Phillips Exeter Academy
Phillips Exeter Academy is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day students in grades 9 through 12, offers a postgraduate program. Located in Exeter, New Hampshire, it is one of the oldest secondary schools in the United States. Exeter is based on the Harkness education system, a conference format of student interaction with minimal teacher involvement, it has the largest endowment of any New England boarding school, which as of June 30, 2017, was valued at $1.25 billion. On January 25, 2019, William K. Rawson was appointed by the Academy's trustees as the 16th Principal Instructor, he is the 4th alumnus of Exeter to serve as Principal Instructor, after Gideon Lane Soule, Harlan Amen, William Saltonstall. Phillips Exeter Academy has educated several generations of the New England establishment and prominent American politicians, but has introduced many programs to diversify the student population, including free tuition for families whose income is $75,000 or less. In 2015–2016, over 45% of students received financial aid from grants totaling over $19 million.
The school has been highly selective, with an acceptance rate of 15% for the 2019–2020 school year, many graduates attend the Ivy League universities among others. Management of the school's financial and physical resources is overseen by trustees drawn from alumni. Day-to-day operations are headed by a principal, appointed by the trustees; the faculty of the school are responsible for governing matters relating to student life, both in and out of the classroom. The school's first enrolled class counted 56 boys; the 2018 Academic Year saw enrollment at 1,095 students with 884 boarding students and 211 day students. The students comprise equal numbers of males and females, who are housed in 25 single-sex and 2 mixed-sex dormitories; each residence is supervised by a dormitory head selected from the faculty. Phillips Exeter Academy was established in Exeter, New Hampshire in 1781 by Elizabeth and John Phillips. John Phillips had made his fortune as a merchant and banker before going into public service, financially supported his nephew Samuel Phillips, Jr. in founding his own school, Phillips Academy, in Andover, three years earlier.
As a result of this family relationship, the two schools share a rivalry. The school that Phillips founded at Exeter was to educate students under a Calvinist religious framework. However, like his nephew who founded Andover, Phillips stipulated in the school's founding charter that it would "ever be open to youth of requisite qualifications from every quarter."Phillips had been married to Sarah Gilman, wealthy widow of Phillips' cousin, merchant Nathaniel Gilman, whose large fortune, bequeathed to Phillips, enabled him to endow the academy. The Gilman family donated to the academy much of the land on which it stands, including the initial 1793 grant by New Hampshire Governor John Taylor Gilman of the Yard, the oldest part of campus. In 1814, Nicholas Gilman, signer of the U. S. Constitution, left $1,000 to Exeter to teach "sacred music."The academy's first schoolhouse, the First Academy Building, was built on a site on Tan Lane in 1783, today stands not far from its original location. The building was dedicated on February 20, 1783, the same day that the school's first Preceptor, William Woodbridge, was chosen by John Phillips.
Exeter's Deed of Gift, written by John Phillips at the founding of the school, states that Exeter's mission is to instill in its students both goodness and knowledge: "Above all, it is expected that the attention of instructors to the disposition of the minds and morals of the youth under their charge will exceed every other care. On April 9, 1930, philanthropist and oil magnate Edward Harkness wrote to Exeter Principal Lewis Perry regarding how a substantial donation that Harkness would make to the Academy might be used to fund a new way of teaching and learning:What I have in mind is a classroom where students could sit around a table with a teacher who would talk with them and instruct them by a sort of tutorial or conference method, where each student would feel encouraged to speak up; this would be a real revolution in methods. The result was "Harkness teaching", in which a teacher and a group of students work together, exchanging ideas and information, similar to the Socratic method.
