Norman Wolfred Kittson was one of early Minnesota's most prominent citizens. He was best known as first a fur trader a steamboat-line operator and a railway entrepreneur and owner of thoroughbred racehorses, he was part of the original syndicate. Kittson County, Minnesota is named for him. Norman County, Minnesota was named for him. Norman Wolfred Kittson was the eighth of ten children born to George Kittson, Justice of the Peace, clerk of the Commisariat and King's auctioneer at Sorel, Principal Cashier of the Bank of Canada in Montreal, both in Lower Canada. Norman Wolfred's mother, Ann Tucker of Sorel, was the daughter of Sergeant John Tucker of the 53rd Regiment of Foot. Norman was born 6 March 1814, baptized on 27 March of the same year in Sorel, his middle name'Wolfred' was given to Norman to honour Wolfred Nelson. Norman's grandfather, Thomas Kittson, was in the British Army in the 24th Regiment of Foot and was killed or taken prisoner in the fall of 1777 at the Battles of Saratoga. Thomas was married to Julia Calcutt, who has travelled with him with the Regiment in April 1776 from Cork, Ireland to Trois-Rivières.
By 1779, Julia was living with Alexander Henry with her infant George. Julia and Alexander had four children born out of wedlock, did marry by licence in 1785, Montreal after the official news that her husband was deceased, they had a fifth child after getting married. Kittson received a grammar school education at Sorel, like everyone in his family he was bilingual, his step-grandfather Alexander Henry and four of his five paternal uncles had all been active in the fur trade the North West Company. It therefore was no surprise that, seeking adventure, in 1830 he took an apprenticeship with the American Fur Company at Michilimackinac, where Alexander Henry and many others from Sorel had been active. Kittson served at various posts in. Kittson left the American Fur Company in 1833 to become a clerk to the sutler at Fort Snelling. In 1839, he went into business for himself, setting up as a fur trader and supply merchant at Cold Lake, near Fort Snelling. Henry Hastings Sibley, Kittson's old friend from the American Fur Company had risen to managing agent of the AFC, but left in 1843 to form a partnership with Kittson.
In 1844, maintaining a large degree of independence, Kittson established a permanent post at Pembina, North Dakota, where he made his headquarters. Covering the Red River Valley, he boldly set himself up in direct competition to the Hudson's Bay Company, whose headquarters were only 100 km away in the Red River Colony at Rupert's Land. Kittson's immediate success at Pembina threatened the trade monopoly exerted by the HBC, he served in the Minnesota Territorial Council from 1852 to 1855, while living in Pembina. Kittson collected furs from James Sinclair and established strong connections to the local French Canadians. Through his first wife, he became attached to the Métis people, employing them as tripmen and trading extensively with them. All of this enabled him to play a significant part in bringing about free trade to the settlement in 1849. Guillaume Sayer was trading with Kittson prior to the trial. In 1852, Kittson relocated from Pembina to St. Joseph to avoid the periodic flooding of the Red River of the North.
In the 1850s, a contemporary described Kittson as a "fine-looking man. Kittson moved to Minnesota's new capital, St. Paul, in 1854, becoming one the city's most influential businessman, he had several investments and real estate holdings. Kittson served on the St. Paul City Council from 1856 to 1858. From 1858 to 1859 he served as mayor. During this period, his business interests extended into the Red River Colony, which he was committed to developing. In 1856, he opened a store at St. Boniface and the following year he and other merchants shipped over $120,000 of furs from the Red River Settlement to St Paul. Although he sold the store in 1861, Kittson continued to import furs from the settlement and provide it with supplies, he was a long-time operator of Red River cart brigades on the Red River Trails, which served his trading businesses. Sir George Simpson, the governor of Kittson's old rival, the Hudson's Bay Company, described him in the 1850s as "the most extensive and respectable of the American traders doing business at Red River".
