Accompong is a historical Maroon village located in the hills of St. Elizabeth Parish on the island of Jamaica, it is located in Cockpit Country, where Jamaican Maroons and indigenous Taíno established a fortified stronghold in the hilly terrain in the 17th century. They defended it and maintained independence from the Spanish and later against British forces, after the colony changed hands; the people named their community Accompong after an early African Maroon leader. After years of raiding and warfare, they established their autonomy with certain rights for limited self-government by a peace treaty with the British in 1739. Since independence in 1962, the government of Jamaica has continued to recognize Maroon indigenous rights in this area. In the 18th century, Maroon leader Cudjoe is said to have united his people under the Kindah Tree in their struggle for autonomy; this was the site for signing the 1739 treaty with the British. This legendary, ancient mango tree is still standing; the tree symbolizes the common kinship of the community on its common land.
Accompong was settled in the 1730s, during the First Maroon War, when rebel slaves and their descendants fought a guerrilla war to establish independence against the British. Hostilities were ended by a treaty between the two groups in 1739, signed under British governor Edward Trelawny, it granted Cudjoe’s Maroons 1500 acres of land between their strongholds of Cudjoe's Town and Accompong in the Cockpits. While the treaty granted this land to Trelawny Town, it did not recognize Accompong Town. In 1756, following a land dispute between Maroons from Accompong Town and neighbouring planters, the Assembly granted Accompong Town an additional 1,000 acres of land; the treaty granted the Maroons a certain amount of political autonomy and economic freedoms, in return for their providing military support in case of invasion or rebellion. They had to agree to return runaway slaves, for which they were paid a bounty of two dollars each; this last clause in the treaty caused tension between the enslaved black population.
From time to time refugees from the plantations continued to find their way to maroon settlements and were allowed to stay. After the treaty, Cudjoe ruled Trelawny Town, while his brother-in-arms, ruled Accompong Town. In 1751, planter Thomas Thistlewood recorded meeting Accompong, whom he called ‘Capt. Compoon’; the planter described the Maroon leader as "about my size, in a Ruffled Shirt, Blue Broad Cloth Coat, Scarlet Cuffs to his Sleeves, gold buttons...and Black Hatt, White linen Breeches puff’d at the knee, no stockings or shoes on". In the decades that followed, after Cudjoe and Accompong died, control of the towns passed to white superintendents, who were appointed by the governor to supervise the Maroon towns; the treaty of 1739 named Accompong as Cudjoe's successor. When Cudjoe died in 1764, Accompong tried to take control of Trelawny Town; the governor, Roger Hope Elletson, asserted authority over the Leeward Maroons. Elletson instructed Superintendent John James to take the Trelawny Town badge of authority away from Accompong, to give it to a Trelawny Town Maroon officer named Lewis.
James instructed Accompong. Accompong seems to have died in the decade. In 1773 it was reported that the white superintendent had appointed Maroon captains Crankey and Muncko as the officers reporting to him in Accompong Town; when the Second Maroon War broke out in 1795, the Maroons of Trelawny Town took up arms against the British colonial authorities, but the Accompong Maroons under the nominal leadership of Captain John Foster swore allegiance to the British. The Maroons of Accompong Town fought on behalf of the British colonial authorities against Trelawny Town. Accompong Town suffered losses in the Second Maroon War; when Maroon Captain Chambers was sent to Trelawny Town to secure their surrender, Captain James Palmer of Trelawny Town shot him and cut off the Accompong captain's head. Militia colonel William Fitch, newly arrived in Jamaica, ignored the advice of his experienced Maroon trackers, he led his forces into a Trelawny Town ambush. Accompong Town backed the winning side. After the Maroons of Trelawny Town were deported to Nova Scotia, the colonial authorities granted Accompong the sole rights to hunt runaway slaves.
But the Accompong Maroons were unsuccessful in attempts to disperse or capture the runaway community of Cuffee. Soon the colonial authorities reinstated slave hunting rights to the Windward Maroons; when Cuffee's group faded from the colonial records, other refugee slaves established a Maroon community in Cockpit Country in 1812. The community of Me-no-Sen-You-no-Come resisted attempts by the Accompong Maroons and the colonial militias to disperse them in the 1820s; the Accompong Maroons played a significant role in helping the colonial militia of Sir Willoughby Cotton to put down the Christmas Rebellion of 1831-2 known as the Baptist War, led by Samuel Sharpe. In 1739 the Maroon community was granted certain rights and autonomy by treaty with the British colonial authorities in 1739. In two settlements, they set up a traditional form of village government drawn from their Akan and Asante cultures, based on men popularly recognized as leaders; the executive is now called "Colonel-in-Chief". These men share executive responsibilities for the community.
