The term chapel refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship, attached to a larger nonreligious institution or, considered an extension of a primary religious institution. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a college, palace, funeral home, synagogue or mosque, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an free-standing building, sometimes with its own grounds. Chapel has referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside the established church; until the Protestant Reformation, a chapel denoted a place of worship, either at a secondary location, not the main responsibility of the local parish priest, or that belonged to a person or institution. The earliest Christian places of worship are now referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars, which if they occupied a distinct space, would be called a chapel.
In Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them. The most famous example is the Iberian Chapel. Although chapels refer to Christian places of worship, they are commonly found in Jewish synagogues and do not denote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law—non-denominational or inter-faith chapels in such institutions may nonetheless be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop. Non-denominational chapels are encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, university or prison. Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel under the leadership of a military chaplain; the earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individual's home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation. People who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them.
The word, like the associated word, chaplain, is derived from Latin. More the word "chapel" is derived from a relic of Saint Martin of Tours: traditional stories about Martin relate that while he was still a soldier, he cut his military cloak in half to give part to a beggar in need; the other half he wore over his shoulders as a "small cape". The beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk abbot bishop; this cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, they kept the relic with them as they did battle. The tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names "chapel" and "chaplain"; the word appears in the Irish language in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland. While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais, a new word, séipéal, came into usage.
In British history, "chapel" or "meeting house", was the standard designation for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. It was a word associated with the pre-eminence of independent religious practice in rural regions of England and Wales, the northern industrial towns of the late 18th and 19th centuries, centres of population close to but outside the City of London; as a result, "chapel" is sometimes used as an adjective in the UK to describe the members of such churches. A proprietary chapel is one that belonged to a private person. In the 19th century they were common being built to cope with urbanisation, they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favorite preachers, they are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there.
Many Anglican Churches were Proprietary Chapels. Over the years they have been converted into normal Parishes. While the usage of the word "chapel" is not limited to Christian terminology, it is most found in that context. Nonetheless, the word's meaning can vary by denomination, non-denominational chapels can be found in many hospitals and the United Nations headquarters. Chapels can be found for worship in Judaism; the word "chapel" is in common usage in the United Kingdom, in Wales, for Nonconformist places of worship. In the UK, due to the rise in Nonconformist chapels during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the time of the 1851 census, more people attended the independent chapels than attended the state religion's Anglican churches. In Roman Catholic Church canon law, a chapel, technically called an "oratory", is a building or part thereof dedicated to the celebration of services the Mass, not a parish church; this may be a private chapel, for the use of one person or a select group.
Nigel Jenkins was an Anglo-Welsh poet. He was an editor, psychogeographer and writer of creative non-fiction, as well as being a lecturer at Swansea University and director of the creative writing programme there. Jenkins was born on 20 July 1949 in Gorseinon and was brought up on a farm on the former Kilvrough estate on the Gower Peninsula, near Swansea, he was educated at the University of Essex. Jenkins first came to prominence as one of the Welsh Arts Council's Three Young Anglo-Welsh Poets. In 1976, he was given an Eric Gregory Award by the Society of Authors. Jenkins would go on to publish several collections of poetry over the course of his life, including, in 2002, the first haiku collection from a Welsh publisher, his poetry has been translated into French, Hungarian and Russian, his translations of modern Welsh poetry have appeared in numerous magazines and anthologies worldwide, including The Bloodaxe Anthology of Modern Welsh Poetry. In 1998, the Russian journal Literatura Innostranya published a selection of his poems, translated into Russian, for a feature on his work.
He composed poetry for public places – executed in stone, neon and other materials – in response to commissions from various public bodies. A former newspaper journalist, Jenkins was an accomplished writer of prose. In 1996, he won the Wales Book of the Year prize for his travel book Gwalia in Khasia – the story of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists' Mission to the Khasi Hills in north-east India. Jenkins edited an accompanying anthology of poetry and prose from the Khasi Hills, entitled Khasia in Gwalia. In 2001, Gomer Press published a selection of his essays and articles as Footsore on the Frontier and, in 2008, Real Swansea – the first of his three contributions to Seren's series of psychogeographic guide books – was released to much acclaim. A second volume was published in 2012, followed by a third, posthumous volume in 2014, completing an unintended trilogy. During his career, Jenkins proved himself to be a proficient editor, lending his keen editorial eye to a number of prominent projects and publications, including The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, published by the University of Wales Press in 2008.
