Rosario Marchese is a Canadian former politician in Ontario, Canada. He was a New Democratic member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1990 to 2014, representing the downtown Toronto riding of Trinity-Spadina and before that the old riding of Fort York. Born in San Nicola da Crissa, Marchese arrived in Canada with his family in 1961, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and Philosophy from the University of Toronto in 1978, received a Bachelor of Education degree. He taught French in Toronto and Mississauga, he is fluent in Italian. As well, he served as Vice-President of the National Congress of Italian Canadians, Toronto Public Library Board trustee, Multilingual Literacy Centre Chair. In 1980, he ran for school trustee in Ward 4 but finished third behind incumbents Patrick Case and Peter Davis. In 1982 he ran again this time being elected, he ran as a New Democrat aligned trustee. He served on the Toronto school board from 1982 to 1990. During this period, he was an advocate of lingual and racial rights, worked to establish international language programs, alternative schools and school childcare, helped to end the practice of streaming students into narrow learning programs.
In 1985 and again in 1988, Marchese voted with other trustees to raise their salaries 35% and 86% respectively. By the end of 1988 salaries had increased from about $18,000 to $44,000. Trustees who supported the increase argued. Sheila Cary-Meagher, said, "You have to stop and think... about the people who want to run for the job and who, if we keep it a rich person's ghetto, can't do it," she said. In both years trustees rejected citizen recommendations for lower increases. In 1990, Marchese was elected to the Ontario parliament in the provincial election of 1990, defeating incumbent Liberal Bob Wong by about 1500 votes in the riding of Fort York; the NDP won a majority government and Marchese was appointed as the Minister of Culture and Communications on October 1, 1990. One of his first acts as minister was to announce the withdrawal of provincial funds for a proposed opera house in Toronto. Though the province gave the land to the city for the opera house it was never built, he presided over a significant increase in funding to the Ontario Arts Council and the provincial film industry, but was dropped from cabinet on July 31, 1991.
Critics argued that he was dropped from cabinet because he promoted multiculturalism at the expense of some mainstream arts groups. As a replacement for his cabinet position, Marchese was appointed as parliamentary assistant to Premier Bob Rae focusing on constitutional affairs. In this position he was a proponent of adding a'social charter' to the Canadian constitution; this would reduce disparities and maintain equalization payments. In June 1994, he introduced a private member's bill to give Toronto the ability to regulate after hours clubs; the party expanded it to encompass the entire province. It was passed on November 24, 1994; the NDP were defeated in the 1995 election, although Marchese managed to increase his margin of victory against Wong who ran again for the Liberals. In opposition, he managed to distinguish himself as one of the most spirited debaters in the reduced NDP caucus. In the 1999 provincial election he ran in the new riding of Trinity—Spadina and won, he was re-elected in 2003, 2007 and 2011.
During his tenure in opposition he served as critic for several portfolios and was NDP caucus chair from 2007 to 2014. In the 2014 provincial election he was defeated by Liberal candidate Han Dong by 9,175 votes. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Ontario New Democratic Party
The Ontario New Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario NDP, led by Andrea Horwath since March 2009 forms the Official Opposition in Ontario following the 2018 general election, it is a provincial section of the federal New Democratic Party. It was formed in October 1961 from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Ontario Federation of Labour. For many years, the Ontario NDP was the most successful provincial NDP branch outside the national party's western heartland, it had its first breakthrough under its first leader, Donald C. MacDonald in the 1967 provincial election, when the party elected 20 Members of Provincial Parliament to the Ontario Legislative Assembly. After the 1970 leadership convention, Stephen Lewis became leader, guided the party to Official Opposition status in 1975, the first time since the Ontario CCF did it twice in the 1940s. After the party's disappointing performance in the 1977 provincial election, that included losing second party status, Lewis stepped down and Michael Cassidy was elected leader in 1978.