1720s - 1770s Captain Accompong c. 1773 Captain Crankey c. 1773 Captain Muncko 1790s - 1808 Captain John Foster 1807 -? Major Samuel Smith 1740 - c. 1752 George Currie c. 1760 John Kelly c. 1764 John Delaroache c. 1767 William De
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
55th (Westmorland) Regiment of Foot
For other units with the same regimental number, see 55th Regiment of Foot The 55th Regiment of Foot was a British Army infantry regiment, raised in 1755. After 1782 it had a county designation. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 34th Regiment of Foot to form the Border Regiment in 1881; the regiment was raised in Stirling by Colonel George Perry as the 57th Regiment of Foot in 1755 for service in the Seven Years' War. It was re-ranked as the 55th Regiment of Foot, following the disbandment of the existing 50th and 51st regiments, in 1756; the regiment embarked for North America for service in the French and Indian War and arrived in Nova Scotia on 8 July 1757 with the objective of taking part in the abandoned attack on the Fortress of Louisbourg. Following the death of Colonel Perry, Lord George Augustus Viscount Howe was appointed Colonel of the regiment in September 1757. After the regiment arrived in Albany, New York in November 1757, Howe accompanied Major Robert Rogers, commander of His Majesty's Independent Companies of Rangers on a scout, to learn the art of "bush fighting."
Howe's willingness to learn from the American rangers and his interaction with subordinates won him the respect of both colonist and British redcoat being described as the "Idol of the army." In the spring of 1758, Howe began to train and accoutre the men in the regiment more like rangers to better adapt them to warfare in America. He was killed in a skirmish the day before the Battle of Carillon in July 1758. After Howe's death John Prideaux was appointed commander of the regiment. In an unfortunate accident Prideaux was killed by the blast of a cohorn while walking through the entrenchments during the Battle of Fort Niagara in July 1759; the regiment, as part of General Jeffery Amherst's army, participated in the Battle of Ticonderoga and the capture of Fort Crown Point that month. In 1760 Colonel James Adolphus Oughton took command of the regiment and led it up the Saint Lawrence River: the regiment witnessed the Siege of Montreal in August 1760. William Gansell became the colonel of the regiment in 1762.
In summer 1763, volunteers from the regiment were sent to reinforce the British post at Fort Detroit, under siege from neighbouring Native Americans led by Pontiac. The British force was ambushed and badly mauled en route at the Battle of Bloody Run in July 1763. In 1764 many surviving members of the regiment were drafted into the 17th Regiment of Foot. Anne Grant, whose father was an officer in the 55th Regiment, wrote; the regiment returned to North America for the American Revolutionary War. The regiment fought at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776 and the Battle of Princeton in January 1777, it went on to take part in the Philadelphia campaign and saw action at the Battle of Brandywine in September 1777, the Battle of Paoli that month and the Battle of Germantown in October 1777. The regiment was transferred to the West Indies in November 1778 and saw action at the Battle of St. Lucia in December 1778. Most of the regiment were captured at the Siege of Brimstone Hill in February 1782 during the French invasion of Saint Kitts.
The regiment adopted a county designation as the 55th Regiment of Foot in August 1782. In 1793 the regiment embarked for Flanders for service in the French Revolutionary Wars and saw action at the Siege of Ypres in June 1794, it moved to the West Indies and took part in the attack on Martinique in February 1794, on Saint Lucia in April 1794 and on Guadeloupe that month as well as the capture of Saint Lucia in May 1796. It helped suppress an insurrection by caribs on Saint Vincent in June 1796. After returning to England in 1797 the regiment landed at Ostend in 1798 for service in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, it saw action at the Battle of Bergen in September 1799 and the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799. After returning home in 1800 the regiment was deployed to the West Indies again in 1800 and went to the aid of Britain's new found Spanish allies during the Spanish reconquest of Santo Domingo in July 1809; the regiment returned home in 1812 and, having been sent to Holland in 1813, took part in the Siege of Bergen op Zoom in March 1814.
The regiment saw action in the Fifth Xhosa War. It served in the Coorg War in 1834. In 1841 the regiment was deployed to China for service in the First Opium War, it was selected as part of the expeditionary force that moved north from Hong Kong and participated in the Battle of Amoy in August 1841. The regiment was the first to land when British forces disembarked from boats at the Capture of Chusan in October 1841, it landed on a beach and assaulted an enemy strong point called Guards Hill, where it ascended under heavy fire but took the hill. It proceeded to take the heights overlooking Tinghai and immediately descended and placed its regimental colours on the walls of the city. After the battle, a detachment of the 55th and 18th Regiment of Foot were left to garrison the city. On 10 October 1841 the 55th again was part of the force that engaged Qing troops at the Battle of Chinhai: the regiment was left to garrison the city after the battle and remained there for the remainder of the year.
In 1842, the regiment saw action at Chapu in May, Chinkiang in July. It garrisoned Chinkiang until the Treaty of Nanking was signed. Part of the regiment remained in Hong Kong after the war. For its service during the war it was allowed the addition of a dragon badge superscribed "China" on its regimental colour; the regiment saw active service in Tu
83rd (County of Dublin) Regiment of Foot
The 83rd Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, formed in Ireland in 1793 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. The regiment served in the West Indies, South Africa and the Peninsular War, after the end of the wars with France spent much of the nineteenth century in colonial garrisons. Among other service, the 83rd fought in the Ceylon Great Rebellion of 1817–18, the Canadian Rebellions of 1837, the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Under the Childers Reforms, the regiment amalgamated with the 86th Regiment of Foot to form the Royal Irish Rifles in 1881; the regiment was raised in Dublin by Major William Fitch as the 83rd Regiment of Foot, in response to the threat posed by the French Revolution, on 28 September 1793. The regiment was quartered in the newly completed Custom House while it formed, at the end of the year was assigned to serve as part of the regular garrison in Dublin in the Royal Barracks. A second battalion was raised in October 1794, but was separated to become the 134th Regiment of Foot.
At its formation, the regiment wore scarlet uniforms - the traditional red coats of line infantry - with yellow facings. The regiment did not have any formal title - the Dublin name would not be added for many years - but was nicknamed "Fitch's Grenadiers", due to the small size of many of its recruits; the regiment sailed for England, in mid-1795 was sent overseas to the West Indies, where half of the regiment fought in the Second Maroon War on Jamaica for eight months. Among the seventy dead from the campaign was Lieutenant-Colonel Fitch, succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by Major-General James Balfour; the other half of the regiment was sent to garrison Santo Domingo, where it took heavy losses through disease. The regiment remained on garrison duty until 1802. Most of the remaining men were drafted to other garrison units - the 60th and 85th Foot - before departure. During these seven years, around 900 officers and men had died all from disease, from an original strength of around 1100.
No battle honours were awarded for the regiment's service in the West Indies, though the 83rd was one of a number of infantry regiments to apply unsuccessfully for a "West Indies" honour to be awarded for the overall campaign. The regiment spent a few months in England, rebuilding its strength, garrisoned Jersey during 1803-1805. In 1805, the 1st Battalion of the 83rd was assigned to a force sent to capture the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope, saw service at the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, for which it was awarded the battle honour Cape of Good Hope, it would remain as a garrison there for the next decade, until 1817, receiving occasional drafts from the 2nd Battalion. The 2nd Battalion remained on home service until 1809, with garrison postings in England and Ireland. In 1808 it was raised to an establishment of 1000 men, rather than the lower home service establishment of 600, in early 1809 was ordered to sail for Corunna, in Spain, for service in the Peninsular War, it was recalled while at sea, following the British defeat at the Battle of Corunna, sailed for Lisbon, arriving safely in Portugal on 6 April 1809.
It was put alongside the 1st Battalion of the 9th Foot. The battalion advanced north into Portugal with the main force of the army, whose first objective was the recapture of Oporto. In the Second Battle of Porto, the light company crossed the river by boat and captured the seminary, a strategically located building, while the main force entered the town from a different direction; the defenders were surprised while withdrawing, took heavy casualties. The force pursued the French army into Spain, with the 83rd's brigade engaging and routing the French rear-guard at Salamonde on the 16th before breaking off the pursuit; the force was garrisoned along the Tagus River, where it suffered from illness spreading among the men. On 27 and 28 July, the army was deployed at the Battle of Talavera, where the 83rd formed part of the central division; the battalion's casualties were heavy, with seventy men killed including the commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, another 295 wounded, the 83rd was withdrawn to Lisbon to rest and receive reinforcements.
