New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Rudolf Koch was a German type designer. He was a master of lettering, calligraphy and illustration. Known for his typefaces created for the Klingspor Type Foundry, his most used typefaces include Neuland and Kabel. Koch spent his teenage years working in Hanau as an apprentice in a metal goods workshop, whilst attending art school, where he learned to draw, soon after went to the Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg. Between 1897 and 1906 he worked for various businesses in the book trade in Leipzig and designing book covers in the Art Nouveau style, popular at the time. In 1906 Koch began working for the Rudhard Type foundry in Offenbach known as the Klingspor Type foundry. Other notable designers who worked for the foundry include Peter Behrens. Koch was spiritual and a devout Lutheran, spending much of his time working on religious publications and manuscripts, of which he completed nearly a hundred in his lifetime. Koch viewed the alphabet as humanity's ultimate achievement, he died prematurely of a heart attack in 1934, aged 59.
Koch admired William Morris. Speaking at a meeting in London, he expressed his disbelief that Morris was not of German descent: "I feel such a closeness to him that I always have the feeling that he cannot be an Englishman, he must be a German."The teachings of Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement are evident in Koch’s use of hand-lettering and wood-cutting techniques. At the same time, his book illustrations are evocative of Art Nouveau. Koch prized craftsmanship in his type design and printing methods, a principle rooted in the Arts and Crafts Movement, yet Koch was working in a period of rapid development in print technology, which saw the invention of the Linotype machine in 1886, the Monotype System in 1887, the offset press in 1907, all of which were antithetical to his artisanal ethos. Koch lectured at the Arts and Crafts School in Offenbach. In 1918, after World War I, he opened a workshop training students in typography, wood-cutting, other crafts. Best known for his calligraphic talent he built upon the calligraphic tradition by creating an original, simple expression from his materials.
Many of Koch’s blackletter typefaces, such as Kochschrift and Willhelm Klingspor Gotisch, were influenced by hand-written manuscripts and Gothic letterforms, a style that originated in Germany. Known for his nationalistic ideology, he wrote in Der Deutsche, "Even as a boy I wanted to become a proper real German. I hated anything, foreign, as I was growing up I felt this was a sign of true loyalty."Koch defended Germanic blackletter script in the journals and publications he contributed to. He held exhibitions with his group Offenbach Schreiber, which promoted hand lettering and calligraphy, in these he expressed the revival of traditional lettering. Koch's dedication to Gothic script may have limited his recognition in English-speaking countries. Koch wrote a book containing 493 old-world symbols and runes entitled The Book of Signs. Koch's first non-blackletter typeface was the delicate roman Koch-Antiqua, a display face with a low x-height, its oblique features inline capitals in the larger sizes, an idea inspired by the traditions of blackletter capitals.
Koch designed the Neuland typeface in 1923. Taking a more experimental turn, the typeface counterpoints his preferred traditional style with a more contemporary feel. Dr Klingspor called it “unbearably ugly”, despite its great commercial success. Koch introduced his first sans-serif typeface, Kabel, in 1927, similar to Paul Renner’s Futura, designed the same year; the differences between the two typefaces are most noticeable in Kabel's far-reaching terminal on the ‘a’ and the ‘e', as well as the slanted crossbar and the loop of the ‘g’. Typefaces designed by Koch include: Deutsche Schrift Maximilian Antiqua Wilhelm Klingspor-Schrift Deutsche Zierschrift Koch Antiqua / Locarno, sold by Continental Type in the United States as Eve Neuland Deutsche Anzeigenschrift Jessen Wallau Kabel Offenbach Zeppelin / Kabel Inline Marathon Prisma Claudius Holla Grotesk-Initialen Koch Current Neufraktur Some of Koch’s most well known works include: Klassiche Schriften Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit Das Zeichenbuch Das Blumenbuch Das ABC-Büchlein Hermann Zapf was a huge admirer of Koch, took great inspiration from his work after acquiring a copy of Das Schreiben als Kunstfertigkeit.
