Henry E. Huntington
Henry Edwards Huntington was an American railroad magnate and collector of art and rare books. Huntington settled in Los Angeles, where he owned the Pacific Electric Railway as well as substantial real estate interests. In addition to being a businessman and art collector, Huntington was a major booster for Los Angeles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the city of San Marino, many places are named after him, including a school, a road and a library. Born in Oneonta, New York, Henry Huntington was the nephew of Collis P. Huntington, one of The Big Four, instrumental in creating the Central Pacific Railroad, one of the two railroads that built the transcontinental railway in 1869. Henry Huntington held several executive positions alongside his uncle with the Southern Pacific. After Collis Huntington's death, Henry Huntington assumed Collis Huntington's leadership role with Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in Virginia, married his widow Arabella Huntington, his divorce from his first wife Mary Alice Prentice, birth sister of his Uncle Collis' adopted daughter, in 1910 and marriage to Arabella in 1913 after Mary Alice's death shocked San Francisco society.
He had none with Arabella. Arabella's son Archer, from her prior marriage from which she was widowed, had earlier been adopted by Collis Huntington. In 1898, in friendly competition with his uncle's Southern Pacific, Huntington bought the narrow gauge city-oriented Los Angeles Railway, known as the'Yellow Car' system. In 1901, Huntington formed the sprawling interurban, standard gauge Pacific Electric Railway, known as the'Red Car' system, centered at 6th and Main Streets in Los Angeles. Huntington succeeded in this competition by providing passenger friendly streetcars on 24/7 schedules, which the railroads could not match; this was facilitated by the boom in Southern California land development, where housing was built in places such as Orange County's Huntington Beach, a Huntington-sponsored development, streetcars served passenger needs that the railroads had not considered. Connectivity to Downtown Los Angeles made such suburbs feasible. By 1910, the Huntington trolley systems spanned 1,300 miles of southern California.
At its greatest extent, the system contained over 20 streetcar lines and 1,250 trolleys, most running through the core of Los Angeles and serving such nearby neighborhoods as the Crenshaw district, West Adams, Echo Park, Hancock Park, Exposition Park, Boyle Heights and Lincoln Heights. The system integrated the 1902 acquisition, the Mount Lowe Scenic Railway above Altadena, California in the San Gabriel Mountains. In 1905 Huntington, A. Kingsley Macomber, William R. Staats developed the Oak Knoll subdivision, located to the west of his San Marino estate in the oak-covered hilly terrain near Pasadena. In 1906, along with Frank Miller, owner of the Mission Inn, Charles M. Loring, formed the Huntington Park Association, with the intent to purchase Mount Rubidoux in Riverside, build a road to the summit, develop the hill as a park to benefit the city of Riverside; the road was completed in February 1907. The property was donated to the city of Riverside by the heirs of Frank Miller, today the hill is a 161-acre city park.
Huntington was a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of California. Huntington retired from business in 1916. In 1927 Henry E. Huntington died in Philadelphia, he and Arabella are buried, with a large monument, in the Gardens of the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. The Huntington Hotel was named Hotel Wentworth when it opened on February 1, 1907. Financial problems and a disappointing first season forced it to close indefinitely. Henry Huntington purchased the Wentworth in 1911, it reopened in 1914, transformed into a winter resort. The 1920s were prosperous for the hotel, as Midwestern and Eastern entrepreneurs discovered California's warm winter climate; the hotel's reputation for fine service began with long-time general manager and owner Stephen W. Royce. By 1926, the hotel's success prompted Royce to open the property year-round; the "golden years" ended with the stock market crash and the Great Depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s. By the end of the 1930s the hotel was vibrant again.
When World War II began, all reservations were cancelled and the hotel was rented to the Army for $3,000 a month. Following the war, the Huntington's fortunes improved again. In 1954 Stephen Royce sold the hotel to the Sheraton Corporation, serving as general manager until his retirement in 1969; the hotel operated until 1985. The structure was built of un-reinforced concrete in 1906. After a two-and-a-half year major renovation, the hotel reopened in March 1991 as the Ritz Carlton Huntington Hotel and Spa; the hotel completed a $19 million renovation in January 2006. Huntington left a prominent legacy with the Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens on his former estate in San Marino near Pasadena. Other legacies in California include the cities of Huntington Beach and Huntington Park, as well as Huntington Lake. In greater Los Angeles are the Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, Henry E. Huntington Middle School in San Marino, the grand boulevard, Huntington Drive, running eastbound from downtown Los Angeles.
