Isabel Roberts was a Prairie School figure, member of the architectural design team in the Oak Park Studio of Frank Lloyd Wright and partner with Ida Annah Ryan in the Orlando, Florida architecture firm, "Ryan and Roberts". Roberts was born in Mexico, the younger of two surviving daughters of James H. and Mary Harris Roberts. James was a inventor born in Utica, New York, they had been married in 1867 in New York state. They lived for a time in Missouri, where her sister Charlotte were both born. Leaving Missouri, the Roberts family moved several more times, including to Providence, Rhode Island, they settled in South Bend, where James H. Roberts became Deputy Director of Inspections for the State of Indiana, they were active members of the First Presbyterian Church of South Bend, social and civic groups through which they became friends of Laura Caskey Bowsher. This friendship led to Roberts' introducing Laura to Frank Lloyd Wright and Laura's commissioning from Wright's studio the K. C. DeRhodes House.
Isabel Roberts spent three years in New York City, studying architecture in the atelier Masqueray-Chambers, the first atelier in the United States established to teach the practice of architecture along the French lines of the Ecole des Beaux Arts. It was established by Emmanuel Louis Masqueray. Chambers shared in this enterprise. Located at 123 E. 23rd Street, this was the first wholly independent atelier opened in the United States. Masqueray is best remembered as the architect of the St. Louis Exposition and of the Cathedral of Saint Paul in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Roberts found herself among an impressive roster of future architects who studied with Masqueray, including William Van Alen, who would become the architect of the Chrysler Building. Starting in 1899, Masqueray made a concerted effort to include women among his architectural students and opened a second atelier for women students at 37-40 West 22nd Street in New York; as was said at the time, "...he has unbounded faith in women's ability to succeed in architecture...provided they go about it seriously."
While in New York, Roberts lived at 129 West 96th Street. Isabel Roberts was among Wright's first employees when he left Louis Sullivan and opened his own studio in Oak Park, Illinois. Frank Lloyd Wright was one of a number of emerging architects who were part of a movement that Marion Mahony called The Chicago Group and came to be known as the Prairie School; the Chicago Group espoused Louis Sullivan's credo, "form follows function," which became evident in their work, hallmarks of which include: a close relationship of the building to the landscape, an openness and informality of the floor plans, large overhangs on the exterior structure, a use of horizontal bands and clustered windows and a restrained use of conventionalized forms from nature as a harmonious ornamental theme throughout each building. Evident were the influences of Japanese architecture and the English Arts and Crafts movement. An early researcher and author on the Prairie Period was Grant Carpenter Manson, who interviewed several of the Oak Park Studio members in 1939 and 1940, wrote that in the studio Roberts worked as "bookkeeeper and general factotum" who "did try her hand at design and worked on some of the detail-drawings of her own house".
Further clarification of Isabel Robert's role in the Oak Park Studio comes from Wright's son John Lloyd Wright, who observed first-hand the contributions made by Roberts and others in the Oak Park studio. John Lloyd Wright relates that William Drummond, Francis Barry Byrne, Walter Burley Griffin, Albert McArthur, Marion Mahony, Isabel Roberts and George Willis were the draftsmen, he further clarifies that they made up the five men and two women who each were making valuable contributions to Prairie style architecture for which Wright became famous. Isabel Roberts has been described by Wright scholars as Frank Lloyd Wright's secretary, bookkeeper or office manager. What many have missed is that, like all employees at the time, she contributed to the lively and creative design atmosphere of the Studio. Wright biographer Brendan Gill calls Roberts "the office manager of the Oak Park studio". Diane Maddex labels "Isabel Roberts, the office manager of his studio in neighboring Oak Park." David A. Hanks manages.
So, biographer Meryle Secrest defines Roberts' roll as: "Isabel Roberts, secretary". H. Allen Brooks skirts the issue with "Isabel Roberts, on the staff." This is consistent with Frank Lloyd Wright's writing about the Oak Park "...studio adjoining my home, where the work I had to do enabled me to take in several draughtsmen and a faithful secretary, Isabel Roberts..." Grant Carpenter Manson wrote "Isabel Roberts, for whom one of the most celebrated Prairie Houses was built in River Forest in 1908, was not an architect. Manson's information was incomplete and inaccurate, as shown in the reference letter Wright wrote for Roberts in 1921, as noted below. Melenaie Birk says Roberts was "a bookkeeper and assisted with drafting in Wright's Oak Park studio". Roxanne Williamson wrote: "Isabel Roberts managed the office but seems to have done some drafting." Henry Russell Hitchcock and Edgar Kaufmann, Jr. writing 45 and 55 years "Isabel Roberts, one of the drafters in his office". Notably, Thomas A. Heinz presents his view of Isabel Roberts' work while in Wright's employ, saying, "She was an architect in her own right and her talent and position in Wright's Oak Park office has been ignored and undere
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Marion Mahony Griffin
Marion Mahony Griffin was an American architect and artist. She was one of the first licensed female architects in the world, is considered an original member of the Prairie School, her work in the United States expanded the American Prairie School. Her work in India and Australia reflected Prairie School ideals of indigenous landscape and materials in the newly formed democracies; the scholar Deborah Wood has stated that Griffin "did the drawings people think when they think Frank Lloyd Wright." During her career, she produced some of the best architectural drawing in America and was instrumental in envisioning the design plans for new capital city of Australia, Canberra. Mahony was born in 1871 in Chicago, Illinois, to Jeremiah Mahony, a journalist and teacher from Cork and Clara Hamilton, a schoolteacher, her family moved to nearby Winnetka in 1880 after the Great Chicago Fire. In her memoir, Mahoney vividly describes her mother carrying her as an infant in a clothes basket, as they escape from the fire.
Growing up in Winnetka, she became fascinated by the disappearing landscape as suburban homes filled the area. She was influenced by her first cousin, architect Dwight Perkins, decided to further her education, she graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1894. She was the second woman to do so, after Sophia Hayden, the designer of the Woman's building at the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. Though talented, she sometimes struggled with her place in both society and the field, she was unsure of her ability to complete the thesis required for her bachelor's degree, but her professor, Constant-Désiré Despradelle, pushed her forward. After graduation, Mahony returned to Chicago, where she became the first woman to be licensed to practice architecture in Illinois, she worked in her cousin's architecture firm, located in Steinway Hall at 64 E. Van Buren in downtown Chicago; the space was shared with many other architects, including Robert C. Spencer, Myron Hunt, Webster Tomlinson, Irving Pond and Allen Bartlitt Pond, Adamo Boari, Birch Long and Frank Lloyd Wright.
In 1895, the first employee hired by Frank Lloyd Wright, went to work designing buildings, stained glass windows and decorative panels. Her beautiful watercolor renderings of buildings and landscapes became known as a staple of Wright's style, though she was never given credit by the famous architect. Over a century she would be known as one of the greatest delineators of the architecture field, but during her life her talent was seen as only an extension of the work done by male architects, she was associated with Wright's studio for fifteen years and was an important contributor to his reputation for the influential Wasmuth Portfolio, for which Mahony created more than half of the numerous renderings. Architectural writer Reyner Banham called her the "greatest architectural delineator of her generation." Her rendering of the K. C. DeRhodes House in South Bend, was praised by Wright upon its completion and by many critics. Wright understated the contributions of others of the Prairie School, Mahony included.
A clear understanding of Marion Mahony's contribution to the architecture of the Oak Park Studio comes from Wright's son, John Lloyd Wright, who says that William Drummond, Francis Barry Byrne, Walter Burley Griffin, Albert Chase McArthur, Marion Mahony, Isabel Roberts and George Willis were the draftsmen—the five men and two women who each made valuable contributions to Prairie style architecture for which Wright became famous. During this time Mahony designed the Gerald Mahony Residence in Elkhart, Indiana for her brother and sister-in-law; when Wright eloped to Europe with Mamah Borthwick Cheney in 1909, he offered the Studio's work to Mahony but she declined. After Wright had gone, Hermann V. von Holst, who had taken on Wright's commissions, hired Mahony with the stipulation that she would have control of design. In this capacity, Mahony was the architect for a number of commissions. Two examples were the first design for Henry Ford's Dearborn mansion, Fair Lane and the Amberg House in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Mahony recommended Walter Burley Griffin to von Holst to develop landscaping for the area surrounding the three houses commissioned from Wright in Decatur, Illinois. Griffin was a fellow architect, a fellow ex-employee of Wright, a leading member of the Prairie School of architecture. Mahony and Griffin worked on the Decatur project before their marriage. A Walter Burley Griffin/Marion Mahony designed development, home to an outstanding collection of Prairie School dwellings, Rock Crest – Rock Glen in Mason City, Iowa, is seen as their most dramatic American design development of the decade, it is the largest collection of Prairie Style homes surrounding a natural setting. Mahony and Griffin married in a partnership that lasted 26 years. Mahony's watercolor perspectives of Griffins's design for Canberra, the new Australian capital, were instrumental in securing first prize in the international competition for the plan of the city. In 1914 the couple moved to Australia to oversee the building of Canberra.
Mahony was responsible for the design of their private commissions. In Australia and Griffin were introduced to Anthroposophy and the ideas of Rudolf Steiner which they embraced enthusiastically, in Sydney they joined the Anthroposophy Society. In Australia, they pioneered the Knitlock construction method, inexactly emulated by Wright in his California textile block houses of the 1920s; the Griffins practiced in India and, in less th
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
The Frederick C. Robie House is a U. S. National Historic Landmark on the campus of the University of Chicago in the South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park in Chicago, Illinois. Built between 1909 and 1910, the building was designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright and is renowned as the greatest example of Prairie School, the first architectural style considered uniquely American, it was designated a National Historic Landmark on November 27, 1963, was on the first National Register of Historic Places list of October 15, 1966. Wright designed the Robie House in his studio in Oak Park, Illinois between 1908 and 1909; the design precedent for the Robie House was the Ferdinand F. Tomek House in Riverside, designed by Wright in 1907-08. At the time that he commissioned Wright to design his home, Robie was only 28 years old and the assistant manager of the Excelsior Supply Company, a company on the South Side of Chicago owned and managed by his father. Although drawings of the Robie House show a date of 1906, Wright could not have started the design for the building earlier than the spring of 1908 because Robie had purchased the property only in May of that year.
He and his wife, Lora Hieronymus Robie, a 1900 graduate of the University of Chicago, had selected the property at 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue in order to remain close to the campus and the social life of the university. The property was a typical urban lot in Hyde Park, measuring 60 feet by 180 feet; the contractor for the project, H. B. Barnard Co. of Chicago, began construction on April 15, 1909. Wright did not supervise the construction of the house except in the earliest stages, he closed his Oak Park studio in the fall of 1909 and left for Europe to undertake the work which led to the publication of the Wasmuth Portfolio. He turned over his existing commissions to Hermann von Holst, who retained Marion Mahony, a draughtswoman in Wright's office, George Mann Niedecken, an interior designer from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who had worked with Wright on the Susan Lawrence Dana House in Springfield, the Avery Coonley House in Riverside and the Meyer May House in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to continue their work on the project.
Niedecken's influence can be seen in the design of some of the furnishings for the house as well as the carpets in the entrance hall, the living room, the dining room. The Robie family—Frederick and their two children, Frederick Jr. and Lorraine—moved into the home in May 1910, although all of the final details, including rugs and furniture, were not completed until January 1911. The final cost of the home was $58,500--$13,500 for the land, $35,000 for the design and construction of the building, $10,000 for the furnishings. Robie's original budget had been $60,000. Robie's tenure in his home was short lived, however; as a result of financial problems incurred by the death of his father in July 1908 and the deterioration of his marriage, Robie was forced to sell the house after living in it for only fourteen months. David Lee Taylor, president of Taylor-Critchfield Company, an advertising agency, bought the house and all of its Wright-designed contents in December 1911. Taylor died less than a year and his widow, Ellen Taylor, sold the house and most of its contents to Marshall D. Wilber, treasurer of the Wilber Mercantile Agency, in November 1912.
The Wilbers were the last family to live in Robie House. In June 1926, the Wilbers sold the house and its contents to the Chicago Theological Seminary, who used the house as a dormitory and dining hall although it was interested in the site for purposes of future expansion. In 1941, a graduate student at the Illinois Institute of Technology accidentally discovered that the Seminary was moving ahead with a plan to demolish the Robie House and informed his instructors, including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; the threat of demolition aroused a storm of protest. Although the Seminary's plans were subsequently postponed, the crisis was averted more by the onset of World War II than by acquiescence of the property's owner; the most serious threat to the existence of the Robie House arose 16 years later. On March 1, 1957, the Seminary announced plans to demolish the Robie House on September 15 in order to begin the construction of a dormitory for its students; this time an international outcry arose, Wright himself 90 years old, returned to the Robie House on March 18, accompanied by the media and neighborhood organizers to protest the intended demolition of the house.
