Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany with 42,000 inhabitants, located 50 kilometres west of Erfurt, 70 km southeast of Kassel and 150 km northeast of Frankfurt. It is the main urban centre of western Thuringia and bordering northeastern Hessian regions, situated near the former Inner German border. A major attraction is Wartburg castle, a UNESCO world heritage site since 1999. Eisenach was an early capital of Thuringia in the 13th centuries. St. Elizabeth lived at the court of the Ludowingians here between 1211 and 1228. Martin Luther came to Eisenach and translated the Bible into German. In 1685, Johann Sebastian Bach was born here. During the early modern period, Eisenach was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins and was visited by numerous representatives of Weimar classicism like Johann Wolfgang Goethe. In 1869, the SDAP, one of the two precursors of the Social Democratic Party of Germany was founded in Eisenach. Car production is an important industry in Eisenach; the Automobilwerk Eisenach was founded in 1896.
In the German Democratic Republic, the Wartburg was produced here. Eisenach is situated on the Hörsel river, a tributary of the Werra between the Thuringian Forest in the south, the Hainich mountains in the north-east and the East Hesse Highlands in the north-west. Eisenach's origin and early history is unknown. An 8th century Frankish settlement near Petersberg hill is regarded as the nucleus of Eisenach. However, there are no written sources about that early period. According to legend, Louis the Springer began in 1067 to establish Wartburg castle above the settlement. In 1080, the castle was first mentioned in a Saxon chronicle. Eisenach itself followed in a document dating to 1150 where it was referred to as "Isinacha". During the 1180s, the town was established by the construction of three independent market settlements around the Saturday's market, the Wednesday's market and the Monday's market. Due to its convenient location at a bottleneck between the Thuringian Forest in the south and the Hainich mountains in the north, Eisenach benefitted from substantial west-east trade along Via Regia from Frankfurt to Erfurt and Leipzig and became a rich merchant town.
During the second half of the 12th century, the town walls were erected and Eisenach got a planned grid of streets and alleys. In the late 12th century, the Wartburg became the main residence of the Ludowingians, making Eisenach a leading place in today's western Thuringia and northern Hesse, which belonged to the Ludowingian landgraviate. In 1207, the legendary Sängerkrieg took place at Wartburg castle. In 1221, St. Elizabeth married Landgrave Louis' IV and she lived in Eisenach or at Wartburg castle until 1228, she became the patroness of Thuringia and Hesse. In 1247, the Ludowingians died out which led to the War of the Thuringian Succession between the Wettins and Duchess Sophie of Brabant; as a consequence, the landgraviate was divided. Eisenach and the eastern parts went to the Wettins and Kassel and the western parts went to Sophie. Eisenach kept a leading position among the Wettin's Thuringian cities by becoming their Oberhof, so that their law had to be derived from Eisenach's municipal law and disputes had to be resolved here.
The confident citizens of Eisenach fought against the Wettin's rule to become a free imperial city between 1306 and 1308, but lost. In the 14th century various crises followed: in 1342, a big fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and the Black Death killed many inhabitants in 1349 and 1393. Since 1406, Eisenach was no longer a Wettin residence. In 1485, in the "division of Leipzig", the town fell to the Ernestine line of the Wettins. Between 1498 and 1501, the young Martin Luther attended the St. George's Latin school in Eisenach in preparation for his following studies at the University of Erfurt. In 1521/22 he was hidden by Frederick the Wise at Wartburg castle to protect him from the Imperial ban. In that time, Luther translated the New Testament from Greek into German, in what was an important step both for the German Reformation and the development of a consistent German standard language. Luther referred to Eisenach as ein Pfaffennest, since during his time there were 300 monks and nuns per 1,000 inhabitants.
In 1525, there was heavy fighting in the area during the Bauernkrieg. In 1528, the Lutheran Reformation was implemented in Eisenach. In 1596, Eisenach became a ducal residence again for the house of Saxe-Eisenach. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach in 1685, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach worked here as a musician at that time. Other famous composers and musicians associated with Eisenach during that period were Johann Pachelbel, Johann Christoph Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann; as the Eisenach dukes died out in 1741, the town and the state became part of Saxe-Weimar. The cultural life stayed unimpaired; the coterie around the poet Julie von Bechtolsheim met up with famous personalities like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Christoph Martin Wieland in Eisenach. From 1809 to 1918, Eisenach was part of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. In 1817, the Wartburg Festival took place in Eisenach, a meeting of students advocating moves towards a more liberal, constitutional state and a unification of Germany.
The industrial revolution started early in Eisenach. As early as the first half of the 19th century, the first factories were founded. In 1847, Eisenach was connected by the Thuringian Railway to Erfurt and Halle/Leipzig in the east an
Ernest Augustus I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Ernest Augustus I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, was a duke of Saxe-Weimar and, from 1741, of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. He was the second but eldest surviving son of Johann Ernst III, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and his first wife Sophie Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst; when his father died in 1707, Ernst August became co-ruler of Saxe-Weimar, along with his uncle Wilhelm Ernst, but his title was only nominal, since Wilhelm Ernst was the actual ruler of the duchy. Only when Wilhelm Ernst died in 1728 did Ernst August begin to exercise true authority over Saxe-Weimar. Ernst August was a splendor-loving ruler, his extravagances contributed to the eventual financial ruin of his duchy. In need of funds, he resorted to the practice of arresting wealthy subjects without cause, setting them free only after they had renounced their fortunes to the duke, or had paid exorbitant ransoms; some of the victims, who considered this behaviour illegal, made claims against the duke at the Imperial Court in Vienna or in the Imperial Chamber Court of Appeal in Wetzlar.
Ernst August lost. The process lasted for many years and led to the duchy's bankruptcy; the duke maintained a standing army, disproportionately large for the duchy's population or financial resources. Some of the soldiers were rented to the Holy Roman Emperor. Ernst August's mania for building led to the construction of the Kleinode, the small Schloss Belvedere and the Rococo Schloss of Dornburg, a lavish residence for the duke, his passion for the hunt was extravagant. The duke maintained a standing "harem," in which two noble "Ladies of Honour" and three "Chamber Women" of low birth attended to his desires. In Nienburg on 24 January 1716, Ernst August married Eleonore Wilhelmine of Anhalt-Köthen, daughter of Emmanuel Lebrecht, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, they had eight children: Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Weimar. Wilhelmine Auguste, twin of Wilhelm Ernst. John William, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Weimar. Charlotte Agnes Leopoldina. Johanna Eleonore Henriette. Ernestine Albertine, married on 6 May 1756 to Philipp II, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe.
Bernhardina Christina Sophia, married on 19 November 1744 to John Frederick, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Emmanuel Frederick William Bernard. After the death of his first wife in 1726, the duke decided to not marry again, choosing to live with his Ladies of Honor and Chamber Women, but in 1732 the situation changed unexpectedly: his only surviving son, the hereditary prince Johann Wilhelm, died. This made it necessary for him to sire sons in order to perpetuate the dynasty. In Bayreuth on 7 April 1734, Ernst August married his second wife, Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, daughter of George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, they had four children: Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Weimar. Ernst August II Konstantin, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Ernestine Auguste Sophie, married on 1 July 1758 to Ernst Frederick III Karl, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Ernest Adolph Felix; the duke had an illegitimate son with Friederike von Marschall: Ernest Frederick, created Freiherr von Brenn.
In 1741 the branch of Saxe-Eisenach-Jena became extinct with the death of Wilhelm Heinrich, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach. As the only surviving kinsman of the late duke, Ernst August inherited his estates. One of the duke's few wise decisions was the institution of the Primogenitur in Saxe-Weimar. From 1741 his new duchy took the name of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, but the union was by this time only personal; the new state consisted of two larger areas around the two official residences in Weimar and Eisenach, which were not connected, a patch of smaller areas and towns between them. The annexation of Saxe-Eisenach was favorable to the hunt-loving duke, he left the Hereditary Prince in Weimar in the Schloss Belvedere, under the guardianship of his Hofmarschall, moved permanently to Eisenach. After this, the duke asked for his son, send the most unreasonable written instructions from Eisenach to Weimar in order to supervise his son's education; the Hereditary Prince saw his father for the last time in 1743.
Ernst August tried to implement Absolutism in Saxe-Weimar on the French model. The secret Ratskollegium —a consultative organ national formed by nobles— was dissolved. In 1746 the citizens of Eisenach presented the duke a memorandum detailing national prerogatives, in which he was denounced for constant offences against traditional rights; the gesture demonstrated that the citizens of the duchy wer
Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar
Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, was a Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Jena. He was Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Dorothea Susanne of Simmern, his father died in 1573. Since at the time his older brother Frederick William I was under age, the duchy of Saxe-Weimar was governed by a regency. In 1586 his older brother reached took full control of the duchy, including Weimar. However, he died in 1602 and the full duchy was inherited by Johann, because his nephews were under age. Johann was more interested in natural sciences and art than politics, therefore only against his will took over the regency of the duchy on behalf of his nephews, but when they demanded their own inheritance in 1603, he resisted their demands. Johann and his nephews made a treaty dividing the duchy: Altenburg was taken by the sons of Frederick William I, Weimar-Jena was retained by Johann; this line of Saxe-Altenburg became extinct in 1672, all the inheritance passed to the line of Saxe-Weimar, Johann's descendants. In Altenburg on 7 January 1593, Johann married Dorothea Maria of Anhalt.
They had twelve children: Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Christian William. Frederick. John. William, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Stillborn son, twin of William. Albert IV, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach. John Frederick. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha. Frederick William. Bernhard, Count of Franken. Johanna
Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, priest, a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507, he came to reject several practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517, his refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin, his theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, all of Luther's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible, his hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews, his rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but towards Roman Catholics and nontrinitarian Christians. Luther died with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, County of Mansfeld in the Holy Roman Empire. Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours.
His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. The religious scholar Martin Marty describes Luther's mother as a hard-working woman of "trading-class stock and middling means" and notes that Luther's enemies wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant, he had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer, he sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, Eisenach in 1498. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. In accordance with his father's wishes, he enrolled in law but dropped out immediately, believing that law represented uncertainty. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel, he was influenced by two tutors, Bartholomaeus Arnoldi von Usingen and Jodocus Trutfetter, who taught him to be suspicious of the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience. Philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with Aristotle over the latter's emphasis on reason. For Luther, reason could be used to question institutions, but not God.
Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed, Scripture therefore became important to him. On 2 July 1505, while returning to university on horseback after a trip home, a lightning bolt struck near Luther during a thunderstorm. Telling his father he was terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He came to view his cry for help as a vow. He left university, sold his books, entered St. Augustine's Monastery in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. One friend blamed the decision on Luther's sadness over the deaths of two friends. Luther himself seemed saddened by the move; those who attended a farewell supper walked him to the door of the Black Cloister. "This day you see me, not again," he said. His father was furious over. Luther dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayer and frequent confession. Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair, he said, "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul."
Johann von Staupitz, his superior, pointed
John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
John the Younger or John of Denmark was the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg. John was born in Haderslev as the fourth child of King Christian III of Denmark and his wife, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, his elder brother, King Frederick II of Denmark, allotted him a portion of Schleswig-Sonderburg as his ducal seat. He acted in the Danish government, for example supporting his sister-in-law, the Queen, when his nephew, Christian IV of Denmark, was underage. There were plans for him to marry the Dowager Queen in 1588 or 1589, repudiating his second, young wife. John died in Glücksburg. John married twice. Firstly, he married in Kolding on August 19, 1568 Elisabeth of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, daughter of Ernest III, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, they had the following children: Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 23 November 1589 to Frederick IV, Duke of Legnica. Christian, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Ærø Ernest of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, Abbess of Itzehoe John Adolph, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg Anna of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 31 May 1601 to Bogislaw XIII, Duke of Pomerania.