Font Designer - Rudolf Koch Klingspor-Museum Offenbach - Rudolf Koch Type Design, Typography & Graphic Images -Rudolf Koch
Sir Muirhead Bone was a Scottish etcher and watercolourist who became known for his depiction of industrial and architectural subjects and his work as a war artist in both the First and Second World Wars. Bone was an active member of both the British War Memorials Committee in the First World War and the War Artists' Advisory Committee in the Second World War, he promoted the work of many young artists and served as a Trustee of the Tate Gallery, the National Gallery, the Imperial War Museum. Muirhead Bone was born in Glasgow, his parents were his wife, Elizabeth Millar Crawford. His brothers included the journalist James Bone, the author and mariner Captain Sir David Bone. Muirhead Bone qualified as an architect, before turning to art and studying at the Glasgow School of Art at evening classes, he began printmaking in 1898, although his first known print was a lithograph, he is better known for his etchings and drypoints. His subject matter was principally related to landscapes and architecture, which included urban construction and demolition sites, Gothic cathedrals and Norman buildings.
One of his first exhibited prints was a scene of Ayr Harbour, the collection of his work held by the British Museum records his other works based in South Ayrshire, between 1898 and 1916. In 1900 he tried to run art classes in Ayr, from newly built premises at Wellington Chambers. In 1901 Bone moved to London, where he met William Strang, Dugald MacColl and Alphonse Legros, became a member of the New English Art Club, he held his first solo exhibition at the Carfax Gallery in 1902. Bone was a member of the Glasgow Art Club with which he exhibited. Bone continued to visit Ayr, producing the notable prints of Ayr Prison in 1905 and a series based on the view of the Ballantrae Road in 1907. During the First World War, Charles Masterman, head of the British War Propaganda Bureau, acting on the advice of William Rothenstein, appointed Bone as the first official British war artist in May 1916. Bone had lobbied hard for the establishment of an Official War Artists scheme and in June 1916 he was sent to France with an honorary rank and a salary of £500.
Although thirty-eight years old at the outbreak of war, Bone was spared from certain enlistment by his appointment. Bone's small and white drawings, their realistic intensity, reproduced well in the government-funded publications of the day. Where some artists might have demurred at the challenge of drawing ocean liners in a drydock or tens of thousands of shells in a munitions factory, Bone delighted in them. Commissioned as an honorary second lieutenant, Bone served as a war artist with the Allied forces on the Western Front and with the Royal Navy for a time, he arrived in France on 16 August 1916, during the Battle of the Somme and produced 150 drawings of the war before returning to England in October 1916. Over the next few months Bone returned to his earlier subject matter, producing six lithographs of shipyards on the Clyde for the War Propaganda Bureau's Britain's Efforts and Ideals portfolio of images which were exhibited in Britain and abroad and were sold as prints to raise money for the war effort.
He visited France again in 1917. Two volumes of Bone's wartime drawings were published during the war, The Western Front and With the Grand Fleet, he was an active member of the British War Memorials Committee and helped select which artists received commissions from the Committee. After the Armistice, Bone returned to the type of works he produced before the war, was influential in promoting fellow war artists William Orpen and Wyndham Lewis, he began to undertake extensive foreign travels, visiting France and the Netherlands, which influenced his work. In 1923 he produced three portraits of the novelist Joseph Conrad during an Atlantic crossing. An extended visit to Spain in 1929 resulted in the folio Old Spain, published in 1936. In the inter-war period he exhibited extensively in London and New York, building up a considerable reputation. Bone received a knighthood in the 1937 Coronation Honours for services to art and he served as a Trustee and on the committees of several institutions including the Tate, the National Gallery and the Imperial War Museum.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, Muirhead Bone was appointed a member of the War Artists' Advisory Committee and became a full-time salaried artist to the Ministry of Information specialising in Admiralty subjects. He produced scenes of coastal installations, evacuated portraits of officers. However, following the death of his son Gavin in 1943, he decided not to continue with the Admiralty commission but he did remain an active Committee member until the end of the war, his other son, Stephen Bone, was subsequently appointed to the vacant Admiralty position. Sir Muirhead Bone died on 21 October 1953 in Oxford, his final resting place is in the churchyard adjacent to the St. Mary's Church, Whitegate at Vale Royal parish in Cheshire, he has a memorial stone in St. Paul's Cathedral in London; the Yellow Book, Glasgow, Children's Children Glasgow: Fifty Drawings, The Front Line, The Western Front: Drawings by Muirhead Bone, with an introduction by Gen. Sir Douglas Haig and text by C. E. Montague.
