The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
National Library of Australia
In 2012–2013, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia, from its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a truly national collection. The present library building was opened in 1968, the building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden. The foyer is decorated in marble, with windows by Leonard French. In 2012–2013 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, the Librarys collections of Australiana have developed into the nations single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are actively sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas, approximately 92. 1% of the Librarys collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue.
The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, and maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson, the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Librarys considerable collections of general overseas and rare materials, as well as world-class Asian. The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings, the Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection. The Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers, williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Librarys catalogue. The National Library holds a collection of pictures and manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space, the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific.
The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have received as part of formed book collections. Examples are the papers of Alfred Deakin, Sir John Latham, Sir Keith Murdoch, Sir Hans Heysen, Sir John Monash, Vance Palmer and Nettie Palmer, A. D. Hope, Manning Clark, David Williamson, W. M. The Library has acquired the records of many national non-governmental organisations and they include the records of the Federal Secretariats of the Liberal party, the A. L. P, the Democrats, the R. S. L. Finally, the Library holds about 37,000 reels of microfilm of manuscripts and archival records, mostly acquired overseas and predominantly of Australian, the National Librarys Pictures collection focuses on Australian people and events, from European exploration of the South Pacific to contemporary events. Art works and photographs are acquired primarily for their informational value, media represented in the collection include photographs, watercolours, lithographs, engravings and sculpture/busts
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it. Wood engraving is a form of printing and is not covered in this article. Engraving was an important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking. Other terms often used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving, hand engraving is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are engraved, using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate. Each graver is different and has its own use, engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes, dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are usually used for lettering, using a pantographic system, there are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces. Such machines are used for inscriptions on rings, lockets. Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types, the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip that is commonly used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for work on letters, as well as wriggle cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background. Knife gravers are for line engraving and very deep cuts, round gravers, and flat gravers with a radius, are commonly used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel.
Square or V-point gravers are typically square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines, V-point can be anywhere from 60 to 130 degrees, depending on purpose and effect. These gravers have very small cutting points, other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for stone setting techniques
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and he approached Leslie Stephen, editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus on subjects from the UK and its present, an early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work. The first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885, in May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephens assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, by 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63, the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below.
The supplements brought the work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. The dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917, until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published and this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. Consequently, the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work, in 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, the last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986.
In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB, the new dictionary would cover British history, broadly defined, up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of nearly 10,000 contributors internationally. Following Matthews death in October 1999, he was succeeded as editor by another Oxford historian, Professor Brian Harrison, in January 2000. The new dictionary, now known as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes in print at a price of £7500, most UK holders of a current library card can access it online free of charge. In subsequent years, the print edition has been able to be obtained new for a lower price. At publication, the 2004 edition had 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives, a small permanent staff remain in Oxford to update and extend the coverage of the online edition
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford — known as Horace Walpole — was an English art historian, man of letters and Whig politician. He had Strawberry Hill House built in Twickenham, south-west London and his literary reputation rests on his Gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto and his Letters, which are of significant social and political interest. He was the son of the first British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, as Horace Walpole was childless, on his death his barony descended to his cousin of the same surname, who was created the new Earl of Orford. Walpole was born in London, the youngest son of British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, like his father, he received early education in Bexley, he was educated at Eton College and Kings College, Cambridge. Walpoles first friends were probably his cousins Francis and Henry Conway, to whom Walpole became strongly attached, at Eton he formed with Charles Lyttelton and George Montagu the Triumvirate, a schoolboy confederacy. More important were another group of friends dubbed the Quadruple Alliance, Thomas Gray, Richard West, at Cambridge Walpole came under the influence of Conyers Middleton, an unorthodox theologian.
Walpole came to accept the nature of Middletons attitude to some essential Christian doctrines for the rest of his life, including a hatred of superstition. Walpole ceased to reside at Cambridge at the end of 1738, according to one biographer his love for his mother was the most powerful emotion of his entire life. the whole of his psychological history was dominated by it. Walpole did not have any relationships with women, he has been called a natural celibate. Walpoles sexual orientation has been the subject of speculation, many contemporaries described him as effeminate. Biographers such as Timothy Mowl explore his possible homosexuality, including a passionate, some previous biographers such as Lewis and Robert Wyndham Ketton-Cremer, have interpreted Walpole as asexual. Upon coming of age he became Comptroller of the Pipe and Clerk of the Estreats which gave him an income of £300 per annum, Walpole decided to go travelling with Thomas Gray and wrote a will whereby he left Gray all his belongings.