Cassidy led the party through the 1981 election. The party did poorly again, Cassidy resigned. In 1982, Bob Rae was elected leader. Under his leadership, in 1985, the party held the balance-of-power with the signing of an accord with the newly elected Liberal minority government. After the 1987 Ontario general election, the ONDP became the Official Opposition again; the 1990 Ontario general election produced the ONDP's breakthrough first government in 1990. The victory produced the first NDP provincial government east of Manitoba, but it took power just when Canada's economy was in a recession, as a result of unpopular economic policies it was defeated in 1995. Rae stepped down as leader in 1996. Howard Hampton was elected leader in at the 1996 Hamilton convention, led the party through three elections. Hampton's period as leader saw the ONDP lose official party status twice: after the 1999 and 2003 elections, he was able to regain party status the first time after the governing Progressive Conservatives revised party status requirements in accordance with that election's reduction in the number of seats in the legislature, the second time after winning a string of by-elections in the mid-2000s.
The party maintained party status after the 2007 Ontario general election and he stepped down as leader in 2009. Andrea Horwath replaced him after she was elected leader at the 2009 leadership convention in Hamilton. Under her leadership in the 2011 Ontario general election, the party elected 17 MPPs to the legislature and in the 2014 Ontario general election, the party elected 21 MPPs. Under Horwath, the party achieved its second highest seat count when it formed the Official Opposition with 40 MPPs after the 2018 Ontario general election; the NDP's predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, was a democratic socialist political party, founded in 1932. The Ontario CCF in turn was indirectly the successor to the 1919–23 United Farmers of Ontario–Labour coalition that formed the government in Ontario under Ernest C. Drury; as the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Ted Jolliffe as their first leader, the party nearly won the 1943 provincial election, winning 34 seats and forming the official opposition for the first time.
Two-years they would be reduced to 8 seats. The final glory for the Ontario CCF came in the 1948 provincial election, when party elected 21 MPPs, again formed the official opposition, they were able to defeat Premier George A. Drew in his own constituency, when the CCF's Bill Temple won in High Park though the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario won another majority government; the breaking point for the Ontario CCF came in 1951. They were reduced to two MPP's in that year's provincial election, never recovered. In the two remaining elections while it existed, the party never had more than five members in the legislature. Jolliffe resigned as leader in 1953. Donald C. MacDonald became leader in 1953, spent the next fifteen years rebuilding the party, from two seats when he took over the party's helm, to ten times that number when he stepped down in 1970. Delegates from the Ontario CCF, delegates from affiliated union locals, delegates from New Party Clubs took part in the founding convention of the New Democratic Party of Ontario held in Niagara Falls at the Sheraton Brock hotel from 7–9 October 1961 and elected MacDonald as their leader.
The Ontario CCF Council ceased to exist formally on Sunday, 8 October 1961, when the newly elected NDP executive took over. The Ontario NDP picked up seats through the 1960s, it achieved a breakthrough in the 1967 provincial election, when its popular vote rose from 15% to 26%. The party increased its presence in the legislature from 8 to 20 seats. In that election the party ran on the themes of the cost of living, tax distribution, education costs, Canadian unity, housing. Stephen Lewis took over the party's leadership in 1970, the NDP's popularity continued to grow. With the 1975 provincial election, the governing Progressive Conservative party was reduced to a minority government for the first time in thirty years; the charismatic and dynamic Lewis ran a strong election campaign that forced the Tories to promise to implement the NDP's rent control policies. The NDP overtook the Liberals to become the Official Opposition with 29 % of the vote. However, the Tories retained power as a minority government.
Hopes were high tha
Marilyn Churley is a former politician in Ontario, Canada. She was a New Democratic member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1990 to 2005 who represented the downtown Toronto ridings of Riverdale and Toronto—Danforth, she served as a cabinet minister in the Bob Rae government. In opposition she served as her party's critic for the Environment, Women's Issues and Democratic Renewal, she resigned from the legislature to run for the federal New Democratic Party. Churley was her party's candidate for the riding of Beaches—East York in 2006 and 2008, but was defeated both times. Churley was born in Old Perlican, Newfoundland in 1948, her parents were Myrtis Emberley. Shortly after being born the family moved to Happy Valley, Labrador where her father worked as a cook at Goose Bay Air Force Base, she moved to the Downtown Toronto neighbourhood of Riverdale in 1978. She has served as a director of the Co-op Housing Federation of Toronto, was a co-founder of the Bain Avenue Day Care Centre. Among other community commitments, Churley was a director of the Co-operative Housing Federation of Toronto.