Merchant Men-at-Arms by his brother David Bone With the Grand Fleet Old Spain, with Gertrude Bone, The London Perambulator, Days in Old Spain, Londo
Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins was an American realist painter, photographer and fine arts educator. He is acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history. For the length of his professional career, from the early 1870s until his health began to fail some 40 years Eakins worked exactingly from life, choosing as his subject the people of his hometown of Philadelphia, he painted several hundred portraits of friends, family members, or prominent people in the arts, sciences and clergy. Taken en masse, the portraits offer an overview of the intellectual life of Philadelphia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In addition, Eakins produced a number of large paintings which brought the portrait out of the drawing room and into the offices, parks, rivers and surgical amphitheaters of his city; these active outdoor venues allowed him to paint the subject which most inspired him: the nude or clad figure in motion. In the process he could model the forms of the body in full sunlight, create images of deep space utilizing his studies in perspective.
Eakins took a keen interest in the new technologies of motion photography, a field in which he is now seen as an innovator. No less important in Eakins' life was his work as a teacher; as an instructor he was a influential presence in American art. The difficulties which beset him as an artist seeking to paint the portrait and figure realistically were paralleled and amplified in his career as an educator, where behavioral and sexual scandals truncated his success and damaged his reputation. Eakins was a controversial figure whose work received little by way of official recognition during his lifetime. Since his death, he has been celebrated by American art historians as "the strongest, most profound realist in nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century American art". Eakins was lived most of his life in Philadelphia, he was the first child of Caroline Cowperthwait Eakins, a woman of English and Dutch descent, Benjamin Eakins, a writing master and calligraphy teacher of Scots-Irish ancestry. Benjamin Eakins grew up on a farm in Valley Forge, the son of a weaver.
He was successful in his chosen profession, moved to Philadelphia in the early 1840s to raise his family. Thomas Eakins observed his father at work and by twelve demonstrated skill in precise line drawing and the use of a grid to lay out a careful design, skills he applied to his art, he was an athletic child who enjoyed rowing, ice skating, wrestling and gymnastics—activities he painted and encouraged in his students. Eakins attended Central High School, the premier public school for applied science and arts in the city, where he excelled in mechanical drawing. Thomas met fellow artist and lifelong friend, Charles Lewis Fussell in high school and they reunited to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Thomas began at the academy in 1861 and attended courses in anatomy and dissection at Jefferson Medical College from 1864 to 65. For a while, he followed his father's profession and was listed in city directories as a "writing teacher", his scientific interest in the human body led him to consider becoming a surgeon.
Eakins studied art in Europe from 1866 to 1870, notably in Paris with Jean-Léon Gérôme, being only the second American pupil of the French realist painter, famous as a master of Orientalism. He attended the atelier of Léon Bonnat, a realist painter who emphasized anatomical preciseness, a method adapted by Eakins. While studying at the École des Beaux-Arts, he seems to have taken scant interest in the new Impressionist movement, nor was he impressed by what he perceived as the classical pretensions of the French Academy. A letter home to his father in 1868 made his aesthetic clear: She is the most beautiful thing there is in the world except a naked man, but I never yet saw a study of one exhibited... It would be a godsend to see a fine man model painted in the studio with the bare walls, alongside of the smiling smirking goddesses of waxy complexion amidst the delicious arsenic green trees and gentle wax flowers & purling streams running melodious up & down the hills up. I hate affectation.