They left Dover on 29 March and arrived at Calais that day and they travelled through Boulogne and Saint-Denis, arriving at Paris on 4 April. Here they met many aristocratic Englishmen, in early June they left Paris for Rheims, in September going to Dijon, Dauphiné, Aix-les-Bains and back to Lyons. In October they left for Italy, arriving in Turin in November, going to Genoa, Parma, Modena, and in December arriving at Florence. Here he struck up a friendship with Horace Mann, an assistant to the British Minister at the Court of Tuscany and wrote Epistle from Florence to Thomas Ashton, tutor to the Earl of Plymouth, a mixture of Whig history and Middletons teachings. In February 1740 Walpole and Gray left for Rome with the intention of witnessing the papal conclave upon the death of Pope Clement XII, Walpole wanted to attend fashionable parties and Gray wanted to visit all the antiquities. At social occasions in Rome he saw the Old Pretender James Francis Edward Stuart and Gray returned to Florence in July
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years War in 1599. In 1601, he led an abortive coup détat against the government and was executed for treason, Essex was born on 10 November 1565 at Netherwood near Bromyard, in Herefordshire, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, and Lettice Knollys. His maternal great-grandmother Mary Boleyn was a sister of Anne Boleyn and he was brought up on his fathers estates at Chartley Castle, and at Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, in Wales. His father died in 1576, and the new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley, in 1577, he was admitted as a fellow-commoner at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1579, he matriculated, and in 1581 he graduated as Master of Arts. On 21 September 1578, Essexs mother married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth Is long-standing favourite, Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands, before making an impact at court and winning the Queens favour.
In 1590, he married Frances Walsingham, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and widow of Sir Philip Sidney, by whom he was to have several children, Leicesters nephew, died in 1586 at the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex distinguished himself. In October 1591, Devereuxs mistress, Elizabeth Southwell, gave birth to a son who survived into adulthood. Essex first came to court in 1584, and by 1587 had become a favourite of the Queen, in June 1587 he replaced the Earl of Leicester as Master of the Horse. After Leicesters death in 1588, the Queen transferred the late Earls royal monopoly on sweet wines to Essex, in 1593, he was made a member of her Privy Council. Essex underestimated the Queen and his behaviour towards her lacked due respect and showed disdain for the influence of her principal secretary. On one occasion during a heated Privy Council debate on the problems in Ireland, in 1591, he was given command of a force sent to the assistance of King Henry IV of France. In 1596, he distinguished himself by the capture of Cadiz, so when the 3rd Spanish Armada first appeared off the English coast in October 1597, the English fleet was far out to sea, with the coast almost undefended, and panic ensued.
This further damaged the relationship between the Queen and Essex, even though he was given full command of the English fleet when he reached England a few days later. Fortunately a storm dispersed the Spanish fleet, and though there were a few landings, Essexs greatest failure was as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a post which he talked himself into in 1599. The Nine Years War was in its stages, and no English commander had been successful. More military force was required to defeat the Irish chieftains, led by Hugh ONeill, Essex led the largest expeditionary force ever sent to Ireland—16,000 troops—with orders to put an end to the rebellion. Essex had declared to the Privy Council that he would confront ONeill in Ulster, rather than face ONeill in battle, Essex entered a truce that some considered humiliating to the Crown and to the detriment of English authority
Richard Hooker was an English priest in the Church of England and an influential theologian. He was one of the most important English theologians of the sixteenth century, scholars disagree regarding Hookers relationship with what would be called Anglicanism and the Reformed theological tradition. Traditionally, he has been regarded as the originator of the Anglican via media between Protestantism and Catholicism, details of Hookers life come chiefly from Izaak Walton’s biography of him. Hooker was born in the village of Heavitree in Exeter, Devon sometime around Easter Sunday 1554 and he attended Exeter Grammar School until 1569. Richard came from a family, but one that was neither noble nor wealthy. His uncle John Hooker was a success and served as the chamberlain of Exeter, Hookers uncle was able to obtain for Richard the help of another Devon native, John Jewel, bishop of Salisbury. The bishop saw to it that Richard was accepted to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 14 August 1579 Hooker was ordained a priest by Edwin Sandys, bishop of London.