It was awarded the battle honour Talavera for its part in the battle. The battalion spent October 1809 to September 1810 in Lisbon, when it rejoined the army as part of the left brigade in Picton's 3rd Division, it arrived in time for the Battle of Bussaco on 26/27 September, where it was only engaged but still received the battle honour Busaco, retreated along with the army to Torres Vedras, where it spent the winter. The army advanced out of the fortress in March, the 83rd was involved in a number of the skirmishes fought with the retreating French army through the spring of 1811. In May, it fought at the Battle of Fuentes d'Onor, where its defence of the village was mentioned in Wellington's despatches, the regiment was awarded Fuentes d'Onor as a battle honour, it was deployed at the siege of Badajoz and the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, where on 25 September it helped drive off a large French relief force. The siege of Ciudad Rodrigo ended when the fortress was stormed on 19 January 1812; the light company of the 83rd led the at
51st (2nd Yorkshire West Riding) Regiment of Foot
The 51st Regiment of Foot was a British Army line infantry regiment, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 105th Regiment of Foot to form the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry in 1881; the regiment was formed by Lieutenant General Robert Napier as the 53rd Regiment of Foot in 1755 for service in the Seven Years' War. The regiment started out in Exeter but was transferred to Leeds in the same year. In the space of one month, 800 men had volunteered to serve for three years or as long as the country needed them to, it was re-ranked as the 51st Regiment of Foot, following the disbandment of the existing 50th and 51st regiments, in 1757. The regiment's first action was when it embarked on ships and took part in the Raid on Rochefort in September 1757 during the Seven Years' War; the regiment embarked for Germany in 1758 and saw action at the Battle of Minden in August 1759, the Battle of Corbach in July 1760 and the Battle of Warburg that month as well as the Battle of Kloster Kampen in October 1760, the Battle of Villinghausen in July 1761 and the Battle of Wilhelmsthal in June 1762.
After returning home in spring 1763, the regiment was posted for garrison duty in Ireland in the year. It embarked for Menorca in 1771 but was captured by a French invading force in January 1782 and only released five months later, it adopted a county designation and became the 51st Regiment in August 1782. The regiment embarked for Gibraltar in 1792 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John Moore, took part in the Siege of Toulon in autumn 1793 and the Siege of Calvi in July 1794. In early 1800 the East Indiaman Earl Cornwallis, transported the regiment to Ceylon, where it saw action in the Kandyan Wars. After returning home in 1807, it embarked for Portugal in October 1808 for service in the Peninsular War and saw action at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before being evacuated from the Peninsula, it became a light infantry regiment as the 51st Regiment of Foot in May 1809. It embarked for the Netherlands in summer 1809 and saw action in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign.
The regiment returned to the Portugal in 1811 and took part in the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811, the Second Siege of Badajoz in summer 1811 and the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812. At Badajoz Ensign Joseph Dyas, a junior officer in the regiment, distinguished himself by twice leading the storming party on the San Cristobal Fort; the regiment went on to fight at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812, the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813. It pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 as well as the Battle of Orthez in February 1814, it returned to England in June 1814. Following Napoleon's escape from Elba in February 1815, it embarked for Ostend in March 1815 and fought at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. At Waterloo the regiment prevented 100 French cuirassiers from escaping the field of battle; the regiment traveled to Australia in detachments as escorts to prisoners in 1837 and moved on to India in 1846.
From there it was deployed to Burma and saw action at Pegu in 1852 during the Second Anglo-Burmese War. Although it returned to England in 1854, it was deployed to India again in 1857 to help suppress the Indian Rebellion and was still in India for the Ambela Campaign in 1863, it was from India that it was deployed to Afghanistan in autumn 1878 and saw action at the Battle of Ali Masjid in November 1878 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 51st was linked with the 105th Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 8 at Pontefract Barracks in the West Riding of Yorkshire. On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 105th Regiment of Foot to form the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. Battle honours gained by the regiment were: Seven Years' War: Minden Peninsular War: Corunna, Fuentes d'Onor, Vittoria, Nivelle, Peninsula, Napoleonic Wars: Waterloo Second Anglo-Burmese War: Pegu Second Anglo-Afghan War: Ali Masjid, Afghanistan 1878–80 George Steward Beatson – Surgeon James Fullarton Colonels of the regiment were: 1755–1757: Lt-Gen.