In November 1930, Harkness gave Exeter $5.8 million to support this initiative. Since the Academy's principal mode of instruction has been by discussion, "seminar style," around an oval table known as the Harkness table; this informality was for many decades reflected in the school's "unwritten code that there were no rules at the academy until you broke one." Expelled alumni include the writer and editor George Plimpton. Exeter participated in the Chinese Educational Mission, hosting seven students from Qing China, starting in 1879, they were sent to learn about western technology, attended Exeter among other schools to prepare for college. However, all students were recalled in 1881 due to mounting tensions between the United States and China, as well as growing realization that the students were becoming Americanized; the Academy became coeducational in 1970. Today the student body is half boys and half girls. In 1996, to reflect the Academy's coeducational status, a new gender-inclusive
76th United States Congress
The Seventy-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1939, to January 3, 1941, during the seventh and eighth years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifteenth Census of the United States in 1930. Both chambers had a Democratic majority, it is the most recent Congress to have held a third session. April 9, 1939: African-American singer Marian Anderson performs before 75,000 people at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. after having been denied the use both of Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution, of a public high school by the federally controlled District of Columbia. August 2, 1939: Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt about developing the atomic bomb using uranium; this led to the creation of the Manhattan Project.
September 5, 1939: World War II: The United States declares its neutrality in the war. November 4, 1939: World War II: President Roosevelt ordered the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons to non-belligerent nations. November 15, 1939: President Roosevelt laid the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial. April 1, 1940: April Fools' Day was the census date for the 16th U. S. Census. May 16, 1940: World War II: President Roosevelt, addressed a joint session of Congress, asking for an extraordinary credit of $900 million to finance construction of at least 50,000 airplanes per year. June 10, 1940: World War II: President Roosevelt denounced Italy's actions with his "Stab in the Back" speech during the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia. August 4, 1940: World War II: Gen. John J. Pershing, in a nationwide radio broadcast, urges all-out aid to Britain in order to defend the Americas, while Charles Lindbergh speaks to an isolationist rally at Soldier Field in Chicago.
September, 1940: The Army's 45th Infantry Division, was activated and ordered into federal service for 1 year, to engage in a training program in Ft. Sill and Louisiana, prior to serving in World War II. September 2, 1940: World War II: An agreement between America and Great Britain was announced to the effect that 50 U. S. destroyers needed. In return, America gained 99-year leases on British bases in the North Atlantic, West Indies and Bermuda. September 26, 1940: World War II: The United States imposed a total embargo on all scrap metal shipments to Japan. October 16, 1940: The draft registration of 16 million men began in the United States. October 29, 1940: The Selective Service System lottery was held in Washington, D. C.. November 5, 1940: U. S. presidential election, 1940: Democrat incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican challenger Wendell Willkie and became the United States's first and only third-term president. November 12, 1940: Case of Hansberry v. Lee, 311 U. S. 32, allowing a racially restrictive covenant to be lifted.
December 17, 1940: President Roosevelt, at his regular press conference, first outlined his plan to send aid to Great Britain that will become known as Lend-Lease. December 29, 1940: Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a fireside chat to the nation, declared that the United States must become "the great arsenal of democracy." January 13, 1941: All persons born in Puerto Rico after this day were declared U. S. citizens by birth, through federal law 8 U. S. C. § 1402. January 20, 1941: Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swore in President Roosevelt for a third term. January 27, 1941: World War II: U. S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph C. Grew passed on to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception about a planned surprise attack upon Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. February 4, 1941: World War II: The United Service Organization was created to entertain American troops. January 23, 1941: Aviator Charles Lindbergh testified before the Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
April 3, 1939: Reorganization Act of 1939, Pub. L. 76–19, 53 Stat. 561 August 2, 1939: Hatch Act of 1939, ch. 410, 53 Stat. 1147 November 4, 1939: Neutrality Act of 1939, ch. 2, 54 Stat. 4 June 29, 1940: Alien Registration Act, 3d sess. ch. 439, 54 Stat. 670 August 22, 1940: Act of August 22, 1940, ch. 686, Pub. L. 76–768, 54 Stat. 789 September 16, 1940: Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, Pub. L. 76–783 President: John N. Garner President pro tempore: Key Pittman Majority Leader: Alben W. Barkley Majority Whip: Sherman Minton Caucus Secretary: Joshua B. Lee Minority Leader: Charles McNary Republican Conference Secretary: Frederick Hale Speaker: William B. Bankhead, until September 15, 1940 Sam Rayburn, from September 16, 1940 Majority Leader: Sam Rayburn, until September 16, 1940 John W. McCormack, from September 16, 1940 Democratic Whip: Patrick J. Boland Democratic Caucus Chairman: John W. McCormack, until September 16, 1940 Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Patrick H. Drewry Minority Leader: Joseph William Martin, Jr. Republican Whip: Harry Lane Englebright Republican Conference Chairman: Roy O. Woodruff Senators were popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress.
Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Cla
Brownsville is a city in Cameron County in the U. S. state of Texas. It located on the western Gulf Coast in South Texas, adjacent to the border with Mexico; the city covers 81.528 square miles and has a population of 183,299 as of 2017. It is 16th-largest in Texas, it is part of the Brownsville–Matamoros conurbation, with a population of 1,136,995 people. The city is known for deep-water seaport and Hispanic culture; the city was founded in 1848 by American entrepreneur Charles Stillman after he developed a successful river boat company nearby. It was named after Major Jacob Brown, who fought and died while serving as a U. S. Army soldier during the Mexican–American War; as the city is the seat of government for the county of Cameron, the city and county government are major employers. Other primary employers fall within the service and manufacturing industries, including a growing aerospace and space transportation sector, it operates international trading through the Port of Brownsville. The city experienced a population increase in the early 1900s.
Brownsville is cited as having one of the highest poverty rates in the United States. Due to significant historical events, the city has multiple houses and battle sites listed under the National Register of Historic Places, it was the scene of several key events of the American Civil War, such as the Battle of Brownsville and the Battle of Palmito Ranch. The city was involved in the Texas Revolution as well as the Mexican–American War. Brownsville's idiosyncratic geographic location has made it a wildlife refuge center. Several state parks and historical sites are protected by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. In 1781, Spanish government officials granted José Salvador de la Garza 59 leagues of land, he used the land to construct a ranch several miles northwest of the area. During the early 1800s, Brownsville was known to residents as los tejidos; the area was inhabited by a few settlers around 1836 when Texas declared its independence from Mexico. On February 4, 1846, President James K. Polk instructed American General Zachary Taylor and his troops to begin moving south towards Brownsville.
Once Taylor arrived, he built Fort Texas. It was renamed Fort Brown in honor of American General Jacob Brown, one of two deceased soldiers during the Siege of Fort Texas. Charles Stillman arrived in Matamoros in 1828 from Connecticut to help his father in the mercantile business. Brownsville became part of Texas after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. During that year, Stillman formed a partnership with Samuel Belden and Simon Mussina to form the Brownsville Town Company, they sold lots valued at $1,500. The city of Brownsville was established in late 1848 by Stillman, was made the county seat of Cameron County on January 13, 1849; the state incorporated the city on January 24, 1850. This was repealed on April 1, 1852, because of a land-ownership dispute between Stillman and its former owners; the state reincorporated the city on February 7, 1853. The issue of ownership was not decided until 1879 when the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman. On April 25, 1846, Captain Seth B.
Thornton received reports of Mexican troops crossing the Rio Grande river. Thornton and 63 U. S. Dragoons discovered several houses in the area. Mexican General Anastasio Torrejón crossed the Rio Grande the previous day, he commanded 1,600 cavalry and infantry troops to surround Thornton's troops in fractions. Due to heavy force from Torrejón's troops, Thornton's troops surrendered. 11 American casualties were reported. Reports of the incident were sent to President James K. Polk who announced that "American blood has been spilled upon the American territory". On May 13, the United States Congress declared war against Mexico. American General Zachary Taylor retreated from Fort Brown on May 1, 1846. On May 3, Arista and the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War; this was counteracted by the United States 7th Infantry Regiment. Despite heavy strikes, Mexican General Pedro de Ampudia outlined a traditional siege to move forward. General Zachary Taylor began moving towards Fort Brown.