Its landscaped central parkway was the right-of-way for the Norther
The Bohemian Club is a private club with two locations: a city clubhouse in the Union Square district of San Francisco and the Bohemian Grove, a retreat north of the city in Sonoma County. Founded in 1872 from a regular meeting of journalists and musicians, it soon began to accept businessmen and entrepreneurs as permanent members, as well as offering temporary membership to university presidents and military commanders who were serving in the San Francisco Bay Area. Today, the club has a diverse membership of many local and global leaders, ranging from artists and musicians to businessmen; the City Club is located in a six-story masonry building at the corner of Post Street and Taylor Street, two blocks west of Union Square, on the same block as both the Olympic Club and the Marines Memorial Club. The clubhouse contains dining rooms, meeting rooms, a bar, a library, an art gallery, a theater, guestrooms; every year the club hosts a two-week-long camp at Bohemian Grove, notable for its illustrious guest list and its eclectic Cremation of Care ceremony which mockingly burns "Care" with grand pageantry and brilliant costumes, all done at the edge of a lake and at the base of a forty-foot'stone' owl statue.
In addition to that ceremony, devised by co-founder James F. Bowman in 1881, there are two outdoor performances with elaborate set design and orchestral accompaniment; the more elaborate of the two is High Jinks. More than not, the productions are original creations of the Associate members but active participation of hundreds of members of all backgrounds is traditional. In New York City and other American metropolises in the late 1850s, groups of young, cultured journalists flourished as self-described "bohemians" until the American Civil War broke them up and sent them out as war correspondents. During the war, reporters began to assume the title "bohemian," and newspapermen in general took up the moniker. "Bohemian" became synonymous with "newspaper writer". California journalist Bret Harte first wrote as "The Bohemian" in The Golden Era in 1861, with this persona taking part in many satirical doings. Harte described San Francisco as a sort of Bohemia of the West. Mark Twain called himself and poet Charles Warren Stoddard bohemians in 1867.
The Bohemian Club was formed in April 1872 by and for journalists who wished to promote a fraternal connection among men who enjoyed the arts. Michael Henry de Young, proprietor of the San Francisco Chronicle, provided this description of its formation in a 1915 interview: The Bohemian Club was organized in the Chronicle office by Tommy Newcombe, Dan O'Connell, Harry Dam, J. Limon and others who were members of the staff; the boys wanted a place where they could get together after work, they took a room on Sacramento street below Kearny. That was the start of the Bohemian Club, it was not an unmixed blessing for the Chronicle because the boys would go there sometimes when they should have reported at the office; when Dan O'Connell sat down to a good dinner there he would forget that he had a pocketful of notes for an important story. Journalists were to be regular members; the group relaxed its rules for membership to permit some people to join who had little artistic talent, but enjoyed the arts and had greater financial resources.
The original "bohemian" members were in the minority and the wealthy and powerful controlled the club. Club members who were established and successful, respectable family men, defined for themselves their own form of bohemianism which included men who were bons vivants, sometime outdoorsmen, appreciators of the arts. Club member and poet George Sterling responded to this redefinition: Any good mixer of convivial habits considers he has a right to be called a Bohemian. But, not a valid claim. There are two elements, at least; the first is addiction to one or more of the Seven Arts. Other factors suggest themselves: for instance, I like to think of my Bohemians as young, as radical in their outlook on art and life. Despite his purist views, Sterling associated closely with the Bohemian Club, caroused with artist and industrialist alike at the Bohemian Grove. Oscar Wilde, upon visiting the club in 1882, is reported to have said "I never saw so many well-dressed, well-fed, business-looking Bohemians in my life."
A number of past membership lists are in public domain, but modern club membership lists are private. Some prominent figures have been given honorary membership, such as Richard Nixon and William Randolph Hearst. Members have included some U. S. presidents, many cabinet officials, CEOs of large corporations, including major financial institutions. Major military contractors, oil companies, banks and national media have high-ranking officials as club members or guests. Many members have been, on the board of directors of several of these corporations; the club's bylaws require ten percent of the membership be accomplished artists of all types. During the first half of the 20th century membership in the club was valued by painters and sculptors, who exhibited their work on the premises, in both permanent displays and specia
Charles A. Canfield
Charles A. Canfield was an American oilman and real estate developer, he pioneered oil drilling in Mexico. He co-founded Beverly Hills and Del Mar, California. Charles Adelbert Canfield was born on May 1848 in Springfield, New York. In 1869, he moved to Colorado and struggled to find oil in the American Southwest for seventeen years. In 1886, he found silver in New Mexico Territory. In 1887, he moved to Los Angeles and founded the Chanslor-Canfield Midway Oil Co. In 1892, he partnered with Edward L. Doheny to develop the first gusher in Los Angeles, at the intersection of Patton and Colton streets on Crown Hill, just northwest of today's Downtown Los Angeles. In 1900, together with Burton E. Green, Max Whittier, Frank H. Buck, Henry E. Huntington, William F. Herrin and William G. Kerckhoff, they purchased Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas from Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker. After drilling for oil and only finding water, they reorganized their business into the Rodeo Land and Water Company to develop a new residential town known as Beverly Hills, California.
In 1902, they founded the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company, which made Mexico the world's second-largest oil-producing country. He was married to Chloe Canfield, she was murdered in 1906 by a disgruntled employee called Morris Buck, fired five years earlier for leaving the Canfields' horses unattended and beating them. They had a daughter, married to J. M. Danziger, though she divorced him in 1921. In 1923, she remarried to Antonio Moreno, they lived in the Canfield-Moreno Estate, they had a son, Charles O. Canfield, he was married to Pearl, who divorced him in 1930. The couple served as witnesses to the marriage of silent film stars Marie Prevost and Kenneth Harlan in October 1924. In 1910, he moved into the newly built Canfield-Wright House in California, he died on August 15, 1913, was buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Los Angeles. Nicholas A Curry, The Charles A. Canfield family history: Fellow mining prospector and business associate of Edward L. Doheny, 1994
Arcadia Publishing is an American publisher of neighborhood and regional history of the United States in pictorial form. Arcadia Publishing runs the History Press, which publishes text-driven books on American history and folklore, it was founded in Dover, New Hampshire, in 1993 by United Kingdom-based Tempus Publishing, but became independent after being acquired by its CEO in 2004. The corporate office is in South Carolina, it has a catalog of more than 12,000 titles, it—along with its subsidiary, The History Press—publishes 900 new titles every year. Its formula for regional publishing is to use local writers or historians to write about their community using 180 to 240 black-and-white photographs with captions and introductory paragraphs in a 128 page book; the Images of America series is the company's largest product line. Other series include Images of Rail, Images of Sports, Images of Baseball, Black America, Postcard History, Campus History, Corporate History, Legendary Locals, Images of Modern America, Then & Now.
In 2010, Arcadia became the first major publisher to print all of their books on Forest Stewardship Council paper. All of the publishers books are printed and manufactured in South Carolina on American-made paper. In May 2017, Arcadia acquired Palmetto Publishing Group, a Charleston-based self-publishing service, in business since 2015. In 2018, Arcadia was acquired by a new company owned by Lili and Michael Lynton. In March 2019, Walter Isaacson became the editor-at-large and senior adviser for Arcadia Publishing, where he will be promoting books for the comany as well as editing, new strategy development, partnerships; the History Press is a subsidiary publishing house, owned by Arcadia. Its books deal with "narratives of local heroes, tragic losses, collections of homegrown recipes, historic mysteries, everything in between." Some of their series include: American Legends, Forgotten Tales, Haunted America. The History Press was a US subsidiary of the UK-based publisher of the same name. In 2014, the US-based portion of The History Press was sold to Arcadia Publishing.
The books are printed in the United States. It handles its own sales and distribution with the following each accounting for one-third of the company's sales: Bookstore chains Independent bookstores and museums Nontraditional outlets Alan Sutton Official website Arcadia Publishing: Expands Distribution to Reach More Readers Alexander Street and Arcadia Publishing Launch Local History Collection Containing Hundreds of Thousands of Images and Texts
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California. The valley is about 7.5 miles long and 3000–3500 feet deep, surrounded by high granite summits such as Half Dome and El Capitan, densely forested with pines. The valley is drained by the Merced River, a multitude of streams and waterfalls flow into it, including Tenaya, Illilouette and Bridalveil Creeks. Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America, is a big attraction in the spring when the water flow is at its peak; the valley is renowned for its natural environment, is regarded as the centerpiece of Yosemite National Park, attracting visitors from around the world. The Valley is the main attraction in the park for the majority of visitors, a bustling hub of activity during tourist season in the summer months. Most visitors pass through the Tunnel View entrance. Visitor facilities are located in the center of the valley. There are both hiking trail loops that stay within the valley and trailheads that lead to higher elevations, all of which afford glimpses of the park's many scenic wonders.
Yosemite Valley is located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 150 miles due east of San Francisco. It stretches for 7.5 miles in a east–west direction, with an average width of about 1 mile. Yosemite Valley represents only one percent of the park area, but this is where most visitors arrive and stay. More than half a dozen creeks tumble from hanging valleys at the top of granite cliffs that can rise 3000–3500 feet above the valley floor, which itself is 4000 ft above sea level; these streams combine into the Merced River, which flows out from the western end of the valley, down the rest of its canyon to the San Joaquin Valley. The flat floor of Yosemite Valley holds both forest and large open meadows, which have views of the surrounding crests and waterfalls. Below is a description of these features, looking first at the walls above, moving west to east as a visitor does when entering the valley visiting the waterfalls and other water features, returning east to west with the flow of water.
The first view of Yosemite Valley many visitors see is the Tunnel View. So many paintings were made from a viewpoint nearby that the National Park Service named that viewpoint Artist Point; the view from the lower end of the Valley contains the great granite monolith El Capitan on the left, Cathedral Rocks on the right with Bridalveil Fall. Just past this spot the Valley widens with the Cathedral Spires the pointed obelisk of Sentinel Rock to the south. Across the Valley on the northern side are the Three Brothers, rising one above the other like gables built on the same angle – the highest crest is Eagle Peak, with the two below known as the Middle and Lower Brothers. To this point the Valley has been curving to the left. Now a grand curve back to the right begins, with Yosemite Falls on the north, followed by the Royal Arches, topped by North Dome. Opposite, to the south, is Glacier Point, 3,200 feet above the Valley floor. At this point the Valley splits in two, one section slanting northeast, with the other curving from south to southeast.
Between them, at the eastern end of the valley, is Half Dome, among the most prominent natural features in the Sierra Nevada. Above and to the northeast of Half Dome is Clouds Rest. Snow melting in the Sierra forms lakes. In the surrounding region, these creeks flow to the edge of the Valley to form cataracts and waterfalls. A fan of creeks and forks of the Merced River take drainage from the Sierra crest and combine at Merced Lake; the Merced flows down to the end of its canyon, where it begins what is called the Giant Staircase. The first drop is Nevada Fall. Below is one of the most picturesque waterfalls in the Valley; the Merced descends rapids to meet Illilouette Creek, which drops from the valley rim to form Illilouette Fall. They combine at the base of the gorges that contain each stream, flow around the Happy Isles to meet Tenaya Creek at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley proper. Tenaya Creek flows southwest from Tenaya Lake and down Tenaya Canyon flowing between Half Dome and North Dome before joining the Merced River.
The following falls tumble from the Valley rim to join it at various points: Yosemite Falls 2,425 feet Upper Yosemite Fall 1,430 feet, the middle cascades 670 feet, Lower Yosemite Fall 320 feet. Snow Creek Falls 2,140 feet Sentinel Falls 1,920 feet Ribbon Fall 1,612 feet Royal Arch Cascade 1,250 feet Lehamite Falls 1,180 feet Staircase Falls 1,020 feet Bridalveil Fall 620 feet. Nevada Fall 594 feet Silver Strand Falls 574 feet Vernal Fall 318 feet The features in Yosemite Valley are made of granitic rock emplaced as plutons miles deep during the late Cretaceous. Over time the Sierra Nevada was uplifted; the oldest of these granitic rocks, at 114 million years, occur along the Merced River Gorge west of the valley. The El Capitan pluton intruded the valley, forming most of the granitic rock that makes up much of the central part of the valley, including Cathedral Rocks, Three Brothers, El Capitan; the youngest Yosemite Valley pluton is the 87-million-year-old Half Dome granodiorite, which makes up most of the rock at
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
Frank H. Buck
Frank Henry Buck was an American heir and politician. He served as U. S. Representative from California from 1933 to 1942. Frank Buck was born on a ranch near Vacaville, California on September 23, 1887, his grandfather, Leonard W. Buck, was the founder of the Buck Company, a fruit-growing company, elected to the California State Senate in 1895, he attended the public schools. He was a member of the Theta Delta Chi fraternity, graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1908 and from the law department of Harvard University in 1911, he commenced practice in San Francisco, California. He was involved in business ventures including fruit growing, oil refining, lumber thanks to his inheritance. In 1900, together with Burton E. Green, Charles A. Canfield, Max Whittier, William F. Herrin, Henry E. Huntington, William G. Kerckhoff, W. S. Porter and Frank H. Balch, known as the Amalgated Oil Company, he purchased Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas from Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker and renamed it Morocco Junction.
After drilling for oil and only finding water, they reorganized their business into the Rodeo Land and Water Company to develop a new residential town known as Beverly Hills, California. He became the leader of the newly founded California Grower's and Shipper's Protective League, a lobbying organization to protect the rights of fruit and vegetable growers. In 1933, he sold his grandfather's company, to the Pacific Fruit Exchange, he served as delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1928, 1936, 1940. In 1932, he was elected as a Democrat to the U. S. House of Representatives, he served in Congress from March 4, 1933 until his death in Washington, D. C. on September 17, 1942. He is credited with naming the Social Security program, he married Zayda Zabriskie in 1911 and they had four children, Frank Henry Buck III, Margaret Ann Buck, Christian Brevoort Zabriskie Buck and Edward Zabriskie Elvis Buck. After they divorced, he married Eva Mathilde Benson in 1926, they had two children, William Benson Buck and Carol Franz Buck.
He died on September 1942, while still in office. He was interred in Vacaville, California, his wife, Eva Benson Buck, founded the Frank H. Buck Scholarship, awarded each year to eight to 16 high school seniors, who have to live in his former congressional district, she was an active philanthropist until her death in 1990. List of United States Congress members who died in office This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov