The Wiltshire Museum, formerly known as Wiltshire Heritage Museum and Devizes Museum, is a museum and library and art gallery in Devizes, England. The museum was established and is run by, the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. After the purchase of an old school the museum was opened in 1873. Subsequently it expanded into two Georgian houses on side and still occupies this location today. The museum maintains a collection covering the archaeology, art and this collection covers periods of history from as far back as the Palaeolithic and includes Neolithic, Bronze Age, Saxon and more recent historical artefacts. Among the prehistoric collections are items from the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site, several of the collections have been designated as being a significant part of England’s cultural heritage. One of the most important collections at the museum is the finds from Bush Barrow, the barrow was excavated by William Cunnington in 1808 and produced the richest and most important finds from a Bronze Age grave in the Stonehenge Landscape to date.
The finds were acquired by the museum in 1883 and were displayed there until 1922 when they were loaned to the British Museum. After a controversial restoration of the largest piece that may not reflect its original finish and they are on display in the Gold from the Time of Stonehenge exhibition, opened in 2013. The natural history collection includes remains of a plesiosaur called Bathyspondylus found at Swindon in 1774, Bathyspondylus swindoniensis was first described in 1982 from the Museums specimens. In 2010 the Museum ran a community bus service, the Henge Hopper, linking Avebury with Amesbury and Stonehenge
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Bush Barrow is a site of the early British Bronze Age, at the western end of the Normanton Down Barrows cemetery. It is among the most important sites of the Stonehenge complex and it was excavated in 1808 by William Cunnington for Sir Richard Colt Hoare. The finds, including worked gold objects, are displayed at Wiltshire Museum in Devizes, Bush Barrow is situated around 1 kilometre southwest of Stonehenge on Normanton Down. It forms part of the Normanton Down Barrows cemetery, the surviving earthworks have an overall diameter of 49 metres and comprise a large mound with breaks in the slope suggesting three phases of development. The barrow currently stands 3.3 metres high and its summit measures 10.5 metres in diameter, the barrow is one of the associated sites in the World Heritage Site covering Stonehenge and Associated Sites. The Normanton Down round barrow cemetery comprises some 40 barrows strung out along an east-west aligned ridge, Bush Barrow is towards the western end of the line of barrows, sited at the highest point of the ridge.
The barrow was excavated in 1808 by William Cunnington for Sir Richard Colt Hoare, the design of the artifact known as the Bush Barrow Lozenge, and the smaller lozenge, has been shown to be based on a hexagon construction. Both the shape and the decorative panels appear to have created by repeating hexagons within a series of three concentric circles. The precision and accuracy displayed by the work both a sophisticated tool kit and a sound knowledge of geometric form. A similar gold lozenge from Clandon Barrow, in Dorset, used a decagon in its design, the studs are around 0.2 millimetres wide and 1 millimetre in length with over a thousand studs embedded in each square centimetre. It is thought that the gold came from Ireland, and the dagger was made in Brittany, the hilt lay forgotten for over 40 years from the 1960s, having been sent to Professor Atkinson at Cardiff University, and found by one of his successors in 2005. An unusual stone mace head, shaped into an out of a rare flecked fossilized corel stone.
It had a handle, from which bone zig-zag decorations survive, reminiscent of items from Greece. Some fragments of bronze rivets and other scraps of bronze have been identified as the remains of a knife that would have been at least 200 years older than the rest of the items. It is not known why this barrow contained such rich grave goods compared to those around it and it occupies the highest point, but is not the tallest barrow, and is not obviously marked out as the principal barrow in the cemetery. In particular it is not known if other barrows in the vicinity have simply had such goods plundered long ago, numerous finds have been made in other barrows, both by Cunnington and subsequently, but nothing to compare to these. According to Barrett and Bowden, absence of evidence does not necessarily evidence of absence. Rethinking Bush Barrow, Archaeology magazine January/February 2009 Bush Barrow page at the Wiltshire Museum website The Bush Barrow gold lozenge, The Sky at Night, BBC,8 July 2013
History of archaeology
The development of the field of archaeology has it roots with history and with those who were interested in the past such as kings who wanted to show past glories. Later, Herodotus was the first scholar to study archaeology. Then, the 16th and 17th century saw the rise of antiquarians who were interested in the collection of artifacts, the antiquarian movement shifted into nationalism as personal collections turned into national museums. It evolved into a more systematic discipline in the late 19th century. During this time there were significant advances in the technology used in the field. Archaeology had its start in the European study of history and in people who were interested in the past, King Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, was interested in the past so he could align himself with past glories. He led a movement and rebuilt ancient temples. Even back in one would think was ancient times itself there was the start of the systematic investigation into the past by Herodotus.
