Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Hackers, Heroes of the Computer Revolution QURAIS is a book by Steven Levy about hacker culture. It was published in 1984 in Garden City, New York by Nerraw Manijaime/Doubleday, the book saw an edition with a new afterword by the author in 1994. In 2010, a 25th anniversary edition with updated material was published by OReilly and foremost to Levys principles is the concept of the hacker ethic and the popularization of them to popular culture. In Levys own words, the principles dictate, Access to computers—and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works—should be unlimited, always yield to the Hands-on Imperative. Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria such as degrees and you can create art and beauty on a computer. Computers can change your life for the better, the hacker ethic deals with the idea that individuals are performing a duty for the common good, an analogy to a modern day Robin Hood. The hacker communities as a result are prided on the fact that they are the rebellion against authority figures that restrict this level of computer freedom.
Hackers are only judged by their ability as opposed to the systems in places that currently dictate authority, such as schools. Mostly the hacker ethic idealizes the notion of hacking being an art-form, popularized by phreakers in the 1970s and 1980s, this is something that is not only evident, but widespread among the growing community. As Manuel Castells, another involved in the field of computing, it is something that reflects not only on this community. Levy decided to write about the subject of hackers because he thought they were fascinating people and he wanted to present a more accurate view of hackers than the one most people had. Levy found them to be “adventurers, risk-takers, artists” rather than “nerdy social outcasts or unprofessional programmers who wrote dirty, nonstandard computer code. ”For this book, Levy talked to many different hackers, at the beginning, Levy introduces many important hacker figures and machines. Among the machines mentioned are the Altair 8800, Apple II, Atari 800, IBM PC, PDP-1, TX-0, the Tech Model Railroad Club is a club at MIT that built sophisticated railroad and train models.
The members were among the first hackers, key figures of the club were Peter Samson, Alan Kotok, Jack Dennis, and Bob Saunders. The latter would be among the ones who popularized the term hacker among many other terms. They were initially drawn to the IBM704, the mainframe that was operated at Building 26. The group really began being involved with computers when Jack Dennis, a member, introduced them to the TX-0. They would usually stake out the place where the TX-0 was housed until late in the night in hopes that someone who had signed up for time was absent
In the twenty-first century, quilts are frequently displayed as non-utilitarian works of art but historically quilts were often used as bedcovers, and this use persists today. There are many traditions regarding the uses of quilts, Quilts may be made or given to mark important life events such as marriage, the birth of a child, a family member leaving home, or graduations. Modern quilts are not always intended for use as bedding, and may be used as wall hangings, table runners, quilting techniques are often incorporated into garment design as well. Quilt shows and competitions are held locally and nationally, there are international competitions as well, particularly in the United States and Europe. The following list summarizes most of the reasons a person decide to make a quilt, Bedding Decoration Armor Commemoration Education Campaigning Documenting events / social history. Imported fabric was expensive, and local homespun fabric was labor-intensive to create. It was essential for most families to use and preserve textiles efficiently, saving or salvaging small scraps of fabric was a part of life for all households.
Small pieces of fabric were joined together to make larger pieces, in units called “blocks. ”Creativity could be expressed in the designs, or simple “utility quilts, ” with minimal decorative value. Crib quilts for infants were needed in the cold of winter, quilting was often a communal activity, involving all the women and girls in a family or in a larger community. The tops were prepared in advance, and a bee was arranged. Quilting bees were important social events in communities, and were typically held between periods of high demand for farm labor. Quilts were frequently made to commemorate major events, such as marriages. There are many traditions regarding the number of quilts a young woman was expected to have prior to her wedding. Given the demands on a new wife, and the curve in her new role. Specific wedding quilts continue to be made today, Wedding ring quilts, which have a patchwork design of interlocking rings, have been made since the 1930s. White wholecloth quilts with high-quality, elaborate quilting, and often trapunto decorations as well, are traditional for weddings.