A respected pioneer of the haiku in Wales, he co-edited the country's first national anthology of haiku poetry, Another Country, in 2011. Jenkins was a lecturer on Swansea University's Creative and Media Writing programme and, at the time of his death, lived in Mumbles, Swansea. Jenkins died in the Tŷ Olwen Hospice in Swansea on 28 January 2014, aged 64, following a short illness, his funeral was held at St. Mary's Church, Pennard, on the morning of 10 February 2014. With the church at capacity, the ceremony was relayed by audio link-up to hundreds of mourners gathered in the nearby community hall. Jenkins was buried in the graveyard of St. Mary's, the same resting place as fellow poets Vernon Watkins and Harri Webb. In July 2014, The H'mm Foundation published Encounters with Nigel, an anthology of critical essays, creative pieces and tributes to Jenkins from fellow writers, former students and family members; the anthology was the third in the H'mm Foundation's Encounters series, following publications dedicated to Dylan and R. S. Thomas.
It was launched at Swansea's Dylan Thomas Centre on 19 July 2014 as part of Cofio Nigel, an event celebrating Jenkins' life. The punk band Helen Love name-checked Jenkins on their single'Where Dylan Thomas Talks To Me', released in November 2014; the song revealed the band's desire to see the cycle path from Mumbles to Swansea being renamed'The Nigel Jenkins Way', with lead singer Love seeing it as a fitting tribute to "a fantastic writer and poet, a maverick, a punk rocker, somebody Swansea should be proud of." Fields of Praise for'Kaleidoscope', BBC Radio 4, May 1987. Gwalia yng Nghasia, a three-part documentary series for S4C, March/April 1994. TV Ballads: At Home, BBC Wales, 1995 and BBC 2, 1996. Gwalia in Khasia, a one-hour documentary for BBC Wales. Kardomah Boys, about Dylan Thomas and his fellow Swansea artists, in the BBC Wales'Catalysts' series, September'97. 1998: John Tripp Spoken Poetry Award 1996: Wales Book of the Year, for Gwalia in Khasia 1991: John Morgan Writing Award 1976: Eric Gregory Award 1974: Welsh Arts Council's Young Poets Prize Two Welsh Arts Council bursaries Official website Centre for Research into the English Literature and Language of Wales https://web.archive.org/web/20070103162611/http://www.swan.ac.uk/english/crew/nigel_jenkins.htm Gomer Press https://web.archive.org/web/20061003092903/http://www.gomer.co.uk/gomer/en/gomer.
SearchBook/Author/588 Swansea University: https://web.archive.org/web/20070930201624/http://www.swan.ac.uk/english/postgrad/home.html
Monmouthshire is a county in south-east Wales. The name derives from the historic county of Monmouthshire of which it covers the eastern 60%; the largest town is Abergavenny. Other towns and large villages are Caldicot, Monmouth and Usk, it borders Newport to the west. The historic county of Monmouthshire was formed from the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales Act 1535 and bordered Gloucestershire to the east, Herefordshire to the northeast, Brecknockshire to the north, Glamorgan to the west; the Laws in Wales Act 1542 again enumerated the counties of Wales and omitted Monmouthshire, implying that the county was no longer to be treated as part of Wales. However, for all purposes Wales had become part of the Kingdom of England, the difference had little practical effect. For several centuries, acts of the Parliament of England referred to "Wales and Monmouthshire". However, the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect in April 1974, confirmed the county as part of Wales, with the administrative county of Monmouthshire and its associated lieutenancy being abolished.
Most of its area was transferred to a new local government and ceremonial county called Gwent, with the same eastern and southern boundaries as the historic county, the River Wye and the Severn Estuary. The western two-fifths of the former Monmouthshire are now administered by other Welsh unitary authorities: Blaenau Gwent, Torfaen and Newport; the current unitary authority of Monmouthshire was created on 1 April 1996 as a successor to the district of Monmouth along with the Llanelly community from Blaenau Gwent, both of which were districts of Gwent. The use of the name "Monmouthshire" rather than "Monmouth" for the area was controversial, being supported by the MP for Monmouth, Roger Evans, but being opposed by Paul Murphy, MP for Torfaen. By area it covers some 60% of the historic county, but only 20% of the population. A new council headquarters building at the site of Coleg Gwent, Usk was developed. Planning permission was granted in September 2011; the new county hall in Usk was opened in 2013.
In comparison to the pre-1974 areas it covers: the former boroughs of Abergavenny and Monmouth the former urban districts of Chepstow and Usk the former rural districts of Abergavenny Rural District and Monmouth Rural District the former rural district of Pontypool, except the community of Llanfrechfa Lower the parish of Llanelly from the former Crickhowell Rural District in Brecknockshire Scenic Railway Line: Gloucester to Newport Line Monmouthshire County Council Monmouthshire at Curlie The Original Monmouthshire website Monmouthshire.co.uk BBC Wales on Monmouthshire Genuki National Gazetteer of 1868
Pontypridd is both the county town of Rhondda Cynon Taf in Wales and a community. Colloquially known as "Ponty", it is 12 miles north of Cardiff. Pontypridd comprises the electoral wards of Cilfynydd, Graig, Pontypridd Town,'Rhondda', Rhydyfelin Central/Ilan and Treforest, falls within the Welsh Assembly and UK parliamentary constituency by the same name; the town sits at the junction of the Rhondda and Taff/Cynon valleys, where the River Rhondda flows into the Taff south of the town at Ynysangharad War Memorial Park. Pontypridd community had a population of 32,700 according to census figures gathered in 2011. While Pontypridd Town Ward itself was recorded as having a population of 2,919 as of 2001; the town lies alongside the dual carriageway north-south A470, between Merthyr Tydfil. The A4054, running north and south of the town, was the former main road, like the A470, follows the Taff Valley. South of the town is the A473, for Pencoed. To the west is the A4058, which follows the River Rhondda to Porth and the Rhondda Valley beyond.
The name Pontypridd derives from the name Pont-y-tŷ-pridd, Welsh for "bridge by the earthen house", a reference to a succession of wooden bridges that spanned the River Taff at this point. Pontypridd is noted for its Old Bridge, a stone construction across the River Taff built in 1756 by William Edwards; this was Edwards' third attempt, and, at the time of construction, was the longest single-span stone arch bridge in the world. Rising 35 feet above the level of the river, the bridge forms a perfect segment of a circle, the chord of, 140 feet. Notable features are the three holes of differing diameters through each end of the bridge, the purpose of, to reduce weight. On completion, questions were soon raised as to the utility of the bridge, with the steepness of the design making it difficult to get horses and carts across; as a result, a new bridge, the Victoria Bridge, paid for by public subscription, was built adjacent to the old one in 1857. Pontypridd was known as Newbridge from shortly after the construction of the Old Bridge until the 1860s.
The history of Pontypridd is tied to the coal and iron industries. Sited as it is at the junction of the three valleys, it became an important location for the transportation of coal from the Rhondda and iron from Merthyr Tydfil, first via the Glamorganshire Canal, via the Taff Vale Railway, to the ports at Cardiff, to Newport; because of its role in transporting coal cargo, its railway platform is thought to have once been the longest in the world during its heyday. Pontypridd was, in the second half of the 19th century, a hive of industry, was once nicknamed the ‘Wild West’. There were several collieries within the Pontypridd area itself, including: Albion Colliery, Cilfynydd Bodwenarth Colliery, Pontsionnorton Daren Ddu Colliery, Graigwen & Glyncoch Dynea Colliery, Rhydyfelen Gelli-whion Colliery, Graig Great Western/Gyfeillion Colliery, Hopkinstown Lan Colliery, Hopkinstown Newbridge Colliery, Graig Pen-y-rhiw Colliery, Graig Pontypridd/Maritime Collieries, Graig & Maesycoed Pwllgwaun Colliery/'Dan's Muck Hole', Pwllgwaun Red Ash Colliery, Cilfynydd Ty-Mawr Colliery, Hopkinstown & Pantygraigwen Typica Colliery, Hopkinstown & Pantygraigwen and Victoria Colliery, MaesycoedAs well as the deep-mined collieries, there were many coal levels and trial shafts dug into the hillsides overlooking the town from Cilfynydd, Graig and Hafod.
The Albion Colliery in the village of Cilfynydd in 1894 was the site of one of the worst explosions within the South Wales coalfield, with the death of 290 colliers. Other instrumental industries in Pontypridd were the Brown Lenox/Newbridge Chain & Anchor Works south-east of the town, Crawshay's Forest Iron, Steel & Tin Plate Works and the Taff Vale Iron Works, both in Treforest near the now University of South Wales; the town is home to a hospital, Dewi Sant Hospital. Pontypridd Urban District Council was established in 1894, operated until 1974, when it was incorporated into Taff Ely Borough Council. In turn, that authority was incorporated into the unitary Rhondda Cynon Taf Council in 1995. Pontypridd Town Council continues to function as a community council. Labour is the dominant political force, has been since the First World War; the community elects twenty three town councillors from eleven community wards, namely Cilfynydd, Graig, Ilan, Rhondda, Rhydfelen Central, Rhydfelen Lower and Treforest.
Pontypridd community comprises the town centre itself, as well as the following key villages/settlements: Cilfynydd Coedpenmaen Glyntaff Glyncoch Graig Graigwen & Pantygraigwen Hawthorn Hopkinstown Maesycoed Pontsionnorton Pwllgwaun Rhydyfelin Trallwn Treforest Upper Boat Pontypridd serves as the postal town for the community of Llantwit Fardre under the CF38 postcode district, although this area is not considered part of Pontypridd. Pontypridd came into being because of transport, as it was on the drovers' route from the south Wales coast and the Bristol Channel, to Merthyr, onwards into the hills of Brecon. Although initial expansion in the valleys occurred at Treforest due to the slower speed of the River Taff at that point, the establishment of better bridge building meant a natural flow of power to Pontypridd; the establ
Stonemasonry or stonecraft is the creation of buildings and sculpture using stone as the primary material. It is one of the oldest professions in human history. Many of the long-lasting, ancient shelters, monuments, fortifications, roads and entire cities were built of stone. Famous works of stonemasonry include the Egyptian Pyramids, the Taj Mahal, Cusco's Incan Wall, Easter Island's statues, Angkor Wat, Tihuanaco, Persepolis, the Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Chartres Cathedral, Pumapunku. Masonry is the craft of shaping rough pieces of rock into accurate geometrical shapes, at times simple, but some of considerable complexity, arranging the resulting stones together with mortar, to form structures. Quarrymen split sheets of rock, extract the resulting blocks of stone from the ground. Sawyers cut these rough blocks to required size with diamond-tipped saws; the resulting block if ordered for a specific component is known as sawn six sides. Banker masons are workshop-based, specialize in working the stones into the shapes required by a building's design, this set out on templets and a bed mould.
They can produce anything from stones with simple chamfers to tracery windows, detailed mouldings and the more classical architectural building masonry. When working a stone from a sawn block, the mason ensures that the stone is bedded in the right way, so the finished work sits in the building in the same orientation as it was formed on the ground. Though some stones need to be orientated for the application; the basic tools and skills of the banker mason have existed as a trade for thousands of years. Carvers cross the line from craft to art, use their artistic ability to carve stone into foliage, animals or abstract designs. Fixer masons specialize in the fixing of stones onto buildings, using lifting tackle, traditional lime mortars and grouts. Sometimes modern cements and epoxy resins are used on specialist applications such as stone cladding. Metal fixings, from simple dowels and cramps to specialised single application fixings, are used; the precise tolerances necessary make this a skilled job.
Memorial masons or monumental masons carve inscriptions. The modern stonemason undergoes comprehensive training, both in the classroom and in the working environment. Hands-on skill is complemented by intimate knowledge of each stone type, its application and best uses, how to work and fix each stone in place; the mason may be skilled and competent to carry out one or all of the various branches of stonemasonry. In some areas the trend is in other areas towards adaptability. Stonemasons use all types of natural stone: igneous and sedimentary. Granite is one of the hardest stones, requires much different techniques to sedimentary stones that it is a separate trade. With great persistence, simple mouldings can and have been carved from granite, for example in many Cornish churches and in the city of Aberdeen. However, it is used for purposes that require its strength and durability, such as kerbstones, countertops and breakwaters. Igneous stone ranges from soft rocks such as pumice and scoria to somewhat harder rocks such as tuff to hardest rocks such as granite and basalt.
Marble is a fine worked stone, that comes in various colours, but white. It has traditionally been used for carving statues, for facing many Byzantine and buildings of the Italian Renaissance; the first and most admirable marble carvers and sculptors were the Greeks, namely Antenor and Critias, Praxiteles and others who used the marble of Paros and Thassos islands, the whitest and brightest of all, the Pentelikon marble. Their work was preceded by older sculptors from Mesopotamia and Egypt, but the Greeks were unmatched in plasticity and realistic presentation, either of Gods, or humans; the famous Acropolis of Athens is said to be constructed using the Pentelicon marble. The traditional home of the marble industry is the area around Carrara in Italy, from where a bright and fine, whitish marble is extracted in vast quantities. Slate is a popular choice of stone for memorials and inscriptions, as its fine grain and hardness means it leaves details sharp, its tendency to split into thin plates has made it a popular roofing material.
Many of the world's most famous buildings have been built of sedimentary stone, from Durham Cathedral to St Peter's in Rome. There are two main types of sedimentary stone used in masonry work and sandstones. Examples of limestones include Portland stone. Yorkstone and Sydney sandstone are most used sandstone. Types of stonemasonry are: Fixer Masons This type of masons have specialized into fixing the stones onto the buildings, they might do this with grouts and lifting tackle. They might use things like single application specialized fixings, simple cramps, dowels as well as stone cladding with things like epoxy resins and modern cements. Memorial Masons These are the masons that make carve the inscriptions on them. Today’s stonemasons undergo training, quite comprehensive and is done both in the work environment and in the classroom, it isn’t enough to have hands-on skill anymore. One must have knowledge of the types of stones as well as its best uses and how to work it as well as how to fix i
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55