Christ Church, Spitalfields
Christ Church Spitalfields is an Anglican church built between 1714 and 1729 to a design by Nicholas Hawksmoor. On Commercial Street in the East End and in today's Central London it is in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, on its western border facing the City of London, it was one of the first of the so-called "Commissioners' Churches" built for the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches, established by an Act of Parliament in 1711; the purpose of the Commission was to acquire sites and build fifty new churches to serve London's new settlements. This parish was carved out of the circa 1 square mile medieval Stepney parish for an area dominated by Huguenots as a show of Anglican authority; some Huguenots used it for baptisms and burials but not for everyday worship, preferring their own chapels though they assimilated into English life and Anglican worship –, in the eighteenth century plain. The Commissioners for the new churches including Christopher Wren, Thomas Archer and John Vanbrugh appointed two surveyors, one of whom was Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Only twelve of the planned fifty churches were built. The architectural composition of Christ Church demonstrates Hawksmoor's usual abruptness: the plain rectangular box of the nave is surmounted at its western end by a broad tower of three stages topped by a steeple more Gothic than classical; the magnificent porch with its semi-circular pediment and Tuscan columns is attached bluntly to the western end: it may indeed be a late addition to the design intended to add further support to the tower. Like those of Hawksmoor's other London churches and many of Wren's, the central space of the nave is organised around two axes, the shorter emphasised by two entrances of which only that to the south remains, it is lit by a clerestory. The aisles are roofed with elliptical barrel-vaults carried on raised Composite order columns, the same order is used for the screens across the eastern and western ends; the Venetian window at the east may show the growing influence of the revival of Palladian architecture, or it may be a rhyme with the arched pediment of the entrance portico, repeated in the wide main stage of the tower.
The east window is a double window, one inside, one outside, the effect now obscured by the Victorian stained glass window between the two. In 1836, Wallen Son and Beatson, local architects and surveyors, provided a substantial estimate for repairs to the church following a fire; the church was altered in 1850 by Ewan Christian, who removed the side galleries, blocked in the windows at the corners of the central space, combined upper and lower aisle windows to make tall, thin windows. The organ in the church was inaugurated in 1735, the work of Richard Bridge, a most celebrated builder of the time. With over two thousand pipes it was, when built, the largest organ in England, a record it held for over a hundred years. In the nineteenth century work was done at various times and further changes were made in the 1920s; the organ was not heard in public from about 1960 onwards. The magnificent organ case of walnut, the completeness of the Georgian survivals, make this a historic instrument of national importance.
The involvement of local expert Michael Gillingham was largely responsible for the decision to have it restored to working condition. The organ parts were dismantled and removed for safe keeping and to protect them from damage during the restoration of the building. A scheme of conservative restoration was prepared by organ builder William Drake and the restored organ was installed in 2014. By 1960 Christ Church was nearly derelict and services were held in the Church Hall as the roof of Christ Church itself was declared unsafe; the Hawksmoor Committee staved off the threat of wholesale demolition of the empty building—proposed by the Bishop of Stepney, Trevor Huddleston—and ensured that the roof was rebuilt with funds from the sale of the bombed out shell of St John's, Smith Square, now a concert hall. A rehabilitation centre for homeless alcoholic men was housed in part of the crypt from the 1960s until 2000 when it relocated to purpose built accommodation above ground. In 1976 the Friends of Christ Church Spitalfields, an independent charity, was formed to raise money and project manage the restoration of this Grade I listed building so it could be brought back into use.
Church services returned to the restored building in 1987 and the restoration of the building was complete in 2004, enabling a wide range of uses to run alongside its primary function as a place of worship. As part of the restoration process, the burial vaults beneath the church had to be cleared. Instead of hiring a commercial undertaker for this job, the Friends of Christ Church raised funds for the employment of an archaeological team, who excavated nearly 1,000 interments between 1984 and 1986. Of these, about 390 were identifiable from coffin name plates. Archaeologists and physical anthropologists took this opportunity to study Victorian mortuary practices and anthropology, including health and causes of death of the local population; the project was written up as a two-volume landmark study. The portico at the west end was repaired and cleaned in 1986
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the north bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central London, England, its name, which derives from the neighbouring Westminster Abbey, may refer to either of two structures: the Old Palace, a medieval building-complex destroyed by fire in 1834, or its replacement, the New Palace that stands today. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and, for ceremonial purposes, retains its original status as a royal residence. Committees appointed by both houses manage the building and report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and to the Lord Speaker; the first royal palace constructed on the site dated from the 11th century, Westminster became the primary residence of the Kings of England until fire destroyed much of the complex in 1512.