In 1858 Kittson was instrumental in establishing a steamboat service on the Red River of the North, a route, used by the HBC. Simpson's successor, Alexander Grant Dallas, managed to convert Kittson "from an opponent into an ally". In 1862, the Hudson's Bay Company appointed him shipping agent and head of navigation on the Red River, a position he retained throughout the 1860s to the great mutual benefit of both Kittson and the HBC, he co-ordinated the import of trade goods from Britain and the export of furs by cart brigades between St. Paul and Georgetown, by the steamship International between Georgetown and the Red River Settlement; the creation of the province of Manitoba from the former Rupert's Land in 1870 marked the end of the HBC trade monopoly. In 1872 Kittson joined up with another former competitor, James Jerome Hill, forming the Red River Transportation Company; the line had five steamboats, Kittson had invested $75,000 by 1873. They were the only operators on the Red River during the 1870s
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Chris Coleman (politician)
Christopher B. "Chris" Coleman is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 54th Mayor of Saint Paul, Minnesota between 2006 and 2018. He defeated incumbent mayor Randy Kelly in 2005 and took office on January 3, 2006, he was succeeded by city councilman Melvin Carter on January 2, 2018 Chris Coleman was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, as the son of Bridget Finnegan and Nicholas Coleman, Sr. who served as State Senate majority leader from 1973 to 1981. Coleman attended Cretin High School in St. Paul, his brother Nick Coleman was a columnist and reporter for the Minneapolis Star Tribune and the St. Paul Pioneer Press, their stepmother, Deborah Howell, was an editor for the Minneapolis Star and the St. Paul Pioneer Press and an ombudsman for The Washington Post, he is of no relation to former mayor and U. S. Senator Norm Coleman. Coleman attended the University of Minnesota as both an undergraduate and law student, he worked for eight years in Hennepin County as a public defender and prosecutor.
Proposals to build a metal shredder along the Mississippi River in Saint Paul inspired his first run for the Saint Paul City Council. Coleman represented Saint Paul's Ward 2 from 1997 to 2003. While on the city council he was an investment management consultant specializing in nonprofit organizations and endowments for RBC Dain Rauscher, he was president of United Family Practice Medical Center. Coleman unsuccessfully sought the Democratic-Farmer-Labor nomination for the United States House of Representatives seat in Minnesota's 4th congressional district in 2000. Betty McCollum won both the seat. Coleman ran in the 2005 St. Paul mayoral election, challenging Randy Kelly. Kelly had alienated supporters with his endorsement of George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election, national Democratic figures endorsed Coleman. Wesley Clark, John Kerry, Bill Richardson visited St. Paul to campaign for Coleman, while Hillary Clinton and John Edwards supported him. Coleman defeated Kelly in the general election, 69% to 31%.
Shortly after taking office, Coleman signed a city ordinance banning tobacco smoking in all bars and restaurants within city limits. The ban had long been opposed by former mayor Kelly. Coleman is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and Boston mayor Thomas Menino. Coleman worked with Minneapolis mayor R. T. Rybak in bids to host a national party convention. St. Paul was selected as the site of the 2008 Republican National Convention. In 2009, Coleman was elected to a second term, he again received 69% of the general election vote, while his Republican opponent, Eva Ng, received 31%. Coleman sought a third term in 2013, defeating three challengers with 78% of the vote. Coleman served as President of the National League of Cities until his term expired at the end of 2014. Coleman declined to run for a fourth term as mayor. In 2009, Coleman contemplated a bid for the DFL nomination for Governor of Minnesota in the 2010 election but withdrew from the race before formally announcing a bid.
On December 13, 2016, Coleman announced his candidacy for Governor of Minnesota in the 2018 election, which he withdrew. In June, 2018, he became the CEO of the Twin Cities chapter of Habitat for Humanity. Chris Coleman Official City website
Norman Bertram Coleman Jr. is an American lobbyist and politician. From 2003 to 2009, he served as a U. S. Senator for Minnesota. From 1994 to 2002, he was mayor of Minnesota. First elected as a member of the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, Coleman became a Republican in 1996, he lost his 2008 Senate reelection bid to Al Franken by 312 votes out of over 3 million cast. Coleman was born in a son of Norman Bertram Coleman Sr. and his wife, Beverly. His family was his paternal grandfather having changed the surname from Goldman to Coleman, he was a graduate of Hofstra University on Long Island. New York Senator Chuck Schumer, a Democrat, attended high school with Coleman. During his time at college, Coleman was an active member of the 1960s counterculture and a liberal Democrat. "Carting a bullhorn around campus, he'd lecture students about the immorality of the Nixon administration and the Vietnam War." He ran for president of the student senate during his junior year. Under Coleman, the student senate refused to ratify the newspaper's editor and her co-editor and cut some funding to the newspaper.
But after refusing to swear in the editor on four different occasions, the senate backed down. He celebrated his 20th birthday at the Woodstock Festival, admitted to smoking marijuana in his youth, he worked as a roadie for Jethro Tull and Ten Years among others. Coleman attended Brooklyn Law School from 1972 until 1974 but received his Juris Doctor from the University of Iowa College of Law in 1976. Coleman joined the office of the Minnesota Attorney General as a prosecutor rising to chief prosecutor and solicitor general. Coleman left the Attorney General's office upon being elected mayor of St. Paul. One of his first acts as mayor was the elimination of underfunded retirement health benefits for city workers. One of Coleman's best-known accomplishments as mayor of Saint Paul was to bring professional hockey back to Minnesota. In 1993, the Minnesota North Stars moved to Texas. On June 7, 1997, the NHL awarded Saint Paul an expansion franchise named the Minnesota Wild, that would play in a new arena downtown at the site of Civic Center Arena.
The new arena named the Xcel Energy Center, was built through a public-private partnership, with $65 million from state taxpayers and $30 million from the city of Saint Paul. Coleman successfully fought property tax increases, freezing property tax rates for the eight years he served as mayor. During Coleman's mayoralty, St. Paul's job rate grew by 7.1 percent and 18,000 jobs were added. While many praised him for his "pragmatic" leadership style and successes in revitalizing St. Paul, critics labeled him an "opportunist" and Coleman found himself at odds with the Democratic Party's more liberal members. In 1996, he was sometimes excluded from them altogether. Coleman joined the Republican Party in 1996 and was reelected mayor of St. Paul in 1997, defeating Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party nominee State Senator Sandy Pappas in the Democratic city, he is, as of 2018, the last Republican mayor of St. Paul. Coleman's role in bringing professional hockey back to Minnesota and his popularity in St. Paul helped fuel a run for governor in 1998.
He secured the Republican nomination, facing just token opposition in the primary. He faced DFL candidate Hubert H. "Skip" Humphrey III and Reform Party candidate Jesse Ventura in the general election. Polls had Coleman and Humphrey running but Ventura won the election in an upset. Coleman made plans for a second run for governor in 2002, but Karl Rove and George W. Bush persuaded him to run against incumbent Senator Paul Wellstone in that year's Senate election. Coleman won the Republican nomination. Coleman and Wellstone were neck-and-neck in most polls for most of the campaign. Wellstone died in a plane crash on October 25, 2002; the Democrats named former Vice President Walter Mondale to replace Wellstone on the ballot. Mondale had held the same Senate seat from 1964 to 1977. Coleman narrowly defeated Mondale, winning by just over 61,000 votes out of over 2 million statewide. Coleman succeeded Dean Barkley, whom Ventura had appointed to serve the remaining two months of Wellstone's term. In April 2003, Coleman told a Capitol Hill reporter that he was a "99% improvement" over Wellstone because he had a better working relationship with the White House.
