Point Pleasant, West Virginia
Point Pleasant is a city in and the county seat of Mason County, West Virginia, USA, at the confluence of the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers. The population was 4,350 at the 2010 census, it is the principal city of WV-OH Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.10 square miles, of which, 2.40 square miles is land and 0.70 square miles is water. Point Pleasant is located at 38°51′27″N 82°7′43″W. Point Pleasant is home to Tu-Endie-Wei State Krodel Park; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,350 people, 2,014 households, 1,162 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,812.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,244 housing units at an average density of 935.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 1.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 2,014 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.9% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.3% were non-families.
38.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 44 years. 21.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 44.9% male and 55.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,637 people, 2,107 households, 1,310 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,945.6 people per square mile. There were 2,313 housing units at an average density of 970.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.57% White, 1.90% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.09% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.54% of the population. There were 2,107 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families.
34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.80. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 20.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,022, the median income for a family was $33,527. Males had a median income of $31,657 versus $16,607 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,692. About 22.2% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.9% of those under age 18 and 13.3% of those age 65 or over. In the second half of 1749, the French explorer Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed French sovereignty over the Ohio Valley, burying a lead plaque at the meeting point of the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers.
The text on the plaque is as follows: L'AN 1749 DV REGNE DE LOVIS XV ROY DE FRANCE, NOVS CELORON, COMMANDANT D'VN DETACHEMENT ENVOIE PAR MONSIEVR LE MIS. DE LA GALISSONIERE, COMMANDANT GENERAL DE LA NOUVELLE FRANCE POVR RETABLIR LA TRAN QUILLITE DANS QUELQUES VILLAGES SAUVAGES DE CES CANTONS, AVONS ENTERRE CETTE PLAQUE AU CONFLUENT DE L'OHIO ET DE TCHADAKOIN CE 29 JVILLET, PRES DE LA RIVIERE OYO AUTREMENT BELLE RIVIERE, POUR MONUMENT DU RENOUVELLEMENT DE POSSESSION QUE NOUS AVONS PRIS DE LA DITTE RIVIERE OYO, ET DE TOUTES CELLE~ QUI Y TOMBENT, ET DE TOUTES LES TERRES DES DEUX COTES JVSQVE AVX SOURCES DES DITTES RIVIERES AINSI QV'EN ONT JOVY OU DV JOVIR LES PRECEDENTS ROIS DE FRANCE, ET QU'ILS S'Y SONT MAINTENVS PAR LES ARMES ET PAR LES TRAIT TES, SPECIALEMENT PAR CEVX DE RISWICK D'VTRECHT ET D'AIX LA CHAPELLE. Céloron's expedition was a diplomatic failure since the local tribes remained pro-English, English representatives in the region refused to go away; this was, therefore, a prelude to a series of incidents that would lead to the loss of New France and the domination of eastern North America by the British Empire following the defeat of France in the French and Indian War.
The expedition can be seen in more positive terms as a geographical project, since the Céloron expedition was the starting point for the first map of the Ohio Valley. The map was the work of the Jesuit Joseph Pierre de Bonnecamps. In 1770, Colonel George Washington visited the confluence that would become Point Pleasant proceeded 14 miles up the "Great Kanawha" and reported that "This Country abounds
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Wheeling, West Virginia
Wheeling is a city in Ohio and Marshall counties in the U. S. state of West Virginia. Located entirely in Ohio County, of which it is the county seat, it lies along the Ohio River in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Wheeling was a settlement in the British colony of Virginia and an important city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Wheeling was the first state capital of West Virginia. Due to its location along major transportation routes, including the Ohio River, National Road, the B&O Railroad, Wheeling became a manufacturing center in the late nineteenth century. After experiencing the closing of factories and substantial population loss following World War II, Wheeling's major industries now include healthcare, education and legal services and tourism, energy. Wheeling is the principal city of WV-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 147,950, the city itself had a population of 28,486. The origins of the name "Wheeling" are disputed. One of the more credible explanations is that the word comes from the Lenni-Lenape phrase wih link or wee lunk, which meant "place of the head" or "place of the skull."