At age 24, "nudity and verity were linked with an unusual closeness in his mind." Yet his desire for truthfulness was more expansive, the letters home to Philadelphia reveal a passion for realism that included, but was not limited to, the study of the figure. A trip to Spain for six months confirmed his admiration for the realism of artists such as Diego Velázquez and Jusepe de Ribera. In Seville in 1869 he painted Carmelita Requeña, a portrait of a seven-year-old gypsy dancer more and colorfully painted than his Paris studies; that same year he attempted his first large oil painting, A Street Scene in Seville, wherein he first dealt with the complications of a scene observed outside the studio. Although he failed to matriculate in a formal degree program and had showed no works in the European salons, Eakins succeeded in absorbing the techniques and methods of French and Spanish masters, he began to formulate his artistic vision which he demonstrated in his first major painting upon his return to America.
"I shall seek to achieve my broad effect from the beginning", he declared. Eakins' first works upon his return from Europe included a large group of rowing scenes, eleven oils and watercolors in all, of which the first and most famous is Max Schmitt in a Single Scull. Both his subject and his technique drew attention, his selection of a contemporary sport was "a shock to the
Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he was a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. Conrad wrote stories and novels, many with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of what he saw as an impassive, inscrutable universe. Conrad is considered an early modernist, his narrative style and anti-heroic characters have influenced numerous authors, many films have been adapted from, or inspired by, his works. Numerous writers and critics have commented that Conrad's fictional works, written in the first two decades of the 20th century, seem to have anticipated world events. Writing near the peak of the British Empire, Conrad drew, among other things, on his native Poland's national experiences and on his own experiences in the French and British merchant navies, to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a European-dominated world—including imperialism and colonialism—and that profoundly explore the human psyche.
Conrad was born on 3 December 1857 in Berdychiv, in Stolen Lands, Ukraine part of the Russian Empire. He was the only child of Apollo Korzeniowski—a writer, political activist, would-be revolutionary—and his wife Ewa Bobrowska, he was christened Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski after his maternal grandfather Józef, his paternal grandfather Teodor, the heroes of two poems by Adam Mickiewicz and Konrad Wallenrod, was known to his family as "Konrad", rather than "Józef". Though the vast majority of the surrounding area's inhabitants were Ukrainians, the great majority of Berdychiv's residents were Jewish all the countryside was owned by the Polish szlachta, to which Conrad's family belonged as bearers of the Nałęcz coat-of-arms. Polish literature patriotic literature, was held in high esteem by the area's Polish population; the Korzeniowski family had played a significant role in Polish attempts to regain independence. Conrad's paternal grandfather Teodor had served under Prince Józef Poniatowski during Napoleon's Russian campaign and had formed his own cavalry squadron during the November 1830 Uprising.
Conrad's fiercely patriotic father Apollo belonged to the "Red" political faction, whose goal was to re-establish the pre-partition boundaries of Poland, but which advocated land reform and the abolition of serfdom. Conrad's subsequent refusal to follow in Apollo's footsteps, his choice of exile over resistance, were a source of lifelong guilt for Conrad; because of the father's attempts at farming and his political activism, the family moved repeatedly. In May 1861 they moved to Warsaw; this led to his imprisonment in Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel. Conrad would write: "n the courtyard of this Citadel—characteristically for our nation—my childhood memories begin." On 9 May 1862 Apollo and his family were exiled to Vologda, 500 kilometres north of Moscow and known for its bad climate. In January 1863 Apollo's sentence was commuted, the family was sent to Chernihiv in northeast Ukraine, where conditions were much better. However, on 18 April 1865 Ewa died of tuberculosis. Apollo did his best to home-school Conrad.
The boy's early reading introduced him to the two elements that dominated his life: in Victor Hugo's Toilers of the Sea he encountered the sphere of activity to which he would devote his youth. Most of all, though, he read Polish Romantic poetry. Half a century he explained that "The Polishness in my works comes from Mickiewicz and Słowacki. My father read Pan Tadeusz aloud to me and made me read it aloud.... I used to prefer Konrad Wallenrod Grażyna. I preferred Słowacki. You know why Słowacki?... ". In December 1867, Apollo took his son to the Austrian-held part of Poland, which for two years had been enjoying considerable internal freedom and a degree of self-government. After sojourns in Lwów and several smaller localities, on 20 February 1869 they moved to Kraków in Austrian Poland. A few months on 23 May 1869, Apollo Korzeniowski died, leaving Conrad orphaned at the age of eleven. Like Conrad's mother, Apollo had been gravely ill with tuberculosis; the young Conrad was placed in the care of Tadeusz Bobrowski.
Conrad's poor health and his unsatisfactory schoolwork caused his uncle constant problems and no end of financial outlay. Conrad was not a good student. Since the boy's illness was of nervous origin, the physicians supposed that fresh air and physical work would harden him. Since he showed little inclination to study, it was essential. In fact, in the autumn of 1871, thirteen-year-old Conrad announced his intention to become a sailor, he recalled that as a child he had read Leopold McClintock's book about his 1857–59 expeditions in the Fox, in search of Sir John Franklin's lost ships Erebus and Terror. He recalled having read books by the American James Fenimore Cooper an
Print, A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts was a limited edition quarterly periodical begun in 1940 and continued under different names through the end of 2017 as Print, a bimonthly American magazine about visual culture and design. In its final format, Print documented and critiqued commercial and environmental design from every angle: the good, the bad, the ugly. Print was a general-interest magazine, written by cultural reporters and critics who look at design in its social and historical contexts. From newspapers and book covers to Web-based motion graphics, from corporate branding to indie-rock posters, from exhibitions to cars to monuments, Print showed its audience of designers, art directors, photographers, educators and enthusiasts of popular culture why our world looks the way it looks, why the way it looks matters. Print underwent a complete redesign in 2005, ceased publication in 2017, with a promise to focus the brand on "a robust and thriving online community." The journal was founded by William Edwin Rudge to demonstrate “the far reaching importance of the graphic arts” including art prints, commercial printing, etc.
Contents were eclectic covering typography, book making, book printing, fine prints as well as the trade journal aspects of printing candy bar wrappers. The publication included original prints such as the frontispiece for Vol 1, #1 a two color woodcut by Hans Alexander Mueller and Vol 1, #3 a black and white wood engraving by Paul Landacre. By Volume 8 the focus of the periodical had shifted to a trade journal. Vol 1, #1 Print: A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts Vol 3, #2 combined with The Printing Art. An Illustrated Monthly Magazine of the Art of Printing and of the Allied Arts but continued under Print: A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts Vol 7, #1 Print: combining: Print, A Quarterly Journal of Graphic Arts, Vol. VII, Number 1 and The Print Collector's Quarterly, Volume XXX, Number 4. Vol 7, #2 Print, The Magazine of the Graphic Arts - until Vol 9, #2 Print - until Vol 11, #4 Print, The Magazine of Visual Communication - until Vol 12, #1 Print, America's Graphic Design Magazine at least until May/June 2005 Vol 59, #3.
Artistarchive.com Print web site Imprint - Print's blog
Woodstock is the shire town of Windsor County, Vermont. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 3,048, it includes the villages of South Woodstock and Woodstock. Chartered by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth on July 10, 1761, the town was a New Hampshire grant to David Page and 61 others, it was named after Woodstock in Oxfordshire, England, as a homage to both Blenheim Palace and its owner, George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough. The town was first settled in 1768 by his family. In 1776, Major Joab Hoisington built a gristmill, followed by a sawmill, on the south branch of the Ottauquechee River; the town was incorporated in 1837. Although the Revolution slowed settlement, Woodstock developed once the war ended in 1783; the Vermont General Assembly met here in 1807 before moving the next year to the new capital at Montpelier. Waterfalls in the Ottauquechee River provided water power to operate mills. Factories made scythes and axes, carding machines, woolens. There was a machine gunsmith shop.
Manufacturers produced furniture, wooden wares, window sashes and blinds. Carriages, horse harnesses, luggage trunks and leather goods were manufactured. By 1859, the population was 3,041; the Woodstock Railroad opened to White River Junction on September 29, 1875, carrying freight and tourists. The Woodstock Inn opened in 1892; the Industrial Revolution helped. The economy is now driven by tourism. Woodstock has the 20th highest per-capita income of Vermont towns as reported by the United States Census, a high percentage of homes owned by non-residents; the town's central square, called the Green, is bordered by restored late Georgian, Federal Style, Greek Revival houses. The cost of real estate in the district adjoining; the seasonal presence of wealthy second-home owners from cities such as Boston and New York has contributed to the town's economic vitality and livelihood, while at the same time diminished its accessibility to native Vermonters. The town maintains a free community wi-fi internet service that covers most of the village of Woodstock, dubbed "Wireless Woodstock".
In his City Life: Urban Expectations in a New World, Canadian author and architect Witold Rybczynski extensively analyzes the layout of the town and the informal and unwritten rules which determined it. According to Rybczynski: The overall plan seems to have been dictated by the site: a narrow, flat valley hemmed in by the sweeping curve of the Ottauqueechee River on one side and a small creek on the other; the green was laid out lengthwise on the narrow peninsula between the river and the creek, allowing for many plots to have rear gardens running down to the riverbank.... The builders of Woodstock were aware; the Episcopalian church is at the head of the green, the Methodist farther down, the Congregationalist church artfully closes the vista of Pleasant Street where it dead-ends into Elm Street.... The pride of place, on the green, is shared by private homes on one side, the courthouse and the Eagle Hotel on the other. Stores, the post office and other businesses are located on two streets adjacent to but not on the green.
This is a subtle sort of urban design, but it is design, design that proceeds not from a predetermined master plan, but from the process of building itself. A rough framework is established, with individual builders adapting. If Parisian planning in the grand manner can be likened to scored symphonic music, the New England town is like... restrained jazz.... Ike jazz, it involves improvisation, as in jazz, this does not mean that the result is accidental or that there are no rules; the author goes on to explicate some of the informal rules, such as that buildings stand close to the sidewalk, in the case of businesses, or ten to fourteen feet behind for homes. Rybczynsk points out that there is no zoning in Woodstock, "buildings with different functions sat – and still sit today – side by side on the same streets", with practical exceptions such as the slaughterhouse and the gasworks; the Rockefellers have had an enormous impact on the overall character of the town as it exists today. They helped preserve the rural feel.
They built a center point for the town. Laurance and Mary French Rockefeller had the village's power lines buried underground. To protect their ridgeline views, the town adopted an ordinance creating a Scenic Ridgeline District in order to protect the aesthetics and the views of the town, it was updated in 2007. Woodstock was named "The Prettiest Small Town in America" by the Ladies Home Journal magazine, in 2011, North and South Park Street and one block of Elm Street won an award for great streetscape by the American Planning Association's "Great Places in America" program. APA looks at street form and composition, street character and personality and the overall street environment and sustainable practices. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.6 square miles, of which 44.4 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles, or 0.63%, is water. The Ottauquechee River flows through the town. Woodstock is crossed by U. S. Route 4, Vermont Route 12 and Vermont Route 106.
Interstate 89 does not pass through the town, it is served by exit 1 in nearby Quechee. It is bordered the town