Robert Napier 1757–1767: Lt-Gen. Thomas Brudenell 1767–1795: Gen. Archibald Montgomerie, 11th Earl of Eglinton 1795–1800: Lt-Gen. Anthony George Martin 1800–1822: Gen. William Morshead 1822–1829: Gen. Sir Thomas Hislop, 1st Baronet, GCB 1829–1849: Lt-Gen. Sir Benjamin d'Urban, GCB, KCH 1849–1862: Gen. Sir Thomas Willshire, 1st Baronet, GCB 1862–1874: Gen. Sir William Henry Elliott, GCB, KH 1874–1879: Gen. John Leslie Dennis, CB 1879–1881: Gen. Arnold Charles Errington
Maroon is a dark reddish purple or dark brownish red color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut. The Oxford English Dictionary describes it as "a brownish crimson or claret color." In the RGB model used to create colors on computer screens and televisions, maroon is created by turning down the brightness of pure red to about one half. Maroon is the complement of teal. Maroon is derived from French marron, itself from the Italian marrone that means both chestnut and brown, from the medieval Greek maraon; the first recorded use of maroon as a color name in English was in 1789. Business Maroon is the signature color of the Japanese private rail company, Hankyu Railway, decided by a vote of women customers in 1923. In the 1990s, Hankyu planned an alternative color; that plan was called off following opposition by local residents. Government Maroon was named as the official color of the state of Queensland, Australia, in November 2003. While the declared shade of maroon is RGB 115/24/44, Queenslanders display the spirit of the state by wearing all shades of maroon at sporting and cultural events.
Military The distinctive maroon beret has been worn by many airborne forces around the world since 1942. It is sometimes referred to as the "red beret." Maroon was the distinguishing colour of the Caçadores regiments of the Portuguese Army. Music The Famous Maroon Band Maroon 5Religion Vajrayana Buddhist monks, such as the Dalai Lama, wear maroon robes. Maroon, along with golden yellow, is worn in the Philippines by Catholic devotees of the Black Nazarene during its procession on 9 January. School colors Many universities, high schools and other educational institutions have maroon as one of their school colors. Popular combinations include maroon and white and grey, maroon and gold. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Texas A&M University. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of the University of Minnesota. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of the Central Michigan University. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of Shimer College, representing Mount Carroll Seminary.
Maroon and White are the official school colors of the University of Chicago. The school employs light and dark gray in its official primary color palette. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Lower Merion High School. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Mississippi State University and the name of the university's alma mater. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Colgate University. Maroon and White are the official school colors of Missouri State University. Maroon and Gold are the official school colors of Arizona State University and the name of the university's fight song. Maroon and Orange are the official school colors of Virginia Tech. Sports Sports teams use maroon as one of their identifying colors, as a result many have received the nickname "Maroons"; the University of Chicago Maroons have used the nickname since a vote came at a meeting of students and faculty on May 5, 1894. Maroons was the official nickname of the athletic teams representing Mississippi State College, now Mississippi State University from 1932 until 1961 when it was changed to the Bulldogs.
Bulldogs had been used as an unofficial nickname as far back as 1905. Maroons is the common nickname for the Queensland Rugby League team when it plays against the Blues in an annual competition of three games known as the State of Origin series in Australia. Vexillology Maroon and white are the colors of the Flag of Qatar; the Flag of Latvia is sometimes called maroon and white, but the legal colors were red and white, but in 2009 the colors were changed to carmine and white. Displayed on the right is the bright tone of maroon, designated as maroon in Crayola crayons beginning in 1949, it rose. The color halfway between brown and rose is crimson, so this color is a tone of crimson. Displayed on the right is the color rich maroon, i.e. maroon as defined in the X11 color names, much brighter and more toned toward rose than the HTML/CSS maroon shown above. See the chart Color name clashes in the X11 color names article to see those colors that are different in HTML/CSS and X11. Displayed on the right is the web color dark red.