In 1968, she gave birth to a son, whom she gave up for adoption. She reconnected with him in 1997, she has a daughter, born in 1974. Churley's experience with adoption and the search for her son led her to advocate for adoption disclosure reform. Through the 1990s, she introduced several Private Member's Bills to facilitate the process of locating children given up for adoption. None of these passed. Subsequently, she was a strong supporter of a similar bill introduced by Sandra Pupatello; this bill became the Adoption Information Disclosure Act. Churley was elected to the Toronto City Council in 1988, she defeated longtime alderman Fred Beavis in the downtown riding of Riverdale. She was involved in a number of Toronto council initiatives, including the energy efficiency office, the "Clean Up the Don" movement and police patrols on bicycle. Churley was elected as a New Democrat in the riding of Riverdale in the provincial election of 1990; the NDP won a majority government in this election and she serving as a Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of the Environment.
On 18 March 1991, Churley was named Minister of Consumer and Commercial Relations after the previous minister, Peter Kormos was fired by Bob Rae for a series of political blunders. Churley remained in this position throughout the Rae government's mandate. In cabinet, Churley opposed attempts to reduce social assistance to single mothers, only accepted the introduction of casino gambling with reluctance. Toronto singer/songwriter Kurt Swinghammer wrote a song called "The Signature of Marilyn Churley", inspired by Churley's signature on an elevator license dating from her term in the Rae cabinet. Rae's government lost the provincial election of 1995, Churley was one of seventeen NDP members to retain a seat in the legislature. In opposition, she worked to force the government of Mike Harris to keep the Riverdale Hospital open, stopped the closure of 11 schools, forced the government to cap tax increases for small business, she served as Deputy Speaker of the legislature from October 1997 to October 1998.
In the provincial election of 1999, she was re-elected in the redistributed riding of Broadview—Greenwood. Churley became deputy leader of the NDP in 2001, following the retirement of Frances Lankin from the legislature. In the by-election to replace Lankin, the Liberals nominated Greenpeace co-founder and popular television personality Bob Hunter to run for them against former East York mayor Michael Prue for the NDP. During the race, Churley denounced Hunter for having written a novel with first-person accounts of encounters with child prostitutes in Bangkok; the Toronto Sun quoted Ms. Churley as saying: "It says something about Bob Hunter's character he could write such nasty, disgusting stuff about young girls in Thailand." Hunter claimed that the story was written as satire, sued both Churley and Prue for slander. The suit was withdrawn after the by-election. Churley was re-elected for a fourth term in 2003. After the election, when the NDP lost official party status in the Legislature, Churley threatened to change her surname to "Churley-NDP" so that the Speaker would be forced to say NDP when recognizing her in the House.
A compromise was reached which made this change unnecessary, the party regained official status when Andrea Horwath won a 2004 by-election. Churley was a prominent supporter of Jack Layton in his bid to become leader of the federal New Democratic Party in 2002; this position put her at odds with party leader Howard Hampton. In May 2005, Churley announced that once a federal election was called she would resign her Toronto—Danforth seat at the provincial legislature and run for a seat in the House of Commons of Canada. Since Toronto-Danforth is Layton's seat in the federal parliament, Churley sought to represent the neighbouring riding of Beaches—East York. However, Churley could not overcome accusations of being a parachute candidate, despite living only a few miles away from the Beaches—East York riding, was defeated in the January 23, 2006 election by incumbent Liberal Maria Minna in a hard fought contest. On February 9, 2007, at a fundraiser in Toronto, Churley clarified that she would be seeking the nomination in Beaches—East York for a potential federal election in 2007.
Two months Churley was renominated as the NDP candidate in that riding. She was again defeated by Maria Minna in the 2008 election. Churley is a regular guest on The Michael Coren Show, a current events television program on CTS, she was appointed a justice of the peace on October 14
Conestoga College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning is a public college in Kitchener, Canada, with an enrollment of 11,000 full-time students, 30,000 part-time students, 3,300 apprenticeship students. The College was founded in 1967 as the Conestoga College of Applied Arts and Technology, one of many such institutions established in that time by the Ontario government to grant diplomas and certificates in career-related, skills-oriented programs, it was renamed in 2002 when the government extended the school's reach, namely to grant degrees in technology-based fields. Over the years, it has added programs such as the Master of Business Administration program, in cooperation with the University of Windsor. In addition, the College offers a new nursing curriculum leading to a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. Students accepted to Conestoga's Nursing Program take all four years of study at the Doon Campus in Kitchener. Graduates of the program will receive a degree from McMaster University.