Many Wellstone supporters found this offensive and insulting, at least one member of Congress urged Coleman to apologize. Coleman issued an apology, explaining that he was referring to the reporter's question about the differences between his and Wellstone's relationship with the White House, saying in part "I would never want to diminish the legacy or memory of Senator Paul Wellstone, I will accept full responsibility for not having been more accurate in my comments." In 2004 Coleman campaigned for the chairmanship of the National Republican Senatorial Committee, but was narrowly defeated for the post by North Carolina Senator Elizabeth Dole in a 28–27 vote. In 2008, Coleman's opponents for reelection were Dean Barkley and the DFL nominee, former Air America host and comedian Al Franken. On the day after the election, Coleman claimed victory in the race. Minnesota law requires an automatic recount when the margin between the leading candidates is less than 0.5% of the vote, the margin between Coleman and Franken was about 0.01%.
Barkley came in third with 15%. The initial results of the recount put Franken ahead by 225 votes, out of
Melvin Carter (politician)
Melvin W. Carter III is an American politician who has served as Mayor of Saint Paul, Minnesota since 2018, he was elected in November 2017, is the first African American mayor of the city. Melvin Carter was born in the Rondo Neighborhood of Minnesota, he is the son of Toni Carter, a Ramsey County commissioner, Melvin Carter, Jr. a now-retired St. Paul police officer, he attended Saint Paul Central High School in St. Paul, he was an UMTYMP student all through junior high and high school, studying math and staying at University of Minnesota's Middlebrook Hall during the summer. He obtained his bachelor's degree in business administration from Florida A&M University and his Masters in Public Policy from the Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, he was a member of the Saint Paul City Council from 2008 to 2013. Melvin was married to his first wife, Alecia Carter, from 2003 to 2011. Melvin remarried in July 2017, his second wife, Sakeena Futrell-Carter has three children from two previous relationships.
Carter's cousin Kenjon Barner is a running back in the NFL who plays for the Carolina Panthers
Jacob H. Stewart
Jacob Henry Stewart was a Representative for the U. S. state of Minnesota. Stewart was born in Clermont, Columbia County, New York on January 15, 1829, he moved with his parents to Peekskill, New York, where he attended the common schools and was graduated from Phillips Academy. He attended Yale College to study medicine and graduated from the University Medical College of New York City in 1851, returning to his hometown of Peekskill to practice medicine. In 1855, Stewart moved to Saint Paul, becoming the medical officer of Ramsey County in 1856 and surgeon general of the State of Minnesota from 1857 – 1863, he was a member of the Minnesota Senate in 1858 and 1859, during the American Civil War he served as a surgeon in the Union Army. Stewart was mayor of Saint Paul in 1864, 1868, 1872 – 1874, served as postmaster of Saint Paul from 1865 – 1870. In 1876, he was elected as a Republican to the 45th congress, serving from March 4, 1877 to March 3, 1879. After leaving office, he served as surveyor general of Minnesota from 1879 – 1882 resumed the practice of medicine in Saint Paul.
He is interred in Oakland Cemetery. Minnesota Legislators PresentUnited States Congress. "Jacob H. Stewart". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Jacob H. Stewart at Find a Grave
University of Minnesota Press
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press, part of the University of Minnesota. Founded in 1925, the University of Minnesota Press is best known for its books in social theory and cultural theory, critical theory and ethnic studies, feminist criticism, media studies; the University of Minnesota Press publishes a significant number of translations of major works of European and Latin American thought and scholarship. Minnesota publishes a diverse list of works on the cultural and natural heritage of the state and the upper Midwest region; the University of Minnesota Press's catalog of academic journals totals ten publications: Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum Critical Ethnic Studies Cultural Critique Environment, Place Future Anterior: Journal of Historic Preservation History and Criticism Journal of American Indian Education The Moving Image: The Journal of the Association of Moving Image Archivists Native American and Indigenous Studies Verge: Studies in Global Asias Wíčazo Ša Review University of Minnesota Press