This name referred to a white settler, scalped and decapitated. His severed head was displayed at the confluence of the Ohio River. Native Americans had inhabited the area for thousands of years. In the 17th century, the Iroquois from present-day New York state conquered the upper Ohio Valley, pushing out other tribes and maintaining the area as their hunting ground. Explored by the French, Wheeling still has a lead plate remnant that the explorer Céloron de Blainville buried in 1749 at the mouth of Wheeling Creek to mark his claim. Christopher Gist and George Washington surveyed the land in 1751 and 1770, respectively. During the fall of 1769, Ebenezer Zane explored the Wheeling area and established claim to the land via "tomahawk rights.". He returned the following spring with his wife Elizabeth and his younger brothers and Silas. Other families joined the settlement, including the Shepherds, the Wetzels, the McCollochs. In 1787, the United States gave Virginia this portion of lands west of the Appalachians, some to Pennsylvania at its western edge, to settle their claims.
By the Northwest Ordinance that year, it established the Northwest Territory to cover other lands north of the Ohio River and west to the Mississippi River. Settlers began to move into new areas along the Ohio. In 1793, Ebenezer Zane divided the town into lots, Wheeling was established as a town in 1795 by legislative enactment; the town was incorporated January 16, 1805. On March 11, 1836, the town of Wheeling was incorporated into the city of Wheeling. By an act of the Virginia General Assembly on December 27, 1797, Wheeling was named the county seat of Ohio County. Dubbed Fort Fincastle in 1774, the fort was renamed Fort Henry in honor of Virginia's American governor, Patrick Henry. In 1777, Native Americans of the Shawnee and Mingo tribes joined to attack pioneer settlements along the upper Ohio River, which were illegal according to the Crown's Proclamation of 1763, they hoped. Local men defended the fort joined by recruits from Fort Shepherd and Fort Holliday; the native force destroyed livestock.
During the first attack of the year, Major Samuel McColloch led a small force of men from Fort Vanmetre along Short Creek to assist the besieged Fort Henry. Separated from his men, McColloch was chased by attacking Indians. Upon his horse, McColloch charged up Wheeling Hill and made what is known as McColloch's Leap 300 feet down its eastern side. In 1782, a native army along with British soldiers attempted to take Fort Henry. During this siege, Fort Henry's supply of ammunition was exhausted; the defenders decided to dispatch a man to secure more ammunition from the Zane homestead. Betty Zane volunteered for the dangerous task. During her departing run, she was heckled by both British soldiers. After reaching the Zane homestead, she filled it with gunpowder. During her return, she was uninjured; as a result of her heroism, Fort Henry remained in American control. The National Road arrived in Wheeling in 1818, linking the Ohio River to the Potomac River, allowing goods from the Ohio Valley to flow through Wheeling and on to points east.
As the endpoint of National Road, Wheeling became a gateway to early western expansion. In 1849 the Wheeling Suspension Bridge crossed the Ohio River and allowed the city to expand onto Wheeling Island. Lessons learned constructing. Rail transportation reached Wheeling in 1853 when the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad connected Wheeling to Pennsylvania and markets in the Northeast. A bridge over the river connected it to Bellaire and western areas. Much of this area had been settled by yeomen farmers. With the railroad, a larger industrial or mercantile middle-class developed that depended on free labor; the Wheeling Intelligencer newspaper expressed the area's anti-secession sentiment as tensions rose over slavery and national issues. The city became part of the movement of western areas to secede from Vir
Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers. It was taken over by the English, Americans, developed as Pittsburgh in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Fort Duquesne was destroyed by the French, prior to English conquest during the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War on the North American front; the latter replaced it, building Fort Pitt in 1758. The site of both forts is now occupied by Point State Park, where the outlines of the two forts have been laid in brick. Fort Duquesne, built at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers which forms the Ohio River, was considered strategically important for controlling the Ohio Country, both for settlement and for trade; the English merchant William Trent had established a successful trading post at the forks as early as the 1740s, to do business with a number of nearby Native American villages. Both the French and the British were keen to gain advantage in the area.