He was the first western scholar to collect artifacts and test their accuracy. He was the first to make a narrative of the past. He is known for his set of 9 books called The Histories, a few examples are he discussed the causes and consequences of the Greco-Persian Wars. He explored the Nile and Delphi, scholars have found errors in his records and believe he probably did not go as far south down the Nile as he said he did. Archaeology concerned itself with the antiquarianism movement, antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Their focus was to collect artifacts and display them in cabinets of curios, tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. During the Song Dynasty period in China, educated gentry became interested in the pursuit of art collecting. Neo-Confucian scholar-officials were generally concerned with archaeological pursuits in order to revive the use of ancient relics in state rituals and this attitude was criticized by the polymath official Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088.
He endorsed the idea that materials and objects of antiquity should be studied for their functionality and for the discovery of ancient manufacturing techniques, in Europe, interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilisation and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. The itinerant scholar Ciriaco de Pizzicolli or Cyriacus of Ancona traveled throughout Greece to record his findings on ancient buildings, Ciriaco traveled all around the Eastern Mediterranean, noting down his archaeological discoveries in his day-book, that eventually filled six volumes
Sir Richard Hoare, 2nd Baronet
Hoare was born in Barnes and was descended from Sir Richard Hoare, Lord Mayor of London, the founder of the family banking business, C. His parents were Sir Richard Hoare, 1st Bt. and Anne Hoare and he was educated at Preparatory school at Wandsworth, Seminary school at Greenford, and taught the Classics by the Rev. d Joseph Eyre. In 1783 he had married Hester, daughter of William Lyttelton, after her death in 1785, following the birth of their second child, who died, he toured France and Switzerland. In 1786 he purchased Glastonbury Tor and funded the restoration of the tower on it. He took numerous views during his travels in the form of sketches from which he produced mainly sepia wash drawings. His tutor, John Warwick Smith, and the painter Francis Nicholson were commissioned to produce coloured reductions from some of his continental sketches, bound in volumes, many of these were dispersed in the Stourhead sales of the 1880s. A journey through Wales was followed by a translation of the Itinerarium Cambriae and of the Descriptio Cambriae of Gerald of Wales, with Hoare adding notes and this work was first published in 1804, and was subsequently revised by Thomas Wright in 1863.
Hoares further Tour in Ireland was published in 1807, Hoare was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1792 and was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. He was appointed High Sheriff of Wiltshire for 1805 and he died at Stourhead, Wiltshire, in 1838. His mausoleum is at St Peters Church, Wiltshire, the first recorded excavations at Stonehenge were done by William Cunnington & Richard Colt Hoare in 1798 and again in 1810. They dug around a fallen Trilithon and a fallen slaughter stone, Colt Hoare excavated 379 barrows on Salisbury Plain as well as identifying many other sites in the area and classifying his findings. However, as the system had not yet been introduced he was unable to date his finds. His two-volume book The Ancient History of Wiltshire outlined his findings, Hoares most important work was his Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire, he sponsored and contributed significantly to the 11 volumes of the History of Modern Wiltshire. The Historical Works of Giraldus Cambrensis, includes Hoares translation Journal of a tour in Ireland, A. D.
Hoare, victoria Hutchings, Messrs Hoare, Bankers, A History of the Hoare Banking Dynasty
Samuel Woodforde RA was an 18th-century English painter. Woodforde was born at Castle Cary, Somerset and he was the second son of Heighes Woodforde, an accountant of Ansford, and his wife Anne. He was a descendant of the painter Samuel Woodford, and nephew of the diarist. He was supported by the banker Henry Hoare of Stourhead, Wiltshire, on 8 March 1782 he became a student at the Royal Academy Schools and started exhibiting pictures in 1784. He contributed no less than 133 pictures to the Royal Academy and 39 at the British Institution, richard Hoare granted Woodforde £100 a year, which allowed him to travel to Italy in 1786. He spent most of his time in Rome, studying the works of Raphael, Michelangelo and he visited Venice and Florence before returning to London in 1791. Between 1792 and 1815, he exhibited constantly, showing portraits, scenes of Italian life, historical pictures, many of his literary pictures were engraved, such as a scene from Titus Andronicus by Anker Smith for the Boydell Shakespeare edition and several other scenes for Longmans Shakespeare.
Woodforde became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1800 and a member in 1807. On 7 October 1815 he married Jane Gardner, that year the couple left for Italy, two years later, Woodforde died of fever at Bologna where he is buried in the cemetery of La Certosa
Thomas Bateman was an English antiquary and barrow-digger. Thomas Bateman was born in Rowsley, England, the son of the amateur archaeologist William Bateman, Bateman had a long affair with Mary Ann Mason, but she was already married. He married Sarah Parker on 2 August 1847 and they had four daughters, Batemans first archaeological experience was observing the demolition of a medieval church in Bakewell. He joined the British Archaeological Association in 1843 and in 1844, whilst at a congress in Canterbury. The following year he excavated 38 barrows in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, in 1847 he published Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire which united his work with that of earlier excavators in the area. He continued to excavate barrows,50 in the period 1848–1849, after his death, his son sold most of Batemans collections, parts of which were acquired by the Sheffield City Museum in 1893, including the celebrated Benty Grange helmet. His daughter Clara Theodora Bateman married Sir Harcourt Clare who was Clerk to Liverpool City council and her daughter Dorothy were well known for showing lap dogs and resided at Bank Hall in Lancashire.