Beginning in August 2003 two new programs began which would be the first to award a degree to students through the college. The two programs are the B. Eng. Mechanical Systems Engineering program, a accredited engineering program by Engineers Canada and the B. A. Tech Architecture - Project and Facility Management. In 2007 a third B. A. Tech in Integrated Telecommunication and Computer Technology, degree program was added targeting embedded system hardware and software design and manufacture. All three programs award graduates a Bachelor of Applied Technology degree. Beginning of 2005 a new Bachelor of Applied Health Sciences Degree in Health Informatics Management. In 2006, the college purchased the former University Heights Secondary School in Waterloo for nearly $6,000,000, into which its Waterloo campus relocated that year; the property is larger than its former Waterloo campus, which the college will sell to cover the cost of the purchase. Conestoga has a one, three or four-year programs. There are many options available to students including four-year degrees in Mechanical Systems Engineering, Integrated Telecommunications and Computer Technology, Health Informatics or the International Business Management degree which started in the fall of 2006.
Conestoga has several agreements with Ontario universities including Wilfrid Laurier, Windsor and McMaster, as well as several other Canadian and international institutions. Doon Campus is the main campus for Conestoga College, it is located at the south end of Kitchener and houses the central administration offices as well as the majority of courses offered by the college. Regional campuses have select programs. Doon Campus - Main Campus, 299 Doon Valley Drive, Ontario, N2G 4M4 Waterloo Campus, 108 University Avenue East, Ontario N2J 2W2 Cambridge Campus, 850 Fountain Street South, Ontario N3H 0A8 Guelph Campus, 460 Speedvale Avenue West, Ontario N1H 6N6 Stratford Campus, 130 Youngs Street, Ontario N5A 1J7 Cambridge Downtown - Academic Upgrading, Suite 402, 150 Main Street, Ontario N1R 6P9 Ingersoll Skills Training Centre, 420 Thomas Street, Ontario N5C 3J7 The town of Milton and Wilfrid Laurier University had been working together since 2008 to develop the 150-acre campus in Milton within the planned Milton Education Village on 150 acres of land donated by the town.
The university subsequently partnered with Conestoga College which would add a satellite campus at that location. In April 2018, the Province announced a funding plan of $90 million for the project. Construction of the 150-acre campus was expected to conclude in Q3 of 2021. In October 2018, the new provincial government withdrew the funding before any construction had begun, citing a greater than expected provincial deficit; this cancelled the plans for the joint project with Laurier. Mayor Gord Krantz said the town would explore alternatives for funding the Milton Education Village campus. A news release issued by the college said that it would continue working with Laurier, "the government and community partners to develop a revised model for the cost-effective delivery of post-secondary education... in Milton..." Recreation Centre ATS Centre Woodworking Centre of Ontario The School of Engineering and Information Technology was relocated, in 2011, to a new expansion of the Doon campus opposite the current facility across Highway 401.
This City of Cambridge site will hold 1,000,000 square feet of space. Phase one of the new Cambridge Campus was open for the start of the fall 2011 semester; this first 260,000 square-foot building is home to the School of Engineering and Information Technology, as well as to the Institute for Food Processing Technology. The Engineering facility has programs with a focus on advanced manufacturing, renewable energy, telecommunications and information technology; the food processing industry is continuing to grow and this expansion will help fill a need for current and future skilled workers in this sector. The expansion has increased capacity by 2,350 additional full-time spaces and allowed for an additional 800 new spaces for apprentices. 88.3 CJIQ - the college's campus radio station. It is used as part of Broadcasting: Radio Journalism program offered at the college. Local radio DJ Jeremy James got his start at this station. Spoke On-line - the web version of the official newspaper of Conestoga College.
Student reporters in the Journalis
Robert Keith Rae, is a Canadian lawyer, public speaker, former politician. He was the member of Parliament for Toronto Centre and was the interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 2011 to 2013, he was leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party and the 21st Premier of Ontario, from 1990 until 1995. Between 1978 and 2013, he was elected 11 times to provincial parliaments. Rae was a New Democratic Party member of Parliament from 1978 to 1982, he moved to provincial politics, serving as leader of the Ontario NDP from February 7, 1982, to June 22, 1996. After leading his party to victory in the 1990 provincial election he served as the 21st Premier of Ontario from October 1, 1990, to June 26, 1995, was the first person to have led a provincial NDP government in the province of Ontario. While in office, he brought forward a number of initiatives that were unpopular with many traditional NDP supporters, such as the Social Contract. Rae's subsequent disagreement with the leftward direction of the NDP led him to resign his membership.