Sophia of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 8 March 1607 to Philip II, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 19 February 1615 to Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania. Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg, married on 1 August 1627 to Juliana of Saxe-Lauenburg, daughter of Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg. Margarete of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 27 February 1603 to John VII, Count of Nassau-Siegen. Philip, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Secondly, he married on 14 February 1588 Princess Agnes Hedwig of Anhalt, they had the following children: Eleonore of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Anna Sabine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 1 January 1618 to Julius Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Weiltingen. Johann Georg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Joachim Ernest, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön Dorothea Sibylle of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Dorothea Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Bernhard of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Agnes Magdalene of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Eleonore Sofie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, married on 28 February 1624 to Christian II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg
Weimar is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east 80 kilometres southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres north of Nuremberg and 170 kilometres west of Dresden. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar is well known because of its importance in German history; the city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading personalities of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. In the 19th century, famous composers like Franz Liszt made Weimar a music centre and artists and architects like Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and Walter Gropius came to the city and founded the Bauhaus movement, the most important German design school of the interwar period.
However, the political history of 20th-century Weimar was inconsistent: it was the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics, as well as one of the cities mythologized by the National Socialist propaganda. Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Today, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites and tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Relevant institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library and two leading courts of Thuringia. In 1999, Weimar was the European Capital of Culture. Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii epoch show that the Weimar part of the Ilm valley was settled early, with a tight network of settlements where the city is today; the oldest records regarding Weimar date to 899. Its name changed over the centuries from Wimares through Wimari to Wimar and Weimar.
Another theory derives. The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, one of the mightiest actors in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the Thuringian Counts' War in 1346 and fell to the Wettins afterwards; the Weimar settlement emerged around the count's wooden castle and two small churches dedicated to St Peter, to St James. In 1240, the count founded the dynasty's monastery in Oberweimar. Soon after, the counts of Weimar founded the town, an independent parish since 1249 and called civitas in 1254. From 1262 the citizens used their own seal; the regional influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Hence, the new small town was marginal in a regional context due to the fact that it was situated far away from relevant trade routes like the Via Regia; the settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century.
After becoming part of the Wettin's territory in 1346, urban development improved. The Wettins fostered Weimar by granting privileges to the citizens. Now Weimar became equal to other Wettinian cities like Weißensee and grew during the 15th century, with the establishment of a town hall and the current main church. Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in 1438; the castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century. After the Treaty of Leipzig Weimar became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with Wittenberg as capital; the Protestant Reformation was introduced in Weimar in 1525. As the Ernestines lost the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, their capital Wittenberg went to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence; as the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end of the monarchy in 1918. The first Ernestine territorial partition in 1572 was followed by various ones Weimar stayed the capital of different Saxe-Weimar states.
The court and its staff brought some wealth to the city, so that it saw a first construction boom in the 16th century. The 17th century brought decline because of changing trade conditions. Besides, the territorial partitions led to the loss of political importance of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and their finances shrunk; the city's polity weakened more and more and lost its privileges, leading to the absolutist reign of the dukes in the early 18th century. On the other hand, this time brought another construction boom to Weimar, the city got its present appearance, marked by various ducal representation buildings; the city walls were demolished in 1757 and during the following decades, Weimar expanded in all directions. The biggest building constructed in this period was the Schloss as the residence of the dukes. Between 1708 and 1717 Johann Sebastian Bach worked as the court's organist in Weimar; the period from the start of the regencies of Anna Amalia and her son Carl August through to Goethe's d