Sandys made Hooker tutor to his son Edwin, and Richard taught George Cranmer, in 1580 he was deprived of his fellowship for contentiousness having campaigned for the losing candidate in a contested election to the presidency of the college. However, he recovered it when Rainoldes finally assumed the post, in 1581, Hooker was appointed to preach at Paul’s Cross and he became a public figure, more so because his sermon offended the puritans by diverging from their theories of predestination. John Whitgift produced a reply and Thomas Cartwright a reaction to the reply, Hooker was drawn into the debate through the influence of Edwin Sandys and George Cranmer. He was introduced to John Churchman, a distinguished London merchant who became Master of the Merchant Taylors Company and it was at this time, according to his first biographer Walton, that Hooker made the fatal mistake of marrying his landlady’s daughter, Jean Churchman. Hooker seems to have lived on and off with the Churchmans until 1595 and, according to Booty, he seems to have been treated and considerably assisted by John Churchman.
Hooker became rector of St. Marys Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire, in 1584, the following year, he was appointed Master of the Temple Church in London by the Queen. The controversy abruptly ended when Travers was silenced by Archbishop in March 1586, in 1591, Hooker left the Temple and was presented to the living of St. Andrews Boscomb in Wiltshire to support him while he wrote. He seems to have lived mainly in London but apparently did spend time in Salisbury where he was Subdean of Salisbury Cathedral and made use of the Cathedral Library. The first four volumes of the work were published in 1593 with a subsidy from Edwin Sandys. In 1595, Hooker became Rector of the parishes of St. Mary the Virgin in Bishopsbourne and St. John the Baptist Barham in Kent and he published the fifth book of Of the Laws in 1597. It is longer than the first four taken together and he died 3 November 1600 at his Rectory Bishopsbourne and was buried in the chancel of the church being survived by his wife and four daughters
Aldersgate is a Ward of the City of London, named after a gate in the ancient London Wall around the City. The gate gave its name to Aldersgate Street, which runs north from the site of the gate towards Clerkenwell. The name Aldersgate is first recorded around 1000 in the form Ealdredesgate, the gate, constructed by the Romans in the 2nd or 3rd centuries when London Wall was constructed, probably acquired its name in the late Saxon period. The ward of Aldersgate straddles the line of London Wall and the old gate and historically was divided into Within and Without divisions and it took in the liberty of St. Martins Le Grand when that was dis-established in the 16th century. However, since boundary changes in 2003, almost all of the ward is Without. In 1554 Aldersgate Street was the scene of a fraud where Elizabeth Crofts was smuggled into a wall to pretend to be a heavenly voice, reputedly 17,000 people came to listen to her give out anti-catholic propaganda. The old gate was taken down in 1617, and rebuilt in the year from a design by Gerard Christmas.
The gate was damaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666 but was repaired and remained until 1761, the house of Sarah Sawyer, in Rose and Rainbow Court, formed one of the earliest Quaker meetings in London. In 1675, it became a meeting house, the Box Meeting, used mainly by Quaker women for poor relief. Aldersgate Street forms a section of the A1 route towards Edinburgh. It is located on the west side of the Barbican Estate and Barbican Centre, near St Bartholomews Hospital, northbound it continues into Goswell Road at the junction with Fann Street, southbound it continues into St. Martins Le Grand. Barbican tube station is located on Aldersgate Street and when it was opened in 1865 was named Aldersgate Street tube station, in 1910 it was renamed Aldersgate, Aldersgate & Barbican in 1924, before finally being renamed Barbican in 1968. Originally Aldersgate Street only corresponded to the starting from the church of St Botolph without Aldersgate towards Long Lane. The portion of the road from Long Lane till Goswell Street was formerly named Pickax Street and this name may derive from Pickt Hatch, an area of brothels said to be in this part of London during the Elizabethan era.