As the area was within the drainage basin of the Mississippi River, the French had claimed it as theirs. They controlled New France, the Illinois Country along the Mississippi, La Louisiane. In the early 1750s, the French began construction of a line of forts, starting with Fort Presque Isle on Lake Erie near present-day Erie, followed by Fort Le Boeuf, about 15 miles inland near present-day Waterford, Fort Machault, on the Allegheny River in Venango County in present-day Franklin, Pennsylvania. Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of the Virginia Colony, thought these forts threatened extensive claims to the land area by Virginians of the Ohio Company. In late autumn 1753, Dinwiddie dispatched a young Virginia militia officer named George Washington to the area to deliver a letter to the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf, asking them to leave. Washington was to assess French strength and intentions. After reaching Fort Le Boeuf in December, Washington was politely rebuffed by the French. Following Washington's return to Virginia in January 1754, Dinwiddie sent Virginians to build Fort Prince George at the Forks of the Ohio.
Work began on the fort on February 17. By April 18, a much larger French force of five hundred under the command of Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur arrived at the forks, forcing the small British garrison to surrender; the French knocked down the tiny British fort and built Fort Duquesne, named in honor of Marquis Duquesne, the governor-general of New France. The fort was built on the same model as the French Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. Meanwhile, newly promoted to Colonel of the newly created Virginia Regiment, set out on 2 April 1754 with a small force to build a road to, defend, Fort Prince George. Washington was at Wills Creek in south central Pennsylvania when he received news of the fort's surrender. On May 25, Washington assumed command of the expedition upon the death of Colonel Joshua Fry. Two days Washington encountered a Canadian scouting party near a place now known as Jumonville Glen. Washington attacked the French Canadians, killing 10 in the early morning hours, took 21 prisoners, of whom many were ritually killed by the Native American allies of the British.
The Battle of Jumonville Glen is considered the formal start of the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War. Washington ordered construction of Fort Necessity at a large clearing known as the Great Meadows. On 3 July 1754, the counterattacking French and Canadiennes forced Washington to surrender Fort Necessity. After disarming them, they released his men to return home. Although Fort Duquesne's location at the forks looked strong on a map—controlling the confluence of three rivers—the reality was rather different; the site was low and prone to flooding. In addition, the position was dominated by highlands across the Monongahela River, which would allow an enemy to bombard the fort with ease. Pécaudy de Contrecœur was preparing to abandon the fort in the face of Braddock's advance in 1755, he was able to retain it due to the advancing British force being annihilated. When the Forbes expedition approached in 1758, the French had initial success in the Battle of Fort Duquesne against the English vanguard, but were forced to abandon the fort in the face of the much superior size of Forbes' main force.
The French held the fort early in the war, turning back the expedition led by General Edward Braddock during the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. George Washington served as one of General Braddock's aides. A smaller attack by James Grant in September 1758 was repulsed with heavy losses. Two months on November 25, the Forbes Expedition under General John Forbes captured the site after the French destroyed Fort Duquesne the day before. Fort Duquesne was built at the point of land of the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, where they form the Ohio River. Since the late 20th century, this area of downtown Pittsburgh has been preserved as Point State Park, or "the Point." The park includes a brick outline of the fort's walls, as well as outlines to mark the Fort Pitt. In May 2007, Thomas Kutys, an archaeologist with A. D. Marble & Company, a Cultural Resource Management firm based in Conshohocken, discovered a stone and brick drain on the Fort Duquesne site, it is thought to have drained one of the fort's many buildings.
Due to its depth in the ground, this drain may be all of the fort. The entire northern half of the former fort site was disrupted and destroyed
Lord Dunmore's War
Lord Dunmore's War — or Dunmore's War — was a 1774 conflict between the Colony of Virginia and the Shawnee and Mingo American Indian nations. The Governor of Virginia during the conflict was 4th Earl of Dunmore -- Lord Dunmore, he asked the Virginia House of Burgesses to declare a state of war with the hostile Indian nations and order up an elite volunteer militia force for the campaign. The conflict resulted from escalating violence between British colonists, who in accordance with previous treaties were exploring and moving into land south of the Ohio River, American Indians, who held treaty rights to hunt there; as a result of successive attacks by Indian hunting and war bands upon the settlers, war was declared "to pacify the hostile Indian war bands." The war ended soon after Virginia's victory in the Battle of Point Pleasant on October 10, 1774. As a result of this victory, the Indians lost the right to hunt in the area and agreed to recognize the Ohio River as the boundary between Indian lands and the British colonies.