List of colors Media related to Maroon at Wikimedia Commons
John Singleton Copley
John Singleton Copley was an Anglo-American painter, active in both colonial America and England. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Richard and Mary Singleton Copley, both Anglo-Irish, he is famous for his portrait paintings of wealthy and influential figures in colonial New England, depicting in particular middle-class subjects. His portraits were innovative in their tendency to depict artifacts relating to these individuals' lives. Copley's mother owned a tobacco shop on Long Wharf; the parents, according to the artist's granddaughter Martha Babcock Amory, had come to Boston in 1736, were "engaged in trade, like all the inhabitants of the North American colonies at that time". His father was from Limerick. Letters from John Singleton, Mrs. Copley's father, are in the Copley-Pelham collection. Richard Copley, described as a tobacconist, is said by several biographers to have arrived in Boston in ill health and to have gone, about the time of John's birth, to the West Indies, where he died.
William H. Whitmore gives his death the year of Mrs. Copley's remarriage. James Bernard Cullen says: "Richard Copley was in poor health on his arrival in America and went to the West Indies to improve his failing strength, he died there in 1737." No contemporary evidence has been located for either year. Except for a family tradition that speaks of his precocity in drawing, nothing is known of Copley's schooling or of the other activities of his boyhood, his letters, the earliest of, dated September 30, 1762, reveal a well-educated man. He may have been taught various subjects, it is reasonably conjectured, by his future stepfather, besides painting portraits and cutting engravings, eked out a living in Boston by teaching dancing and, beginning September 12, 1743, by conducting an "Evening Writing and Arithmetic School", duly advertised, it is certain that the widow Copley was married to Peter Pelham on May 22, 1748, that at about that time she transferred her tobacco business to his house in Lindall Street, at which the evening school continued its sessions.
In such a household young Copley may have learned to use the engraver's tools. Whitmore says plausibly: "Copley at the age of fifteen was able to engrave in mezzotint; the family lived next to the house occupied by japanner Thomas Johnston and his family, Copley became friends with Thomas's son William to become a painter himself. The artistic opportunities of the home and town in which Copley grew to manhood should be emphasized because he himself, as well as some of his biographers taking him too have made much of the bleakness of his early surroundings, his son, Lord Lyndhurst, wrote that "he was self taught, never saw a decent picture, with the exception of his own, until he was nearly thirty years of age." Copley himself complained, in a letter to Benjamin West, written November 12, 1766: "In this Country as You rightly observe there is no examples of Art, except what is to met with in a few prints indifferently exicuted, from which it is not possable to learn much." Variants of this thesis are found everywhere in his earlier letters.
They suggest that, while Copley was industrious and an able executant, he was physically unadventurous and temperamentally inclined toward brooding and self-pity. He could have seen many good prints in the Boston of his youth; the excellence of his own portraits was not miraculous. A book of Copley's studies of the figure, now at the British Museum, proves that before he was twenty, whether with or without help from a teacher, he was making anatomical drawings with much care and precision, it is that through the fortunate associations of a home and workshop in a town which had many craftsmen, he had learned his trade at an age when the average art student of a era was only beginning to draw. Copley was about fourteen and his stepfather had died, when he made the earliest of his portraits now preserved, a likeness of his half-brother Charles Pelham, good in color and characterization though it has in its background accessories which are somewhat out of drawing, it is a remarkable work to have come from so young a hand.
The artist was only fifteen when he painted the portrait of the Rev. William Welsteed, minister of the Brick Church in Long Lane, a work which, following Peter Pelham's practise, Copley engraved to get the benefit from the sale of prints. No other engraving has been attributed to Copley. A self-portrait, depicting a boy of about seventeen in broken straw hat, a painting of Mars and Vulcan, signed and dated 1754, disclose crudities of execution which do not obscure the decorative intent and documentary value of the works; such painting would advertise itself anywhere. Without going after business, for his letters do not indicate that he was aggressive or pushy, Copley was started as a professional portrait-painter long before he was of age. In October 1757, Capt. Thomas Ainslie, collector of the Port of Quebec, acknowledged from Halifax the receipt of his portrait, which "gives me great Satisfaction", advised the artist to visit Nova Scotia "where there are several people who would be glad to employ You."
This request to paint in Canada was repeated from Quebec, Copley replying: "I should receive a singular pleasure in excepting, if my Business was anyways slack, but it is so far otherwise that I have a large Room full