need of some correction. Kepler's tables had predicted a near-miss of a transit of Venus in 1639 but, having made his own observations of Venus for years, Horrocks predicted a transit would indeed occur. Horrocks made a simple helioscope by focusing the image of the Sun through a telescope onto a plane surface, whereby an image of the Sun could be safely observed.
From his location in Much Hoole he calculated the transit would begin at 3:00 pm on 24 November 1639, Julian calendar. The weather was cloudy but he first observed the tiny black shadow of Venus crossing the Sun at about 3:15 pm; the 1639 transit was observed by William Crabtree from his home in Broughto
Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th