Although the Indian national chieftains signed the treaty, conflict within the Indian nations soon broke out. Some tribesmen felt the treaty sold out their claims and opposed it, others believed that another war would mean only further losses of territory to the more powerful British colonists; when war broke out between the colonials and the British government in 1776, the war parties of the Indian nations gained power. They mobilized the various Indian nations to attack the colonists during the Revolutionary War; the area south of the Ohio River had long been claimed by the Iroquois Confederacy. Although they were the most powerful Indian nation in the Northern Colonies, other tribes made claims to the area and hunted the region. Contention over the Ohio Country was one of the causes of the Seven Years' War between France and Britain, which ended with France ceding notional control over the entire area at the Treaty of Paris in 1763. When, in accordance with the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, British officials acquired the land south of the Ohio River from the Iroquois, many other Ohio Indians who had hunted in these lands refused to accede to the treaty and prepared to defend their hunting rights.
At the forefront of this resistance were the Shawnee. They were the most powerful among the anti-Iroquois Indian nations, they soon organized a large confederacy of Shawnee-Ohio Confederated Indians who were opposed to the British and the Iroquois in order to enforce their claims. British and Iroquois officials worked to isolate the Shawnee diplomatically from other Indian nations; when full-blown hostilities broke out within a few years, the Shawnee would find that they faced the Virginia militia with few allies. Following the 1768 treaty, British explorers and settlers began pouring into the region; this brought them into direct contact with Native Americans. Of the upper Ohio Valley the Allegheny River, George Washington wrote in his journal for Saturday, Nov. 17, 1770, "The Indians who are dexterous their women, in the Management of Canoes, have there Hunting Camps & Cabins all along the River for the convenience of Transporting their Skins by Water to Market." In September 1773, a obscure hunter named Daniel Boone led a group of about 50 emigrants in the first attempt by British colonists to establish a settlement in Kentucky County, Virginia.
On October 9, 1773, Boone's oldest son James, age 16, a small group of men and boys who were retrieving supplies were attacked by a band of Delawares and Cherokees. They had decided "to send a message of their opposition to settlement…" James Boone and Henry Russell, a teenage son of future Revolutionary War officer William Russell, were captured and tortured to death; the brutality of the killings shocked the settlers along the frontier, Boone's party abandoned their expedition. By December, the incident had been reported in Philadelphia newspapers; the deaths among Boone's party were among the first events in Lord Dunmore's War. For the next several years, Indian nations opposed to the treaty continued to attack settlers, ritually mutilated and tortured to death the surviving men, took the women and children into slavery. Early the next year, a field surveyor named William Preston sent a letter of report to the head engineer of the frontier fort construction, namely George Washington, which indicates his understanding of circumstances just prior to the outbreak of Dunmore's War: FINCASTLE May 27.
1774. DEAR SIRAgreeable to my Promise I directed Mr. Floyd an Assistant to Survey your Land on Cole River on his Way to the Ohio, which he did and in a few Days afterwards sent me the Plot by Mr. Thomas Hog. Mr. Spotswood Dandridge who left the Surveyors on the Ohio after Hog Parted with them, wrote me that Mr. Hog and two other Men with him had never since been heard of. I have had no Opportunity of writing to Mr. Floyd Since. Tho' I suppose he will send me the Courses by the first Person that comes up, if so I shall make out the Certificate and send it down; this I directed him to do. But I am afraid the Indians will hinder them from doing any Business of Vallue this Season as the Company being only 33 and dayly decreasing were under the greatest Apprehension of Danger when Mr. Dandridge parted with them, it has been long disputed by our Hunters whether Louisa or Cumberland Rivers was the Boundary between us and the Cherokees. I have taken the Liberty to inclose to you a Report made by some Scouts.
It is say'd the Cherrokees claim the Land to the Westward of the Louisa & between Cumberland M and the
The Gnadenhutten massacre known as the Moravian massacre, was the killing of 96 Christian Delaware by colonial White American militia from Pennsylvania on March 8, 1782 at the Moravian missionary village of Gnadenhutten, Ohio during the American Revolutionary War. More than a century President Theodore Roosevelt would call the massacre "a stain on the frontier character that time cannot wash away"; the site of the village has been preserved. A reconstructed mission house and cooper's house were built there, a monument to the dead was erected and dedicated a century later; the burial mound has been maintained on the site. The village site has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During the American Revolution, the Munsee- and Unami-speaking Lenni Lenape bands of the Ohio Country were divided over which side, if any, to take in the conflict; the Munsee were northern bands from around the Hudson River and upper Delaware River originally. The Unami were from the southern reaches of the Delaware.
Years earlier, many Lenape had migrated west to Ohio from their territory on the mid-Atlantic coast to try to escape colonial encroachment, as well as pressure from Iroquois tribes from the north based around the Great Lakes and western New York. They resettled in what is now Ohio, with bands in several villages around their main village of Coshocton; these villages were named Schoenbrunn and Salem, located on what was called the Muskingum River. Modern geography places Coshocton on the Muskingum River and the three smaller villages on the Tuscarawas River. By the time of the Revolutionary War, the Lenape villages lay between the opposing interests, which had western frontier strongholds on either side: the rebel American colonists' military outpost at Fort Pitt and the British with Indian allies around Fort Detroit, Michigan; some Lenape decided to take up arms against the American colonials and moved to the northwest, closer to Fort Detroit, where they settled on the Scioto and Sandusky rivers.
Those Lenape sympathetic to the United States remained at Coshocton, leaders, including White Eyes, signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt with the Americans. Through this treaty, White Eyes intended to secure the Ohio Country as a state to be inhabited by Native Americans, as part of the new United States. A third group of Lenape, many of them converted Christian Munsee and Unami, lived in several mission villages in Ohio led by David Zeisberger and other Moravian Christian missionaries. From the mid-Atlantic area, they spoke the Munsee and the Unami dialects of Delaware, an Algonquian language. White Eyes, a Lenape chief and Speaker of the Delaware Head Council, negotiated the treaty; when he died in 1778 of smallpox, the treaty had not yet been ratified by Congress. United States officials never pursued it, the Native American state was dropped. Years George Morgan, a colonial diplomat to the Lenape and Shawnee during the American Revolution, wrote to Congress that White Eyes had been murdered by American militia in Michigan.
Many Lenape at Coshocton joined the war against the Americans, in part because of American raids against their friendly bands. In response, Colonel Daniel Brodhead led an expedition out of Fort Pitt and on 19 April 1781 destroyed Coshocton. Surviving residents fled to the north. Colonel Brodhead convinced the militia to leave the Lenape at the Moravian mission villages unmolested since they were peaceful and neutral. Brodhead's having to restrain the militia from attacking the Moravian villages was a reflection of the brutal nature of frontier warfare. Violence had escalated on both sides. Relations between regular Continental Army officers from the East, such as Brodhead, western militia were strained; the tensions were worsened by the American government's policy of recruiting some Indian tribes as allies in the war. Western militiamen, many of whom had lost friends and family in Indian raids against settlers' encroachment, blamed all Indians for the acts of some and did not distinguish between friendly and hostile tribes or bands.
In September 1781, British-allied Indians Wyandot and Lenape, forced the Christian Indians and missionaries from the Moravian villages. They took them northwest toward Lake Erie to a new village, called "Captive Town", on the Sandusky River; the British took the missionaries David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder under guard back to Detroit, where they tried the two men on charges of treason. The British suspected them of providing military intelligence to the American garrison at Fort Pitt; the missionaries were acquitted. The Indians at Captive Town were going hungry because of insufficient rations. In February 1782, more than 100 returned to their old Moravian villages to harvest the crops and collect stored food they had been forced to leave behind; the frontier war was still raging. In early March 1782, the Lenape were surprised by a raiding party of 160 Pennsylvania militia led by Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson; the White American militia rounded up the Christian Lenape and accused them of taking part in raids into Pennsylvania.
Although the Lenape denied the charges, the militia voted to kill them. Refusing to take part, some militiamen left the area. One of those who opposed the killing of the Moravian Lenape was Jr.. He wrote: "one Nathan Rollins & brother had had a father & uncle killed took the lead in murdering the Indians...& Nathan Rollins had tomahawked nineteen of the poor Moravians, & after it was over he sat down & cried, & said it was no satisfaction for the loss of his father & uncle after all". After the Lenape were told of the American militia's vote, they req
Battle of Long Island
The Battle of Long Island is known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights. The victory over the Americans gave the British control of strategically important New York City, it was fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War to take place after the United States declared its independence on July 4, 1776. In troop deployment and combat, it was the largest battle of the entire war. After defeating the British in the Siege of Boston on March 17, 1776, commander-in-chief General George Washington brought the Continental Army to defend the port city of New York, located at the southern end of Manhattan Island. Washington understood that the city's harbor would provide an excellent base for the Royal Navy, so he established defenses there and waited for the British to attack. In July, the British under the command of General William Howe landed a few miles across the harbor from Manhattan on the sparsely-populated Staten Island, where they were reinforced by ships in Lower New York Bay during the next month and a half, bringing their total force to 32,000 troops.
Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city with the British fleet in control of the entrance to the harbor at the Narrows, he moved the bulk of his forces to Manhattan, believing that it would be the first target. On August 22, the British landed on the shores of Gravesend Bay in southwest Kings County, across the Narrows from Staten Island and more than a dozen miles south from the established East River crossings to Manhattan. After five days of waiting, the British attacked U. S. defenses on the Guan Heights. Unknown to the Americans, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after; the Americans panicked, resulting in twenty percent losses through casualties and capture, although a stand by 400 Maryland and Delaware troops prevented a more substantial portion of the army from being lost. The remainder of the army retreated to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights; the British dug in for a siege but, on the night of August 29–30, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of supplies or a single life.
Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York after several more defeats and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania. In the first stage of the war, the British Army was trapped in the peninsular city of Boston and they abandoned it on March 17, sailing to Halifax, Nova Scotia to await reinforcements. Washington began to transfer regiments to New York City which he believed the British would next attack because of its strategic importance. Washington left Boston on April 4, arrived at New York on April 13, established headquarters at the former home of Archibald Kennedy on Broadway facing Bowling Green. Washington had sent his second in command Charles Lee ahead to New York the previous February to establish the city's defenses. Lee remained in New York City until March. Troops were in limited supply, so Washington found the defenses incomplete, but Lee had concluded that it would be impossible to hold the city with the British commanding the sea, he reasoned that the defenses should be located with the ability to inflict heavy casualties upon the British if any move was made to take and hold ground.
Barricades and redoubts were established in and around the city, the bastion of Fort Stirling across the East River in Brooklyn Heights, facing the city. Lee saw that the immediate area was cleared of Loyalists. Washington began moving troops to Brooklyn in early May, there were several thousand of them there in a short time. Three more forts were under construction on the eastern side of the East River to support Fort Stirling, which stood to the west of the hamlet of Brooklyn Heights; these new fortifications were Fort Putnam, Fort Greene, Fort Box. They lay from north to south, with Fort Putnam farthest to the north, Greene to the southwest, Box farther southwest; each of these defensive structures was surrounded by a large ditch, all connected by a line of entrenchments and a total of 36 cannons. Fort Defiance was being constructed at this time, located farther southwest, past Fort Box, near present-day Red Hook. In addition to these new forts, a mounted battery was established on Governors Island, cannons were placed at Fort George facing Bowling Green, more cannons placed at the Whitehall Dock, which sat on the East River.
Hulks were sunk at strategic locations to deter the British from entering the East River and other waterways. Washington had been authorized by Congress to recruit an army of up to 28,501 troops, but he had only 19,000 when he reached New York. Military discipline was inadequate. Petty internal conflict was common under the strain of a large number of people from different environments and temperaments in relative closeness. Commander of the artillery Henry Knox persuaded Washington to transfer 400 to 500 soldiers, who lacked muskets or guns, to crew the artillery. In early June and Greene inspected the land at the north end of Manhattan and decided to establish Fort Washington. Fort Constitution renamed Fort Lee, was planned opposite Fort Washington on the Hudson River; the forts were hoped to discourage the British ships from sailing up the Hudson River. On June 28, Washington learned that the British fleet had set sail from Halifax on June 9 and were heading toward New York. On June 29, signals were sent from men stationed on