In 2006, he joined the Liberals. In 2006, he was a candidate for the leadership of the Liberals, finishing in third place on the third ballot, he had been a Liberal before joining the NDP in the 1970s. Rae returned to the House of Commons of Canada on March 31, 2008, as a Liberal MP after winning a March 17, 2008 by-election, holding the riding, held by Liberal Bill Graham, he was re-elected in the 2008 general election. Rae ran again as a candidate for the party leadership but withdrew on December 12, 2008, he was re-elected in the Toronto Centre riding in the 2011 general election and was named interim leader of the Liberal Party weeks replacing Michael Ignatieff. On June 19, 2013, Rae announced that he would resign from parliament in order to become chief negotiator for James Bay area First Nations in their negotiations with the provincial government, his resignation from parliament became effective July 31, 2013. Rae joined Olthuis Kleer Townshend LLP as a partner in February 2014. Rae sits as an advisor to Canada's Ecofiscal Commission.
He was appointed Canada's special envoy to Myanmar in October 2017 and advised Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on the Rohingya crisis. He is a Senior Fellow to the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights. Rae was born in Ontario, his parents were Lois Esther and Saul Rae, an eminent Canadian career diplomat who had postings in Washington, New York and The Hague. Rae's paternal grandparents immigrated from Scotland, his mother had English ancestry. Rae was raised as an Anglican; as an adult, he found out that his paternal grandfather was Jewish, was from a family of Lithuanian immigrants to Scotland. Rae's elder brother John A. Rae was an Executive Vice-President and Director of Power Corporation and a prominent member of the Liberal Party, he was an adviser to Jean Chrétien when he was Indian Affairs Minister in 1968, again from 1993 until 2003 while Chrétien was Prime Minister. Rae's younger brother, was diagnosed with lymphatic cancer in 1987. Despite a bone marrow transplant from his brother, he died of leukemia in 1989 at age 32.
Rae's sister, worked for many years for the IMAX Corporation but has now retired. Rae learned of his family's Jewish origins in 1968; the revelation had a strong impact on him: he sought to explore his Jewish culture, dated Jewish girls and married a Jewish woman. Upon his marriage to Arlene Perly Rae, Rae agreed to raise his children in his wife's Jewish faith. Rae is a member of a Reform Jewish congregation in Toronto, his uncle, the late Jackie Rae was an entertainer and former host of The Jackie Rae Show on CBC and performed on British television. Rae attended Crichton Street Public School in Ottawa, Horace Mann Public School and Gordon Junior High School in Washington, D. C. and the International School of Geneva, Switzerland. His first job was a paper route delivering the Evening Star newspaper, which he described as "one of the worst newspapers in the history of modern journalism", his customers included Estes Kefauver. Rae joked that Kefauver gave him a $20 tip one Christmas, whereas Pat Nixon only gave him a quarter and made him more sympathetic to Democrats from that moment.
He graduated with honours from University College, University of Toronto, where he later received his law degree. Michael Ignatieff, who became Rae's rival for the Liberal Party leadership, was his roommate for a time, he first became involved in politics by volunteering on Trudeau's 1968 Liberal leadership campaign, worked on Liberal Charles Caccia's campaign in the 1968 federal election. Rae and Caccia have remained personal friends through their political careers. During his final year as an undergraduate, Rae was a student representative on the Bissell Commission on University Government; as a result of his strong student record, Rae was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford, where he studied at Balliol College, Oxford under Isaiah Berlin. His Bachelor of Philosophy thesis criticized the cultural imperialism of early Fabian socialists in the United Kingdom, such as Sidney and Beatrice Webb. During his period in Britain he became involved with social work, helping squatters find rental accommodation in London.