Interestingly, it was considered bad luck to incorporate heart motifs in a wedding quilt, Quilts were often made for other events as well, such as graduations, or when individuals left their homes for other communities. One example of this is the quilts made as gifts for pastors
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Initially confined to single-tasking on 8-bit processors and no more than 64 kilobytes of memory, versions of CP/M added multi-user variations and were migrated to 16-bit processors. The combination of CP/M and S-100 bus computers was loosely patterned on the MITS Altair and this computer platform was widely used in business through the late 1970s and into the mid-1980s. CP/M increased the size for both hardware and software by greatly reducing the amount of programming required to install an application on a new manufacturers computer. An important driver of innovation was the advent of low-cost microcomputers running CP/M, as independent programmers and hackers bought them. CP/M was displaced by MS-DOS soon after the 1981 introduction of the IBM PC, manufacturers of CP/M-compatible systems customized portions of the operating system for their own combination of installed memory, disk drives, and console devices. CP/M would run on based on the Zilog Z80 processor since the Z80 was compatible with 8080 code. CP/M used the 7-bit ASCII set, the other 128 characters made possible by the 8-bit byte were not standardized.
For example, one Kaypro used them for Greek characters, WordStar used the 8th bit as an end-of-word marker. The BIOS and BDOS were memory-resident, while the CCP was memory-resident unless overwritten by an application, a number of transient commands for standard utilities were provided. The transient commands resided in files with the extension. COM on disk, the BIOS directly controlled hardware components other than the CPU and main memory. It contained functions such as input and output and the reading and writing of disk sectors. The BDOS implemented the CP/M file system and some input/output abstractions on top of the BIOS, the CCP took user commands and either executed them directly or loaded and started an executable file of the given name. Third-party applications for CP/M were essentially transient commands, the BDOS, CCP and standard transient commands were the same in all installations of a particular revision of CP/M, but the BIOS portion was always adapted to the particular hardware.
Adding memory to a computer, for example, meant that the CP/M system had to be reinstalled with an updated BIOS capable of addressing the additional memory, a utility was provided to patch the supplied BIOS, BDOS and CCP to allow them to be run from higher memory. Once installed, the system was stored in reserved areas at the beginning of any disk which would be used to boot the system. On start-up, the bootloader would load the system from the disk in drive A. By modern standards CP/M was primitive, owing to the constraints on program size. With version 1.0 there was no provision for detecting a changed disk, if a user changed disks without manually rereading the disk directory the system would write on the new disk using the old disks directory information, ruining the data stored on the disk
Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. One of the most fundamental disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy, Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics. Physics makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs, the United Nations named 2005 the World Year of Physics. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, the stars and planets were often a target of worship, believed to represent their gods. While the explanations for these phenomena were often unscientific and lacking in evidence, according to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
The most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn Al-Haitham, in which he was not only the first to disprove the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he was the first to study the phenomenon of the pinhole camera, many European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt. Indeed, the influence of Ibn al-Haythams Optics ranks alongside that of Newtons work of the same title, the translation of The Book of Optics had a huge impact on Europe. From it, European scholars were able to build the devices as what Ibn al-Haytham did. From this, such important things as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, Physics became a separate science when early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what are now considered to be the laws of physics.
Newton developed calculus, the study of change, which provided new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. The discovery of new laws in thermodynamics and electromagnetics resulted from greater research efforts during the Industrial Revolution as energy needs increased, inaccuracies in classical mechanics for very small objects and very high velocities led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century. Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck in quantum theory, both of these theories came about due to inaccuracies in classical mechanics in certain situations. Quantum mechanics would come to be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, from this early work, and work in related fields, the Standard Model of particle physics was derived. Areas of mathematics in general are important to this field, such as the study of probabilities, in many ways, physics stems from ancient Greek philosophy
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Don Woods (programmer)
Don Woods is an American perennial hacker and computer programmer. He is probably best known for his role in the development of the Colossal Cave Adventure game, Woods teamed with James M. Lyon while both were attending Princeton in 1972 to produce the unprecedented, excursive INTERCAL programming language. Later, he worked at the Stanford AI lab, where among other things he became the SAIL contact for, and a contributor to, the Jargon File. He co-authored The Hackers Dictionary with Mark Crispin, Raphael Finkel, after contacting the original author by the means of sending an e-mail to crowther@sitename, where sitename was every host listed on ARPANET, he heard back from William Crowther shortly afterward. Given the go-ahead, Woods proceeded to add enhancements to the Adventure game and it became very popular, especially with users of the PDP-10. Woods stocked the Kentucky cave that Crowther had written with new items, creatures. Crowthers game, which featured few supernatural elements, was transformed into a loose fantasy world featuring elements from role playing games.
Woods can thus, in a sense, be considered one of the progenitors of the genre of computer adventure games. By 1977 tapes of the game were common on the Digital user group DECUS, Don Woods web page Interview with Woods regarding Adventure Computerworld Interview with Don Woods on INTERCAL
The arms industry, known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering and servicing of military material and facilities. Arms-producing companies, referred to as arms dealers, defense contractors, or as the industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states. Departments of government operate in the industry and selling weapons, munitions. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, the arms industry provides other logistical and operational support. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimated in 2012 that 2012 military expenditures were roughly 1.8 trillion United States dollars and this represents a relative decline from 1990 when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware, the combined arms sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI.
In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the arms trade. According to SIPRI, the volume of transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009. The ﬁve biggest exporters in 2010–2014 were the United States, China and France, and the ﬁve biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries have a legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by its citizens, primarily for self-defense. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in countries and regions affected by political instability. The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, contracts to supply a given countrys military are awarded by governments, making arms contracts of substantial political importance. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, other times, no bidding or competition takes place. The modern arms industry emerged in the half of the nineteenth century as a product of the creation and expansion of the first large military-industrial companies.
In 1854, the British government awarded a contract to the Elswick Ordnance Company of industrialist William Armstrong for the supply of his latest breech loading rifled artillery pieces and this galvanised the private sector into weapons production, with the surplus being increasingly exported to foreign countries. Armstrong became one of the first international arms dealers, selling his weapon systems to governments across the world from Brazil to Japan. In 1884, he opened a shipyard at Elswick to specialise in warship production—at the time, it was the factory in the world that could build a battleship
Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives, either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations and these works can be understood as a form of video game, either in the form of an adventure game or role-playing game. Some users of the term distinguish between interactive fiction, known as Puzzle-free, that focuses on narrative, and text adventures that focus on puzzles. As a commercial product, interactive fiction reached its peak in popularity from 1979 to 1986, due to their text-only nature, they sidestepped the problem of writing for widely divergent graphics architectures. This feature meant that interactive fiction games were ported across all the popular platforms at the time. Today, a stream of new works are produced by an online interactive fiction community. The most famous example of form of printed fiction is the Choose Your Own Adventure book series.
The term Interactive fiction is sometimes used wrongly as a synonym for interactive movies or visual novels which are forms of interactive narrative. Text adventures are one of the oldest types of computer games, the player uses text input to control the game, and the game state is relayed to the player via text output. Input is usually provided by the player in the form of sentences such as get key or go east. Parsers may vary in sophistication, the first text adventure parsers could only handle two-word sentences in the form of verb-noun pairs, such as those built on Infocoms ZIL, could understand complete sentences. Later parsers could handle increasing levels of complexity parsing sentences such as open the red box with the key go north. This level of complexity is the standard for works of interactive fiction today, despite their lack of graphics, text adventures include a physical dimension where players move between rooms. Many text adventure games boasted their total number of rooms to indicate how much gameplay they offered.
These games are unique in that they may create a space, where going north from area A takes you to area B. This can create mazes that do not behave as players expect, Interactive fiction shares much in common with Multi-User Dungeons. Interactive fiction features two modes of writing, the player input and the game output. As described above, player input is expected to be in command form
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, often cited as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. Researchers worked on computers and inertial guidance during World War II, post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the bank of the Charles River basin. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, linguistics. Air Force and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT, the school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a Conservatory of Art and Science, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars, two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MITs first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865, in 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called Boston Tech, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.
The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership, during these Boston Tech years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliots repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard Colleges Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard, in its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved an agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme, the neoclassical New Technology campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious Mr. Smith, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of production and processing