Mexican troops intercepted them near Palo Alto 5 miles north of present-day Brownsville, resulting in the first battle of the war. The following day, Mexican troops had retreated. Taylor's troops charged up to them resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, which took place within the present city limits; when Taylor arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, he found that two soldiers including the fort's commander Major Jacob Brown, had died. Brown, who suffered an injury when a cannonball hit his leg, died three days after his injury on May 9. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the facility as Fort Brown. An old cannon at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound. On July 13, 1859, Juan Cortina saw Brownsville city Marshal Robert Sheers arrest and beat an elderly man, a ranch hand at his mother's ranch. Cortina approached the marshal, questioning his motives, before shooting him twice after he refused to release the man.
The first shot missed Sheers, but the second struck his shoulder causing him to fall t
Louis E. McComas
Louis Emory McComas was a United States Senator and a United States Representative from Maryland, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia and an Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia. Born on October 28, 1846, near Hagerstown, Washington County, Maryland, McComas attended St. James College in Maryland graduated from Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1866 and read law in 1868, he was admitted to the bar and entered private practice in Hagerstown from 1868 to 1892. McComas was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for election in 1876 to the 45th United States Congress, he was elected as a Republican from Maryland's 6th congressional district to the United States House of Representatives of the 48th United States Congress and to the three succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1883 to March 3, 1891. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1890 to the 52nd United States Congress, he was the secretary of the Republican National Committee in 1892.
During the period after his departure from the United States House of Representatives until his federal judicial appointment, McComas resumed private practice in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a Professor of International Law at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. McComas received a recess appointment from President Benjamin Harrison on November 17, 1892, to an Associate Justice seat on the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia vacated by Associate Justice Martin V. Montgomery, he was nominated to the same position by President Harrison on December 6, 1892. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 25, 1893, received his commission the same day, his service terminated on March 1899, due to his resignation. McComas was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate from Maryland and served from March 4, 1899, until March 3, 1905, he was Chairman of the Committee on Organization and Expenditures of Executive Departments for the 56th United States Congress and Chairman of the Committee on Education and Labor for the 57th and 58th United States Congresses.
McComas received a recess appointment from President Theodore Roosevelt on June 26, 1905, to an Associate Justice seat on the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia vacated by Associate Justice Martin Ferdinand Morris. He was nominated to the same position by President Roosevelt on December 5, 1905, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 6, 1905, received his commission the same day. His service terminated on November 10, 1907, due to his death in Washington, D. C, he was interred in Rose Hill Cemetery in Hagerstown. McComas's granddaughter, Katharine Byron, great-grandson, Goodloe Byron represented Maryland in the United States House of Representatives, both from the same seat held by McComas. United States Congress. "Louis E. McComas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Louis Emory McComas at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Katharine Edgar Byron, a Democrat, was a U. S. Congresswoman who represented the 6th congressional district of Maryland from May 27, 1941 to January 3, 1943, she was the first woman elected to Congress from Maryland. Byron was born in Michigan, she attended independent schools during her youth, such as the Westover School of Middlebury and the Holton-Arms School of Bethesda, Maryland. She moved to Williamsport, Maryland, in 1922; the Byrons were communicants of Saint John's Church. She was elected to Congress in a special election held May 27, 1941 to replace her husband, Representative William D. Byron, after his death in an airplane crash in Georgia on February 27, 1941, she was not a candidate for reelection and retired in Washington, D. C., where she died. She is interred in Riverview Cemetery of Maryland. Byron was a granddaughter of U. S. Senator Louis E. McComas. Women in the United States House of Representatives United States Congress. "Katharine Byron". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Katharine Byron at Find a Grave
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal