Kingston is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, at the beginning of the St. Lawrence River and at the mouth of the Cataraqui River; the city is midway between Toronto and Montreal, Quebec. The Thousand Islands tourist region is nearby to the east. Kingston is nicknamed the "Limestone City" because of the many heritage buildings constructed using local limestone. Growing European exploration in the 17th century and the desire for the Europeans to establish a presence close to local Native occupants to control trade led to the founding of a French trading post and military fort at a site known as "Cataraqui" in 1673; this outpost, called Fort Cataraqui, Fort Frontenac, became a focus for settlement. Cataraqui would be renamed Kingston after the British took possession of the fort and Loyalists began settling the region in the 1780s. Kingston was named the first capital of the United Province of Canada on February 10, 1841. While its time as a capital city was short, the community has remained an important military installation.
Kingston was the county seat of Frontenac County until 1998. Kingston is now a separate municipality from the County of Frontenac. A number of origins of "Cataraqui", Kingston's original name, have been postulated. One is it is derived from the Iroquois word that means "the place where one hides"; the name may be derivations of Native words that mean "impregnable", "muddy river", "place of retreat", "clay bank rising out of the water", "where the rivers and lake meet", or "rocks standing in water". Cataraqui was referred to as "the King's Town" or "King's Town" by 1787 in honour of King George III; the name was shortened to "Kingston" in 1788. Cataraqui today refers to an area around the intersection of Princess Street and Sydenham Road, where a village which took that name was located. Cataraqui is the name of a municipal electoral district. Archaeological evidence suggests. Evidence of Late Woodland Period early Iroquois occupation exists; the first more permanent encampments by aboriginal people in the Kingston area began about 500 AD.
The group that first occupied the area before the arrival of the French was the Wyandot people, who were displaced by Iroquoian groups. At the time the French arrived in the Kingston area, Five Nations Iroquois had settled along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Although the area around the south end of the Cataraqui River was visited by Iroquois and other groups, Iroquois settlement at this location only began after the French established their outpost. By 1700, the north shore Iroquois had moved south, the area once occupied by the Iroquois became occupied by the Mississaugas who had moved south from the Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe regions. European commercial and military influence and activities centred on the fur trade developed and increased in North America in the 17th century. Fur trappers and traders were spreading out from their centres of operation in New France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited the Kingston area in 1615. To establish a presence on Lake Ontario for the purpose of controlling the fur trade with local indigenous people, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France established Fort Cataraqui to be called Fort Frontenac, at a location known as Cataraqui in 1673.
The fort served as a trading post and military base, attracted indigenous and European settlement. In 1674, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was appointed commandant of the fort. From this base, de La Salle explored south as far as the Gulf of Mexico; the fort was experienced periods of abandonment. The Iroquois siege of 1688 led to many deaths, after which the French destroyed the fort, but would rebuild it; the British destroyed the fort during the Battle of Fort Frontenac in 1758 and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was renamed Tête-de-Pont Barracks in 1787, it is still being used by the military. It was renamed Fort Frontenac in 1939. Reconstructed parts of the original fort can be seen today at the western end of the La Salle Causeway. In 1783, Frederick Haldimand, governor of the Province of Quebec directed Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins to lay out a settlement for displaced British colonists, or "Loyalists", who were fleeing north because of the American Revolutionary War and "minutely examine the situation and site of the Post occupied by the French, the land and country adjacent".
Haldimand had considered the site as a possible location to settle loyal Mohawks. The survey would determine whether Cataraqui was suitable as a navy base since nearby Carleton Island on which a British navy base was located had been ceded to the Americans after the war. Holland's report about the old French post mentioned "every part surpassed the favorable idea I had formed of it", that it had "advantageous Situations" and that "the harbour is in every respect Good and most conveniently situated to command Lake Ontario". Major John Ross, commanding officer of the King's Royal Regiment of New York at Oswego rebuilt Fort Frontenac in 1783; as commander, he played a significant role in establishing the Cataraqui settlement. To facilitate settlement, the British Crown entered into an agreement with the Mississaugas in October 1783 to purchase land east of the Bay of Quinte. Known as the Crawford Purchase, this agreement enabled se
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
William Fairfield (Massachusetts)
William Fairfield was an American politician who served as Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Deputies in 1741. Fairfield was born to Ensign Walter and Sarah Fairfield on October 14, 1662 in Reading, Massachusetts. In 1701 he purchased a home in Massachusetts, he became active in Wenham's town affairs. From 1706 to 1711 and 1724 to 1729 he served as Town Clerk. From 1715 to 1716, 1733 to 1736, in 1739 and 1741 he was Town Moderator, he was a Representative at General Court in 1723, 1728, 1730, from 1732 to 1742,In 1741 he was named Speaker of the House of Deputies, which at that time the highest elected office in Massachusetts. Fairfield was described as "shrewd, clear-headed, practical" and as one, "trained by reflection and experience, rather than by a knowledge of books". A told anecdote about his tenure as speaker was that when he was heading to a session of the Legislature, he became so absorbed in thought that he reached Boston with his bridle in hand, before discovering that he had left his horse at home.
Fairfield served as a deacon for many years. Fairfield was married twice, his first marriage was to Esther ----- circa 1687. They had all born in Wenham, she died on January 1722 or 1723 in Wenham. On October 14, 1723, Fairfield married Rebecca Gott in Wenham. Fairfield died on December 18, 1742 in Wenham
Loyalist is a township in central eastern Ontario, Canada on Lake Ontario. It consists of two parts: the mainland and Amherst Island, it was named for the United Empire Loyalists. Loyalist Township was formed on January 1, 1998, through the amalgamation of Amherst Island Township, Ernestown Township, Bath Village; the primary centres of settlement in Loyalist are Amherstview and Odessa. Smaller communities include Asselstine, Emerald, Links Mills, McIntyre, Morven, Nicholsons Point, Storms Corners, Thorpe and Wilton. Since Loyalist Township is the only municipal level of government in the area, the boundaries of most settlements are unofficial and matters of tradition. Amherstview is named for Amherst Island, located directly to the south in Lake Ontario; when the community was first established in the 1950s, the spelling was "Amherst View". The community is the eastern end of the Loyalist Parkway, a stretch of Highway 33 that travels along Lake Ontario, in an area in which many United Empire Loyalists settled.
Amherstview is home to Fairfield House, situated in Fairfield Park on the shore of Lake Ontario. Fairfield House was constructed in 1793 by the Fairfield family who were among the first Loyalists to settle the area, it served as the family home and a portion of the building was used as a tavern for some time. The wood and limestone building is now a museum exhibiting period artifacts and furniture and offering guided tours. Fairfield Park itself stretches along more than 600 m of Lake Ontario shoreline; the park is a popular picnicking area and is well used by swimmers and scuba divers. Limestone shelf rock formations leading into the water simplify the launching and landing of kayaks and canoes although suitable facilities for larger watercraft do not exist; the park is home to many species of trees including red oak, willow, shagbark hickory, maple, cedar and spruce. Extensive banks of lilac provide flowers and fragrance in season and many of the larger trees in the park are fitted with strings of lights for display at Christmas.
Amherstview is home to the Henderson Recreation Centre. The centre houses a public library, a 25 m public swimming pool, an arena and includes an outdoor soccer field; the arena is the home rink for the Amherstview Jets hockey team. Bath was first settled by the United Empire Loyalists in 1784, making it one of the oldest communities in Ontario, it was served by an early colonial road, the 1784 Bath Road, which follows the lakefront as the Loyalist Parkway. Discharged soldiers from Jessup's Rangers were the first settlers; the economic development of the community was enabled by a sheltered harbour and road connections with Kingston stimulated economic development. By mid-century Bath was a prosperous point of trade. After the town had been divided up between the families of Hawley, Davy and Amey, it was John Davy, first to lay down roads on his lot #10. By 1804 the whole village had been surveyed; the village was named Ernestown, but was renamed Bath in 1819 after the city in England. A bustling lakefront manufacturing village with 400-1000 people in the 1850s, Bath began to lose industrial importance to Napanee after being successively bypassed by the York Road, the Grand Trunk Railway and the 401 motorway.
The closest rail access was an 1856 Ernestown rail station built to the west of Camden East Road in a rural area, similar in design to Napanee's historic station. The village was incorporated in 1859 and disincorporated by its 1998 annexation to Loyalist Township. Bath is directly west of Millhaven, the location of Millhaven Institution. Loyalist Golf and Country Club is a golf course in Bath; every year on July 1 there is a Canada Day celebration featuring a fair. Bath is home to the medium security prison Bath Institution, co-located within the Millhaven Institution. Odessa named Millcreek, was renamed by its postmaster to commemorate the British victory at Odessa in Ukraine during the Crimean War; the village is home to Ernestown Secondary School, which services about 650 students from Loyalist Township and Stone Mills. The township offices and a fire hall are on Odessa's Main Street. There is a small fairground. An Ontario Provincial Police detachment serves Ontario Highway 401; the water supply of the community of Odessa within the Township of Ernestown was studied in 1972, which led to the planning of infrastructure improvements.
The highest point in the village is the water tower. Visible for several kilometres in all directions, the water tower has been outfitted as a wireless communications facility; the village bills itself as "home of the Babcock Mill,", powered by Millhaven Creek which runs through the heart of Odessa. Stella and Emerald are located on Amherst Island. Stella is the major hamlet, where the ferry docks are, lends its name as the postal outlet name for Amherst Island. Emerald is a church toward the west end of the Island." Amherst Island is located about 3 kilometres offshore from the rest of Loyalist Township, is serviced by an automobile and truck ferry from Millhaven. Amherst Island was farmed for generations by Irish tenants who rented from a Lord through his manager, many residents are descendants of those early settlers. Today it has a small arts community, a number of volunteer civic groups, a radio station, CJAI-FM, that add to the island's special flavour. Primary and secondary educ
Pawlet is a town in Rutland County, United States. The population was 1,477 at the 2010 census. Pawlet was one of the New Hampshire Grants, chartered from Benning Wentworth, Governor of colonial New Hampshire; the charter was granted on August 1761 to Jonathan Willard and 61 other shareholders. The town was named for the Mettawee River, called "Paulet" or "Paulette" on the earliest maps of the area that became Vermont, it was part of Bennington County until Rutland County was created in 1781. The first town meeting on record took place on December 22, 1775. Since this meeting was called by town clerk Simeon Burton, it is apparent that Pawlet was settled by then. Pawlet is located in the Taconic Mountains; the town is located on Vermont’s western boundary with New York, adjacent towns include Wells to the north, Danby to the east, Rupert to the south, Granville and Hebron, New York to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.9 square miles, of which 0.02% is water.
Pawlet is a rural farming town. The local school is about five minutes from downtown West Pawlet; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,394 people, 575 households, 396 families residing in the town. The population density was 32.5 people per square mile. There were 707 housing units at an average density of 16.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.85% White, 0.29% African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.79% of the population. There were 575 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.92. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,429, the median income for a family was $42,750. Males had a median income of $27,847 versus $22,262 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,726. About 8.3% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Frederick W. Adams, noted physician. Stoddard, inventor. Born in Pawlet. Town of Pawlet official website Vintage Images of Pawlet, VT and area ~ Richard Clayton Photography
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada
The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected part of the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, functioning as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada. Its legislative power was subject to veto by the appointed Lieutenant Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council; the first elections in Upper Canada, in which only land-owning males were permitted to vote, were held in August 1792. The first session of the Assembly's sixteen members occurred in Newark, Upper Canada on 17 September 1792. Shortly before the capital of Upper Canada was moved to York in 1796 the Assembly was dissolved and reconvened for twelve more sessions between 1797 and 1840 in modest buildings in the new capital. Members continued to be elected by land-owning males to represent the larger towns. During the War of 1812, American troops set fire to the buildings of the Assembly. Following the war, the Executive and Legislative Councils became dominated by the Family Compact, a clique of wealthy individuals led by John Strachan, which emerged in 1815.
The Compact was opposed to American republicanism and favoured full establishment for the Anglican church in Upper Canada. Their authoritarian style of governance and disregard for the will of the Legislative Assembly led to demands for government, more responsible to the people and the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837. Opposing the Family Compact were an assortment of anti-establishment members, but it did not gain strength until a more formal group of reformers emerged led by William Warren Baldwin starting 1820s and by William Lyon Mackenzie in the 1830s; the 1840 Act of Union united Upper and Lower Canada into the single Province of Canada and, from this point until Confederation in 1867, a joint parliament was held for the united provinces. 1st Parliament of Upper Canada 1792-1796 2nd Parliament of Upper Canada 1797-1800 3rd Parliament of Upper Canada 1801-1804 4th Parliament of Upper Canada 1805-1808 5th Parliament of Upper Canada 1808-1812 6th Parliament of Upper Canada 1812-1816 7th Parliament of Upper Canada 1817-1820 8th Parliament of Upper Canada 1821-1824 9th Parliament of Upper Canada 1825-1828 10th Parliament of Upper Canada 1829-1830 11th Parliament of Upper Canada 1831-1834 12th Parliament of Upper Canada 1835-1836 13th Parliament of Upper Canada 1837-1840 A few members of the Legislature left Canada.
Some left Canada to join the United States Army during the War of 1812. Some were involved in the Rebellion of 1837 and other just abandoned Canada. Most moved to the United States, some left for Great Britain. Navy Hall at Newark First and second Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada at YorkFrom 1824 to 1832, the Assembly sat at temporary locations due to the fire that destroyed the second home: Residence of the Chief Justice of Upper Canada Old York County Court House on King between Toronto and Church Streets Ballroom of York Hotel at York - one session 1813 York General Hospital Third Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada Legislative Council of Upper Canada Executive Council of Upper Canada Lieutenant Governors of Upper Canada, 1791-1841 Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology, Frederick H. Armstrong, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1985. ISBN 0-919670-92-X James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac, provincial calendar, for the year of Our Lord 1827: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighth year of the reign of His Majesty eorge the Fourth...", 76, ii pp. James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac and astronomical calendar for the year of Our Lord 1828: being bissextile or leap year and the ninth year of the reign of His Majesty King George the Fourth...", 76, ii pp. James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac, provincial calendar, for the year of Our Lord 1831: being the third after bissextile, or leap year, the second year of the reign of His Majesty King William the Fourth...", 103, ii pp. Government of Ontario site