After that, it served as the home of the Parliament of England, which had met there since the 13th century, as the seat of the Royal Courts of Justice, based in and around Westminster Hall. In 1834 an greater fire ravaged the rebuilt Houses of Parliament, the only significant medieval structures to survive were Westminster Hall, the Cloisters of St Stephen's, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, the Jewel Tower. In the subsequent competition for the reconstruction of the Palace, the architect Charles Barry won with a design for new buildings in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the English Perpendicular Gothic style of the 14th–16th centuries; the remains of the Old Palace were incorporated into its much larger replacement, which contains over 1,100 rooms organised symmetrically around two series of courtyards and which has a floor area of 112,476 m2. Part of the New Palace's area of 3.24 hectares was reclaimed from the River Thames, the setting of its nearly 300-metre long façade, called the River Front.
Augustus Pugin, a leading authority on Gothic architecture and style, assisted Barry and designed the interior of the Palace. Construction started in 1840 and lasted for 30 years, suffering great delays and cost overruns, as well as the death of both leading architects. Major conservation work has taken place since to reverse the effects of London's air pollution, extensive repairs followed the Second World War, including the reconstruction of the Commons Chamber following its bombing in 1941; the Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom. The Elizabeth Tower, in particular referred to by the name of its main bell, Big Ben, has become an iconic landmark of London and of the United Kingdom in general, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city, an emblem of parliamentary democracy. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia called the new palace "a dream in stone"; the Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Palace of Westminster site was strategically important during the Middle Ages, as it was located on the banks of the River Thames. Known in medieval times as Thorney Island, the site may have been first-used for a royal residence by Canute the Great during his reign from 1016 to 1035. St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Anglo-Saxon monarch of England, built a royal palace on Thorney Island just west of the City of London at about the same time as he built Westminster Abbey. Thorney Island and the surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Neither the buildings used by the Anglo-Saxons nor those used by William I survive; the oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of William I's successor, King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the monarch's principal residence in the late Medieval period; the predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall. Simon de Montfort's parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265.
The "Model Parliament", the first official Parliament of England, met there in 1295, all subsequent English Parliaments and after 1707, all British Parliaments have met at the Palace. In 1512, during the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace. In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a powerful minister who had lost the King's favour. Renaming it the Palace of Whitehall, Henry used it as his principal residence. Although Westminster remained a royal palace, it was used by the two Houses of Parliament and by the various royal law courts; because it was a royal residence, the Palace included no purpose-built chambers for the two Houses. Important state ceremonies were held in the Painted Chamber, built in the 13th century as the main bedchamber for King Henry III; the House of Lords met in the Queen's Chamber, a modest Medieval hall towards the southern end of the complex, with the adjoining Prince's Chamber used as the robing room for peers and for the monarch during state openings.
In 1801 the Upper House moved into the larger White Chamber.
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Procter & Gamble
The Procter & Gamble Company is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, founded in 1837 by English American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble. It specializes in a wide range of personal health/consumer health, personal care and hygiene products. Before the sale of Pringles to the Kellogg Company, its product portfolio included foods and beverages. In 2014, P&G recorded $83.1 billion in sales. On August 1, 2014, P&G announced it was streamlining the company and selling off around 100 brands from its product portfolio in order to focus on the remaining 65 brands, which produced 95% of the company's profits. A. G. Lafley—the company's chairman, CEO until October 31, 2015—said the future P&G would be "a much simpler, much less complex company of leading brands that's easier to manage and operate". David Taylor is the current CEO of Procter & Gamble. Candlemaker William Procter, born in England, soapmaker James Gamble, born in Ireland, both emigrated from the United Kingdom.
They settled in Cincinnati and met when they married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris. Alexander Norris, their father-in-law, called a meeting in which he persuaded his new sons-in-law to become business partners. On October 31, 1837, as a result of the suggestion, Procter & Gamble was created. In 1858–1859, sales reached $1 million. By that point, about 80 employees worked for Gamble. During the American Civil War, the company won contracts to supply the Union Army with soap and candles. In addition to the increased profits experienced during the war, the military contracts introduced soldiers from all over the country to Procter & Gamble's products. In the 1880s, Procter & Gamble began to market a new product, an inexpensive soap that floats in water; the company called the soap Ivory. William Arnett Procter, William Procter's grandson, began a profit-sharing program for the company's workforce in 1887. By giving the workers a stake in the company, he assumed that they would be less to go on strike.
The company began to build factories in other locations in the United States because the demand for products had outgrown the capacity of the Cincinnati facilities. The company's leaders began to diversify its products, as well, in 1911, began producing Crisco, a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats; as radio became more popular in the 1920s and 1930s, the company sponsored a number of radio programs. As a result, these shows became known as "soap operas"; the company moved into other countries, both in terms of manufacturing and product sales, becoming an international corporation with its 1930 acquisition of the Thomas Hedley Co. based in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. After this acquisition, Procter & Gamble had their UK Headquarters at'Hedley House' in Newcastle upon Tyne, until quite recently. Numerous new products and brand names were introduced over time, Procter & Gamble began branching out into new areas; the company introduced Tide laundry detergent in 1946 and Prell shampoo in 1947.
In 1955, Procter & Gamble began selling the first toothpaste to contain fluoride, known as Crest. Branching out once again in 1957, the company purchased Charmin paper mills and began manufacturing toilet paper and other tissue paper products. Once again focusing on laundry, Procter & Gamble began making Downy fabric softener in 1960 and Bounce fabric softener sheets in 1972. One of the most revolutionary products to come out on the market was the company's disposable Pampers diaper, first test-marketed in 1961, the same year Procter & Gamble came out with Head & Shoulders. Prior to this point, disposable diapers were not popular, although Johnson & Johnson had developed a product called Chux. Babies always wore cloth diapers, which were labor-intensive to wash. Pampers provided a convenient alternative, albeit at the environmental cost of more waste requiring landfilling. Amid the recent concerns parents have voiced on the ingredients in diapers, Pampers launch Pampers Pure collection in 2018, a "natural" diaper alternative.
Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and increased profits. These acquisitions included Folgers Coffee, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Richardson-Vicks, Shulton's Old Spice, Max Factor, the Iams Company, Pantene, among others. In 1994, the company made headlines for big losses resulting from levered positions in interest rate derivatives, subsequently sued Bankers Trust for fraud. In 1996, P&G again made headlines when the Food and Drug Administration approved a new product developed by the company, Olestra. Known by its brand name'Olean', Olestra is a lower-calorie substitute for fat in cooking potato chips and other snacks. In January 2005, P&G announced the acquisition of Gillette, forming the largest consumer goods company and placing Unilever into second place; this added brands such as Gillette razors, Duracell and Oral-B to their stable. The acquisition was approved by the European Union and the Federal Trade Commission, with conditions to a spinoff of certain overlapping brands.
P&G agreed to sell its SpinBrush battery-operated electric toothbrush business to Church & Dwight, Gillette's Rembrandt toothpaste line to Johnson & Johnson. The deodorant brands Right Guard and Dri, Dry Idea were sold to Dial Corporation; the compa
Jesus College, Cambridge
Jesus College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college's full name is The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangelist and the glorious Virgin Saint Radegund, near Cambridge, its common name comes from the name of its Jesus Chapel. Jesus College was established between 1496 and 1516 on the site of the twelfth-century Benedictine nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund by John Alcock Bishop of Ely; the cockerel is the symbol of Jesus College, after the surname of its founder. Three members of Jesus College have received a Nobel Prize. Two fellows of the college have been appointed to the International Court of Justice. Notable alumni include Thomas Cranmer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Reid, Lord Toulson, Sir Rupert Jackson, Sir David Hare, Sir Roger Scruton, Nick Hornby. Jesus College has assets of £243m making it Cambridge’s third-wealthiest college; the college is known for its expansive grounds which include its sporting fields and for its close proximity to its boathouse.
Ian White, current van Eck Professor of Engineering in the university, has been master of Jesus College since 2011. When founded in 1496, the College consisted of buildings taken over from the Nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund, founded at the beginning of the 12th century; the Benedictine Convent, upon dissolution, included the cloister attached to it. This set of buildings remains the core of the college to this day and this accounts for its distinctly monastic architectural style, which sets it apart from other Cambridge colleges. A library was soon added, the chapel was modified and reduced in scale by Alcock. At its foundation, the college had six fellows and six scholars. Jesus College admits undergraduate and graduates students to all subjects at the university though accepts a larger number of students for engineering, law, natural sciences, economics, history and human, social and political sciences; the college offers a wide range of scholarships. The college performs well in the informal Tompkins Table, which ranks Cambridge colleges by undergraduate results.
Along with students from Trinity, King's, Christ's and St John's, students of the college have been members of the Cambridge Apostles. The main entrance to Jesus College is a walled passage known as the "Chimney"; the term is derived the Middle French word chemin, for "path" or "way". The Chimney leads directly to the Porter's Lodge and into First Court. All the courts at the college, with the exception of the cloister, are open on at least one side; the Quincentenary Library is open 24 hours a day. The library was designed by Eldred Evans and David Shalev in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the foundation of the college in 1996. Completion of the library was shortly followed by a new accommodation building in 2000, now known as Library Court; the Quincentenary Library has a large law collection, housed in a law library on the ground floor. The Old Library was in regular use until 1912, it still is available to private researchers upon appointment. The Old Library includes the Malthus Collection, being the family collection of alumnus Thomas Malthus.
Jesus College has large sporting grounds all on-site. These include football, cricket, squash and hockey pitches; the Jesus College Boat House is only 400 yards away, across Midsummer Common. The college hosts exhibitions of sculpture by contemporary artists, it has hosted work by Sir Antony Gormley, Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, Barry Flanagan. The college grounds include a nature trail, inspired by poetry composed by Samuel Taylor Coleridge during his time as a student. Jesus College is one of the few colleges to allow anyone to walk on the lawns of its courts, with the exception of First Court, Cloister Court and those that are burial sites for deceased nuns from the original nunnery. In common with other Cambridge colleges, this privilege is only extended during Easter term; the College Chapel was founded in 1157 and took until 1245 to complete, is believed to be the oldest university building in Cambridge still in use. It was the Benedictine Convent of St Mary and St Radegund, dissolved by Bishop John Alcock.
The original structure of the chapel was cruciform in shape and the nave had both north and south aisles. A high, pitched roof was surmounted by a steeple; the chapel was used as the parish church of St Radegund. Twice the chapel was ravaged by fire, in 1313 and 1376; when the College took over the precincts during the 15th century, the parish was renamed after the College as Jesus parish, with the churchyard still being used for burials. This, was short lived, as by the middle of the 16th century Jesus parish was absorbed into that of All Saints. Significant alterations were carried out to the church under Alcock, transforming the cathedral-sized church, the largest in Cambridge into a College chapel for a small group of scholars. A large part of the original nave was replaced by College rooms, subsequently part of the Master's Lodge; the misericords were created by the famous English architect Augustus Pugin between 1849 and 1853. Pugin used fragments of the misericords dating from 1500, preserved in the Master's Lodge as templates.
Repairs were undertaken by George Fr
Fortnum & Mason
Fortnum & Mason is an upmarket department store in Piccadilly, with additional stores at St Pancras railway station and Heathrow Airport in London, as well as various stockists worldwide. Its headquarters are located at 181 Piccadilly, where it was established in 1707 by William Fortnum and Hugh Mason. Today, it is owned by Wittington Investments Ltd. Founded as a grocery store, Fortnum's reputation was built on supplying quality food, saw rapid growth throughout the Victorian era. Though Fortnum's developed into a department store, it continues to focus on stocking a variety of exotic and also'basic' provisions; the store has since opened several other departments, such as the Gentlemen's department on the third floor. It is the location of a tea shop and several restaurants. William Fortnum was a footman in the household of Queen Anne; the royal family’s insistence on having new candles every night resulted in large amounts of half-used wax, which Fortnum promptly resold for a tidy profit. The enterprising Fortnum had a sideline business as a grocer.