Pick Hatch is mentioned in The Merry Wives of Windsor and in The Alchemist, by the late eighteenth century the name Pickax was no more in use, and the road was fully incorporated into Aldersgate Street. 28 Aldersgate Street is the former location of a Moravian Church. On 24 May 1738, attending a meeting at the church, the following year, he broke with the Moravians and founded the Methodist Society of England. The yearly anniversary of his experience is celebrated by Methodists as Aldersgate Day, wesleys Chapel, in nearby City Road, remains a major focal point of the international Methodist movement
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac, commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616, Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIIIs chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642, he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the kings Chief Minister or First Minister. He sought to consolidate power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong and his chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve his goals. While a powerful figure, events like the Day of the Dupes show that in fact he very much depended on the kings confidence to keep this power.
As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the Collège de Sorbonne, Richelieu was famous for his patronage of the arts, most notably, he founded the Académie Française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. Richelieu is known by the sobriquet lÉminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinals clerical dress and this in part allowed the colony to eventually develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. He is a character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children, at the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career and his private life seems to have been typical of a young officer of the era, in 1605, aged twenty, he was treated by Théodore de Mayerne for gonorrhea. King Henry III had rewarded Richelieus father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon.
The family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use, they were, challenged by clergymen, to protect the important source of revenue, Richelieus mother proposed to make her second son, the bishop of Luçon. Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk, thus, it became necessary that the younger Richelieu join the clergy. He had strong interests, and threw himself into studying for his new post. In 1606 King Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon, as Richelieu had not yet reached the canonical minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607, soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer
Basing House was a major Tudor palace and castle in the village of Old Basing in the English county of Hampshire. It once rivaled Hampton Court Palace in its size and opulence, today only its foundations and earthworks remain. The ruins are a Grade II listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument, Basing House was built from 1531 as a new palace for William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, treasurer to King Edward VI, Queen Mary I and Queen Elizabeth I. In its final form, Basing House was made up of two linked houses, the Old House replaced the keep of an older ringwork castle, so was located within a defensive ring of earthworks and walls, whilst the slightly New House was located outside the defences. A bridge and gateway linked the two across and through the defences, a link that was to prove fatal in the battle for Basing House. Taken together, the house had 360 rooms, was five storeys high and was considered by many to be the greatest private house in the country. For the first half of the 1630s, the house was shut up, on taking the title the 5th Marquess down-sized, moved the family out, and waited until returns from the extensive estates all over England allowed him to start restorations in the decade.
At the time of the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, Basing House belonged to John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester, as a consequence, parliamentary forces invested Basing House on three different occasions, with the Royalists successfully breaking the first two sieges. The final siege started in August 1645 when Colonel John Dalbier, with 800 troops, the garrison held out, despite further reinforcements to the attacking force, until Oliver Cromwell arrived with a heavy siege-train. By 13 October 1645, the New House had been taken, the final storming took place across the link from the New House. Many valuable goods were carried off, and a fire destroyed the building, as with other houses and castles destroyed at the time, its dressed stone was sold off at auction. Local villagers were encouraged to remove bricks from Basing House, while the local populace would sometimes be used to dismantle buildings, it was unusual to encourage them to make use of the materials. The nearby barn at Parkers Piece was built almost immediately after the slighting using bricks from the house and his son Charles Paulet, 1st Duke of Bolton, became wealthy again as a consequence of his support for William of Orange during the Glorious Revolution.
This wealth was used to hack down what was left of Basing House, the history of the area on which the house stands has an unclear history before the houses construction. Basing House is located in the village of Old Basing, approximately one mile east of the centre of the town of Basingstoke, the house is situated close to the upper reaches of the River Loddon. Because of this congestion in Old Basing, the car park for the house is situated several hundred yards away and is accessed by a riverside walk. The route of the former Basingstoke Canal ran around Basing House and through, the extensive ruins of Basing House are open to the public. Entry to the House has been altered, with a ticket office, coffee shop