Commenting on the threatened demolition, Wright quipped, "It all goes to show the danger of entrusting anything spiritual to the clergy." Only weeks earlier, the Chicago City Council, led by Hyde Park alderman Leon Despres, had enacted an ordinance to create the Commission on Chicago Landmarks. On September 15, 1971, the newly formed commission, with the support of Mayor Richard J. Daley, declared the Robie House a Chicago landmark. Moreover, two fraternities at the University of Chicago provided the Seminary with a realistic alternative to its plans of demolition. During his brief tenure as a student at the University of Wisconsin, Wright had been a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity; the University of Chicago's Phi Delt chapter house was located two doors north of the Robie house at 5737 Woodlawn Avenue, the Seminary was the owner of the lot between the two properties. The Phi Delts offered to vacate their house, the Zeta Beta Tau fraternity, located next to t
Prairie School is a late 19th- and early 20th-century architectural style, most common to the Midwestern United States. The style is marked by horizontal lines, flat or hipped roofs with broad overhanging eaves, windows grouped in horizontal bands, integration with the landscape, solid construction and discipline in the use of ornament. Horizontal lines were thought to evoke and relate to the wide, treeless expanses of America's native prairie landscape; the Prairie School was an attempt at developing an indigenous North American style of architecture in symphony with the ideals and design aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts Movement, with which it shared an embrace of handcrafting and craftsman guilds as an antidote to the dehumanizing effects of mass production. The term Prairie School was not used by practitioners of the style. Architect Marion Mahony, for example, preferred the phrase The Chicago Group, its term was coined by H. Allen Brooks, one of the first architectural historians to write extensively about the movement and its work.
The Prairie School developed in symphony with the ideals and design aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts Movement begun in the late 19th century in England by John Ruskin, William Morris, others. Along with the kindred American Craftsman movement it shared an embrace of handcrafting and craftsman guilds as a reaction against the new assembly line mass production manufacturing techniques, felt to create inferior products and dehumanize workers; the Prairie School was an attempt at developing an indigenous North American style of architecture that did not share design elements and aesthetic vocabulary with earlier styles of European classical architecture. Many talented and ambitious young architects had been attracted by building opportunities stemming from the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 was supposed to be a heralding of the city of Chicago's rebirth. But many of the young Midwestern architects of what would become the Prairie School were offended by the Greek and Roman classicism of nearly every building erected for the fair.
In reaction, they sought to create new work in and around Chicago that would display a uniquely modern and authentically American style, which came to be called Prairie. The designation Prairie is due to the dominant horizontality of the majority of Prairie style buildings, which echoes the wide, treeless expanses of the mid-Western United States; the most famous proponent of the style, Frank Lloyd Wright, promoted an idea of "organic architecture", the primary tenet of, that a structure should look as if it grew from the site. In the words of Wright, buildings that appeared as if they were "married to the ground." Wright felt that a horizontal orientation was a distinctly American design motif, in that the younger country had much more open, undeveloped land than found in most older and urbanized European nations. The Prairie School is associated with a generation of architects employed or influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright or Louis Sullivan, though not including Sullivan himself. While the style originated in Chicago, some Prairie School architects spread its influence well beyond the Midwest.
A partial list of Prairie School architects includes: Prairie School houses are characterized by open floor plans, horizontal lines, indigenous materials. These were related to the American Arts and Crafts movement and its emphasis on hand craftsmanship and function. Both were alternatives to the then-dominant Classical Revival Style of Greek forms with occasional Roman influences; some firms, such as Purcell & Elmslie, which accepted the honest presence of machine worked surfaces, consciously rejected the term "Arts and Crafts" for their work. The Prairie School was heavily influenced by the Idealistic Romantics who believed better homes would create better people, the Transcendentalist philosophy of Ralph Waldo Emerson. In turn, Prairie School architects influenced subsequent architectural idioms the less is more ethos of Minimalists and form following function in Bauhaus, itself a mixture of De Stijl grid-based design and Constructist emphasis on the structure itself and its building materials.
Architectural historians have debated the reasons why the Prairie School went out of favor by the mid-1920s. In her autobiography, Prairie School architect Marion Mahony suggests: The enthusiastic and able young men as proved in their work were doubtless as influential in the office as were these early ones but Wright's early concentration on publicity and his claims that everybody was his disciple had a deadening influence on the Chicago group and only after a quarter of a century do we find creative architecture conspicuously evident in the United States. An example of BYE Prairie School architecture is the aptly named "The Prairie School", a private day school in Racine, designed by Taliesin Associates, located adjacent to Wright's Wingspread Conference Center. Mahony's and Griffin's work in Australia and India, notably the collection of homes at Castlecrag, New South Wales, are fine examples of how the Prairie School spread far from its Chicago roots. Isabel Roberts' Veterans' Memorial Library in St. Cloud, Florida, is another.
The House at 8 Berkley Drive at Lockport, New York was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009. The Oak Circle Historic District is a historic district in Wilmette, United States, it consists of fifteen single-family homes representative of the Prairie School and Craftsman styles of architecture constructed between 1917 and 1929. The Oak Circle Historic District was added to
Raymond Mathewson Hood was an American architect who worked in the Art Deco style. Hood was born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, attended Brown University before enrolling at MIT; as a post-graduate, Hood worked as a draftsman at the architecture firm Cram and Ferguson in Boston. While employed by Cram, Hood worked on the Deborah Cook Sayles Public Library in his hometown of Pawtucket, he earned a degree. In 1922, New York architect John Mead Howells, who had met him at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, invited Hood to become his partner in the Chicago Tribune building competition in which Howells had been invited to compete; the design submitted by Howells and Hood won the competition, Hood, 41, become touted as one of New York's best architects. Hood did not consider himself an artist, but saw himself as "manufacturing shelter", writing: There has been too much talk about the collaboration of architect and sculptor. Buildings are constructed for certain purposes, the buildings of today are more practical, from the standpoint of the man, in them than the older buildings....
We are considering convenience much more than appearance or effect. Hood's design theory was aligned with that of the Bauhaus, in that he valued utility as beauty: Beauty is utility, developed in a manner to which the eye is accustomed by habit, in so far as this development does not detract from its quality of usefulness. Despite this paen to utility, Hood's designs featured non-utilitarian aspects such as roof gardens and Art Deco ornamentation; as much as Hood might insist that his designs were determined by the practicalities of zoning laws and the restraints of economics, each of his major buildings were different enough to suggest that Hood's design artistry was a significant factor in the final result. While a student at the École des Beaux-Arts, Hood met John Mead Howells, with whom he partnered. Hood employed architectural sculptor Rene Paul Chambellan both for architectural sculptures for his building and to make plasticine models of his projects. Hood is believed to have coined the term "Architecture of the Night" in a 1930 pamphlet published by General Electric.
Hood was interred at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Frank Heynick has argued from a study of the journal notes of Ayn Rand made in the late 1930s and of incidents in her 1943 novel The Fountainhead, that Raymond Hood's career and works provided fodder for her fictional architect Peter Keating; this major figure in The Fountainhead epitomized the "second-hander" who – in stark opposition to the uncompromising and innovative hero of the novel, Howard Roark, exemplified in real life by Frank Lloyd Wright, whom Rand idolized – adapts the classicist and historicist Old World architectural styles to the new American medium of the skyscraper, goes on to adopt modernism as soon as this becomes safely fashionable. Certain specific incidents in the fictional Keating's career are pointed to by Heynick as having been drawn from Hood's real-life career, such as their both gaining national fame by winning the publicized skyscraper contest for a media corporation in the early 1920s with a design in the historicist style, their both heading the committee for a "modernistic" World's Fair in the 1930s from which the hero architect was excluded.
With regard to Rockefeller Center, of which Hood was the chief designer, despite her earlier negative comments in her journals, was subsequently cited as having some good words for the RCA Building. More intriguingly, as Heynick points out, Rand is quoted in a 1943 newspaper interview as referring to Hood's McGraw-Hill Building as the most beautiful in New York, thus seeing Hood in a different light. This, Heynick argues, was justly so. Rand's creating of the negative fictional character of Peter Keating required her to draw upon the negative aspects of Hood's career as she perceived it, but with reference to the Art Deco mode – a style which goes unmentioned in Rand's novel – Hood in fact showed his creative versatility in designing two Deco skyscrapers so radically distinct from one another as the RCA Building and the McGraw-Hill Building. Tribune Tower, Illinois 1924 American Radiator Building known as the American Standard Building, New York City 1924 Ocean Forest Country Club, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 1926-1927 New York Daily News Building Manhattan, New York City 1929 Masonic Temple, Pennsylvania 1930 Rockefeller Center, New York City, where Hood was a senior architect on a large design team.
1933-37 McGraw-Hill Building, New York City 1931 Notes Bibliography Frampton, Kenneth. "Storia dell'Architettura Moderna" 4a edizione, Zanichelli Gargiani, Roberto. Rem Koolhaas/Oma. Grandi Opere-Gli Architetti, editori Laterza Hood, Raymond M. Contemporary American Architects: Raymond M. Hood. New York: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 1135799431 Features a large collection of photographs of Hood's works. Kilham, Walter H.. Raymond Hood, Architect - Form Through Function in the American Skyscraper. Architectural Book Publishing Co Inc, New York. Kvaran, Einar Einarsson. Architectural Sculpture of America. Unpublished manuscript Works by or about Raymond Hood at Internet Archive Raymond M. Hood architectural drawings and papers, circa 1890-1944. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University; the Raymond Hood Photograph Collection at the New-York Historical S