He convinced his landlord, Hugh Mason, to be his associate, they founded the first Fortnum & Mason store in Mason's small shop in St James's Market in 1707. In 1761, William Fortnum's grandson Charles went into the service of Queen Charlotte and the affiliation with the royal court led to an increase in business. Fortnum & Mason claims to have invented the Scotch egg in 1738; the store began to stock speciality items, namely ready-to-eat luxury meals such as fresh poultry or game served in aspic jelly. During the Napoleonic Wars, the emporium supplied dried fruit and other preserves to British officers and during the Victorian era it was called upon to provide food for prestigious court functions. Queen Victoria sent shipments of Fortnum & Mason's concentrated beef tea to Florence Nightingale's hospitals during the Crimean War. Charles Drury Edward Fortnum F. S. A. of the family, was a distinguished art collector and a Trustee of the British Museum, to which he donated his collection of Islamic ceramics.
In 1886, after having bought the entire stock of five cases of a new product made by H. J. Heinz, Fortnum & Mason became the first store in Britain to stock tins of baked beans. In April 1951, the Canadian businessman W. Garfield Weston acquired the store and became its chairman following a boardroom coup. In 1964, he commissioned a four-ton clock to be installed above the main entrance of the store as a tribute to its founders; every hour, 4-foot-high models of William Fortnum and Hugh Mason emerge and bow to each other, with chimes and 18th-century–style music playing in the background. Since Garfield Weston's death in 1978, the store has been run by his granddaughters, Jana Khayat and Kate Weston Hobhouse; the Managing Director is Ewan Venters. The store underwent a £24 million refurbishment in 2007 as part of its tercentenary celebrations. In March 2012, the Queen, Duchess of Cornwall and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge made their first official joint visit to Fortnum & Mason. During this visit, they were each presented with their own personalized hampers.
The Queen opened the Diamond Jubilee Tea Salon on the fourth floor. In November 2013, an additional store was opened at St Pancras International station, the first new store in the UK. Fortnum & Mason opened its first standalone store outside Britain in Dubai on 21 March 2014. In November 2010, animal rights group PETA UK began a campaign against Fortnum & Mason’s sale of foie gras citing the "cruelty" in the production process; the group holds demonstrations involving celebrities and volunteers outside the store. Celebrities supporting the campaign include Geezer Butler, Sir Roger Moore, Owain Yeoman, Tamara Ecclestone, Bill Oddie and Morrissey. Fortnum & Mason has been reprimanded by Westminster Trading Standards for misleading customers about its animal welfare standards; as a result, the grocer has changed its corporate social responsibility document to state that only UK suppliers are required to adhere to its welfare standards. On 26 March 2011, Fortnum & Mason was targeted by the group UK Uncut, who broke off from the main 2011 anti-cuts protest march to target the tax avoidance policies of Associated British Foods, like Fortnum & Mason, is owned by Wittington Investments.
This took the form of a mass sit-in, with some 138 UK Uncut protesters being arrested. On 14 November 2014, Fortnum & Mason released a rebranded and redeveloped London Dry Gin created as a partnership brand by The London Distillery Company Ltd; the London Distillery Company was approached by Fortnum and Mason in September 2014 to undertake the rebrand following continued in-store success of Dodd's Gin, created as a tribute to an 18th-century engineer and entrepreneur, Ralph Dodd. Design agency United Creatives were commissioned by The London Distillery Company CEO Darren Rook to undertake the label rebrand. Fortnum & Mason run drinks awards. In the words of F&M CEO Ewan Venters, the awards recognise ‘the pinnacle of high achievement in food and drink across the media’; the awards celebrate the best writers, presenters, image-makers and personalities working in the food and drink industry. The 2018 Awards ceremony was hosted by Claudia Winkleman and winners included Nadiya Hussain, Nigel Slater and Jay Rayner.
Harrods Jenners Media related to Fortnum & Mason at Wikimedia Commons Official website Bonhams – Fortnum & Mason
Bollinger is a Champagne house, a producer of sparkling wines from the Champagne region of France. They produce several labels of Champagne under the Bollinger name, including the vintage Vieilles Vignes Françaises, Grande Année and R. D. as well as the non-vintage Special Cuvée. Founded in 1829 in Aÿ by Hennequin de Villermont, Paul Renaudin and Jacques Bollinger the house continues to be run by members of the Bollinger family. In Britain Bollinger Champagnes are affectionately known as "Bolly". Bollinger has roots in the Champagne region dating back to 1585 when the Hennequins, one of the Bollinger founding families, owned land in Cramant. Before the Bollinger house was founded, in the 18th century the Villermont family practised wine making, though not under their family name. In 1750, Villermont settled in the location 16 rue Jules Lobet, which would become the head office for Bollinger. In 1803 Jacques Joseph Placide Bollinger was born in the kingdom of Württemberg. In 1822, he moved to the Champagne region and began work at the Champagne house of Muller Ruinart, which no longer exists.
Many other German nationals came to settle in the Champagne region, including Johann-Josef Krug and the Heidsiecks, who founded a house that would become Charles Heidsieck, Piper Heidsieck, Heidsieck & Co Monopole, Veuve Clicquot and others. The Champagne house Renaudin Bollinger was founded on February 6, 1829 in Aÿ by Hennequin de Villermont, Paul Levieux Renaudin and Jacques Bollinger; the partners agreed that the Villermont name would not be used on the labels, hence the house name Renaudin Bollinger. Starting when Jacques Bollinger married Charlotte de Villermont, the house has been managed by the Bollinger family. Though Paul Renaudin passed without an heir to his name, the label did not become Bollinger until the 1960s. Founder Jacques Joseph Bollinger married Charlotte de Villermont; the couple had a daughter, who had two sons Joseph and Georges. These sons took over the company in 1885 and began expanding the family estate by purchasing vineyards in nearby villages; the sons developed the image of the brand, such as when Bollinger received a Royal Warrant in 1884 from Queen Victoria.
In 1918 Jacques Bollinger, the son of Georges, took over the company. Jacques married Emily Law de Lauriston Boubers, known as "Lily". Jacques further expanded the facilities by building new cellars, purchasing the Tauxières vineyards, acquiring the assets of another Champagne house on Boulevard du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny—where Bollinger's offices are presently located; when Jacques Bollinger died in 1941, Lily Bollinger took over. Lily expanded production through the purchase of more vineyards, but is better known for traveling the world to promote the brand. Lily was well-publicized in the Champagne region. I drink it when I'm sad. Sometimes I drink it; when I have company I consider it obligatory. I trifle with it if I drink it when I am. Otherwise, I never touch it --. Lily managed Bollinger until 1971, when her nephews Claude d'Hautefeuille and Christian Bizot succeeded her. Bollinger was modernized under the direction of Claude d'Hautefeuille, who acquired additional vineyards and developed the brand internationally.
Following Claude, his cousin Christian Bizot took over the Bollinger house. In addition to expanding the world distribution of Bollinger, Bizot developed a Charter of Ethics and Quality in 1992. Since 1994, Ghislain de Mongolfier has managed Bollinger. A great-grandson of the founder, Mongolfier has served as president of the Association Viticole Champenoise since 2004, after leading the Commission of Champagne for 10 years; the winemaker has used the popular James Bond film series as a marketing device. In the 1973 film Live and Let Die, James Bond is heard asking for a bottle of Bollinger after entering his hotel. In the 1985 film A View to a Kill, James Bond recognizes the champagne served at the top of the Eiffel Tower as "Bollinger, 75." In the 1987 film The Living Daylights, James Bond delivers a gift basket to General Koskov who, seeing the champagne, exclaims "Bollinger R. D.... The Best!" In the 2002 film Die Another Day, James Bond is heard asking for a bottle of 1961 Bollinger after being released from a North Korean prison.
In The World Is Not Enough, James Bond beds the female lead alongside an iced bottle of Bollinger. In the 2006 film Casino Royale, James Bond requests a bottle of Bollinger. There is a bottle in his car at the end of the car chase at the start of GoldenEye. Bollinger is one of the last remaining independent Champagne houses. Family-managed since 1889, Bollinger maintains more than 150 hectares of vineyards, it produces the following sparkling wines: Special Cuvée: The Bollinger house style. This Champagne blend uses grapes with the addition of reserve wines. Champagne author Tom Stevenson describes the house style as "classic, Pinot-dominated Champagnes of great potential longevity and complexity" which "tends to go toasty." The blend includes up to 10 % reserve wines. This gives the special cuvee structure. Grande Année: When Bollinger believes there is an exceptional harvest, they will produce their prestige Champagne Grande Année designed to express the character of the vintage; the house will select cru by cru, to produce Grande Année.
This Champagne is available as a Rosé. The wine spends five years on