In 2006, a bequest allowed Derby Libraries to purchase a collection that had been amassed by Bateman by inserting documents he had found into the four volumes of Lysons Magna Britannia, Derbyshire. Amongst the prints was an image of his museum at his home which is dated from around his death. M,2007, The Barrow Knight, Ryestone Books ISBN 0-9509999-5-4 Works written by or about Thomas Bateman at Wikisource
Heytesbury is a village and a civil parish in Wiltshire, England. The village lies on the bank of the Wylye, about 3 1⁄2 miles southeast of the town of Warminster. The civil parish includes most of the neighbouring settlement of Tytherington. Chalk downland north of Heytesbury village has prehistoric earthworks including long barrows, strip lynchets are visible north and east of Cotley Hill. The parish lies between the Iron Age hillforts of Scratchbury Camp and Knook Castle, a Romano-British settlement has been identified on Tytherington Hill, in the far south of the parish. Chapperton Down, west of Imber, has evidence of settlement and field systems from the same period, the Domesday Book of 1086 recorded a small settlement of eight households at Hestrebe, with a church. The hundred of Heytesbury and east of Warminster, comprised seventeen places, the Hungerford family held land at Heytesbury by the 1390s, and reared sheep in the surrounding area in the next century. Family members include Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury, John Marius Wilsons Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Heytesbury as follows, HEYTESBURY, a small town, a parish, a sub-district, and a hundred, in Wilts.
It sent two members to parliament from the time of Henry VI till disfranchised by the act of 1832, was a borough by prescription, and is now a seat of courts leet. It has a post office under Bath, a railway station, a weekly market was formerly held, and two fairs are still held on 14 May and 25 Sept. – The parish comprises 3,380 acres, pop. in 1841,1,311, in 1861,1,103. The manor belonged to the Burghershs, and passed to the Badlesmeres, the Hungerfords, the Hastingses, and others. Heytesbury House, the seat of Lord Heytesbury, is on the N side of the town, was rebuilt about 1784, contains a fine collection of pictures. Cotley Hill rises from the woods of the park, commands a fine panoramic view, is crowned by a tumulus. Knook castle, Scratchbury camp, Golden barrow, and many other antiquities are in the neighbourhood, the living is a vicarage, united with the vicarage of Knook, in the diocese of Salisbury. – The sub-district contains eleven other parishes, and is in Warminster district, – The hundred contains thirteen parishes, and part of another.
Between 1449 and 1832, Heytesbury was a borough, returning two members of parliament. An elementary school was provided in 1838, immediately southwest of the church, by 1858 there were 50-60 pupils and 40-50 infants
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Stourhead is a 1, 072-hectare estate at the source of the River Stour near Mere, England. The estate includes a Palladian mansion, the village of Stourton, farmland, Stourhead is part owned with the National Trust since 1946. The Stourton family, the Barons of Stourton, had lived in the Stourhead estate for 500 years until sold it to Sir Thomas Meres in 1714. His son, John Meres, sold it to Henry Hoare I, the original manor house was demolished and a new house, one of the first of its kind, was designed by Colen Campbell and built by Nathaniel Ireson between 1721 and 1725. Over the next 200 years the Hoare family collected many heirlooms, including a large library, in 1902 the house was gutted by fire but many of the heirlooms were saved, and the house was rebuilt in a near identical style. The last Hoare family member to be born at the house was Edward Hoare on 11 October 1949, although the main design for the estate at Stourhead was created by Colen Campbell, there were various other architects involved in its evolution through the years.
William Benson, Henry Hoares brother-in-law, was in part responsible for the building of the estate in 1719, francis Cartwright, a master builder and architect, was established as a competent provincial designer in the Palladian manner. He worked on Stourhead between the years of 1749–1755, Cartwright was a known carver, presumably of materials such as wood and stone. It is assumed that his contribution to Stourhead was in this capacity, Nathaniel Ireson is the master builder credited for much of the work on the Estate. It is this work established his career, in 1720. The original estate remained intact, though changes and additions were made over time, Henry Flitcroft built three temples and a tower on the property. The Temple of Ceres was added in 1744, followed by the Temple of Hercules in 1754 and that same year he designed Alfreds Tower, but it wasnt built until 1772. In 1806, the mason and surveyor John Carter added an ornamental cottage to the grounds, the architect William Wilkins created a Grecian style lodge in 1816, for Sir R.
Colt Hoare. In 1840, over a century after the buildings were constructed. A portico was added to the house, along with other alterations. The design of the additions was in keeping with original plans, the lake at Stourhead is artificially created. Following a path around the lake is meant to evoke a similar to that of Aeneass descent in to the underworld. In addition to Greek mythology, the layout is evocative of the genius of the place and monuments are erected in remembrance of family and local history