He attributes the experience with helping him develop a deepened commitment to social justice and, on his return to Canada in 1974 Rae joined the socia
Kitchener is a city in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario. Located 100 km west of Toronto, Kitchener is the regional seat, it was called the Town of Berlin from 1854 until 1912 and the City of Berlin from 1912 until 1916. The City of Kitchener covers an area of 136.86 square kilometres and had a population of 233,222 at the time of the 2016 Census. The Kitchener metropolitan area, which includes the smaller, neighbouring cities of Waterloo to the north and Cambridge to the south, has 523,894 people, making it the tenth largest Census Metropolitan Area in Canada and the fourth largest CMA in Ontario. Kitchener and Waterloo are considered "twin cities" which are referred to jointly as "Kitchener–Waterloo", although they have separate municipal governments. Including Cambridge, the three cities are known as "the Tri-Cities". All are part of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, created in 1973, when it replaced Waterloo County, created in 1853. Kitchener is in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands.
This geological and climatic region has deciduous forests. Located in the Grand River Valley, the area is above 300m in elevation. Kitchener is the largest city within the Grand River watershed, the largest city on the Haldimand Tract. Just to the west of the city is Baden Hill, in Wilmot Township; this glacial kame remnant formation is the highest elevation for many miles. The other dominant glacial feature is the Waterloo Moraine, which snakes its way through the region and holds a significant quantity of artesian wells, from which the city derives most of its drinking water; the settlement's first name, Sandhills, is an accurate description of the higher points of the moraine. Kitchener has a humid continental climate of the warm summer subtype. Winter-like conditions last from the mid-December until mid-March, while summer temperatures occur between mid-May to close to the end of September. March 2012 went down in the history books for Kitchener – between 16 and 22 March, temperatures ranged from 21.4 °C to 27.0 °C —7 record highs in a row.
19 March high of 24 °C is one of the highest winter temperatures recorded, while 22 March high of 27 °C is the highest for March in this area. Temperatures during the year can exceed 30 °C in the summer and drop below −20 °C in the winter several times a year, but prolonged periods of extreme temperatures are rare; the frost-free period for Kitchener averages about 147 frost-free days a year, a much more limited number than cities on the Great Lakes due its inland location and higher elevation. Snowfall averages 160 centimetres per year, high but not nearly as areas more directly affected by lake effect snow; the highest temperature recorded in Kitchener was 38.3 °C on August 6 & 7, 1918 and July 27, 1941. The coldest temperature recorded was −34.1 °C on February 16, 2015. In 1784, the land Kitchener was built on was a 240,000 hectare area given to the Six Nations by the British as a gift for their allegiance during the American Revolution. Between 1796 and 1798, the Six Nations sold 38,000 hectares of this land to loyalist Colonel Richard Beasley.
The portion of land that Beasley purchased was remote but of great interest to German Mennonite farming families from Pennsylvania. They wanted to live in an area; the Mennonites purchased all of Beasley's unsold land creating 160 farm tracts. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania, known as the Pennsylvania Dutch or Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsche, after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000-acre section of Block Two from the German Company, established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; the tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least four hundred acres in size; the German Company, represented by Daniel Erb and Samuel Bricker, had acquired the land from previous owner Richard Beasley. The payment to Beasley, in cash, arrived from Pennsylvania in kegs, carried in a wagon surrounded by armed guards. By 1800, the first buildings had been built, over the next decade several families made the difficult trip north to what was known as the Sand Hills.
One of these Mennonite families, arriving in 1807, were the Schneiders, whose restored 1816 home is now a museum in the heart of Kitchener. Other families whose names can still be found in local place names were the Bechtels, the Ebys, the Erbs, the Weavers, the Cressmans and the Brubachers. In 1816 the Government of Upper Canada designated the settlement the Township of Waterloo. Much of the land, made up of moraines and swampland interspersed with rivers and streams, was converted to farmland and roads. Wild pigeons, which once swarmed by the tens of thousands, were driven from the area. Apple trees were introduced to the region by John Eby in the 1830s, several grist- and sawmills were erected throughout the area. Schneider built the town's first road, from his home to the corner of Queen Street. $1000 was raised by the settlers to extend the road from Walper corner to Huether corner, where th
Grise Fiord, is an Inuit hamlet in the Qikiqtaaluk Region in the territory of Nunavut, Canada. Despite its low population, it is the largest community on Ellesmere Island, it is one of the coldest inhabited places in the world, with an average yearly temperature of −16.5 °C. Located at the southern tip of Ellesmere Island, Grise Fiord is one of three permanent settlements on the island. Grise Fiord lies 1,160 km north of the Arctic Circle. Grise Fiord is the northernmost civilian settlement in Canada, but Environment Canada has a permanent weather station at Eureka, at Alert there is a permanent Canadian Forces Base and weather station, that lie further north on the island. Grise Fiord cradles the Arctic Cordillera mountain range. Grise Fiord means "pig inlet" in Norwegian and was named by Otto Sverdrup from Norway during an expedition around 1900, he thought the walrus in the area sounded like pigs. Grise Fiord's Inuktitut name is Aujuittuq which means "place that never thaws." The population of Grise Fiord is declining, consists of around 129 permanent residents, a decrease of 0.8% from the 2011 census.
The houses are wooden and built on platforms to cope with the freezing and thawing of the permafrost. Hunting is still an important part of the lifestyle of the Inuit population. Quota systems allow the villagers to supply many of their needs from populations of seals, walruses and beluga whales, polar bears and muskox. Ecotourism is developing as people come to see the northern wildlife found on Ellesmere and surrounding islands. There are no connecting roads on Ellesmere Island, so Grise Fiord is connected to the rest of the world by a small airstrip 1,675 ft in length, it is one of the most difficult approaches for aircraft, it is cautioned that only experienced pilots and DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft attempt the approach. For local travel needs, the villagers use all-terrain vehicles in the summer and snowmobiles in the winter. During the winter months travel is limited to the town site and a small patch of land to the east called Nuvuk, due to mountains and ice fields that cut the town off from the rest of the island.
Small boats are used in summer to reach hunting sea mammals on the ocean. Once a year large ships arrive with supplies and fuel. There is a local co-operative, the main place to purchase supplies. There are local guide and outfitting operations which are an important source of income for many families. Carving and traditional crafts and clothing are important sources of income; the economy is a subsistence-based one due to the extreme location. Because of falling rock/avalanche potential from mountains, there is no room for growth; the community has been served by the Qiniq network since 2005. Qiniq is a fixed wireless service to homes and businesses, connecting to the outside world via a satellite backbone; the Qiniq network is operated by SSI Micro. In 2017, the network was upgraded to 4G LTE technology, 2G-GSM for mobile voice. A Simon Fraser University study of Royal Canadian Mounted Police activity in the Baffin Region states that Grise Fiord had the lowest rate of criminal offences of all communities looked at in 1992, cites a 1994 Statistics Canada survey that gives the highest perception of personal safety.
The settlement was created by the Canadian government in 1953 to assert sovereignty in the High Arctic during the Cold War. Eight Inuit families from Inukjuak, Quebec were relocated after being promised homes and game to hunt, but the relocated people discovered no buildings and little familiar wildlife, they were told that they would be returned home after a year if they wished, but this offer was withdrawn as it would damage Canada's claims to sovereignty in the area and the Inuit were forced to stay. The Inuit learned the local beluga whale migration routes and were able to survive in the area, hunting over a range of 18,000 km2 each year. In 1993, the Canadian government held hearings to investigate the relocation program; the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report entitled The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–55 Relocation, recommending a settlement. The government paid $10 million CAD to the survivors and their families, gave a formal apology in 2010. In 2009, Looty Pijamini was commissioned by Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated to build a monument to commemorate the Inuit who sacrificed so much as a result of the Government relocation of 1953 and 1955.
Pijamini's monument, located in Grise Fiord, depicts a woman with a young boy and a husky, with the woman somberly looking out towards Resolute Bay. Amagoalik's monument, located in Resolute, depicts a lone man looking towards Grise Fiord; this was meant to show separated families, depicting them longing to see each other again. The Grise Ford monument was unveiled by John Duncan, at the time, Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development and Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians, on September 10, 2010. Grise Fiord was the location for a 1995 BBC documentary entitled Billy Connolly: A Scot in the Arctic, in which the comedian Billy Connolly camped alone for a week on the pack ice near to the settlement, armed with a rifle to protect him from polar bears. In 1970, Bell Canada established what was the world's most northerly telephone exchange, it is in the 867 area code with its only exchange code of 980. List of municipalities in Nunavut Florin Fodor, a Romanian, arrested trying to en