New Zealand Parliament
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is represented by a governor-general. Before 1951, there was the New Zealand Legislative Council; the Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. The House of Representatives has met in the Parliament Buildings located in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, since 1865, it consists of 120 members of Parliament, though sometimes more due to overhang seats. There are 71 MPs elected directly in electorate seats and the remainder are filled by list MPs based on each party's share of the total party vote. Māori were represented in Parliament from 1867, in 1893 women gained the vote. Although elections can be called early, each three years the House is dissolved and goes up for reelection; the Parliament is linked to the executive. The New Zealand Government comprises other ministers.
In accordance with the principle of responsible government, these individuals are always drawn from the House of Representatives, are held accountable to it. Neither the monarch nor her governor-general participates in the legislative process, save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by the House, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law; the New Zealand Parliament is consciously modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary representation, developed in the United Kingdom. This system can be traced back to the "Model Parliament" of 1295 regarded as the first recognisable parliament. Over the centuries, parliaments progressively limited the power of the monarchy; the Bill of Rights 1688 established Parliament's role in law-making and supply. Among its provisions, the Bill confirmed absolute freedom of speech in Parliament; as early as 1846, the British settlers in New Zealand petitioned for self-government. The New Zealand Parliament was created by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, an Act of the British Parliament, which established a bicameral legislature called the "General Assembly", but referred to as Parliament.
It had a lower house, called the House of Representatives, an upper house, called the Legislative Council. The members of the House were elected under the first-past-the-post voting system, while those of the Council were appointed by the Governor; the first members were sworn in on 24 May 1854 in Auckland. Legislative Councillors were appointed for life, but their terms were fixed at seven years; this change, coupled with responsible government and party politics, meant that by the 20th century, the government controlled the Council as well as the House, the passage of bills through the Council became a formality. In 1951, the Council was abolished altogether. At the time of its abolition the Council had fifty-four members, including its own Speaker. Under the Constitution Act, legislative power was conferred on New Zealand's provinces, each of which had its own elected provincial council; these provincial councils were able to legislate for their provinces on most subjects. However, New Zealand was never a federation comparable to Australia.
Over a twenty-year period, political power was progressively centralised, the provinces were abolished altogether in 1876. Unlike other countries, New Zealand had representatives of the indigenous population in its parliament from an early date. Reserved Māori seats were created in 1867 during the term of the 4th Parliament; the Māori electorates have lasted far longer than the intended five years. In 2002, the seats increased in number to seven. One historical speciality of the New Zealand Parliament was the country quota, which gave greater representation to rural politics. From 1889 on, districts were weighted according to their urban/rural split; those districts which had large rural proportions received a greater number of nominal votes than they contained voters – as an example, in 1927, Waipawa, a district without any urban population at all, received an additional 4,153 nominal votes to its actual 14,838 – having the maximum factor of 28% extra representation. The country quota was in effect until it was abolished in 1945 by a urban-elected Labour government, which switched to a one-vote-per-person system.
The New Zealand Parliament remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire—although, in practice, Britain's role was minimal from the 1890s. The New Zealand Parliament received progressively more control over New Zealand affairs through the passage of Imperial laws such as the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865, constitutional amendments, an hands-off approach by the British government. In 1947, the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act gave Parliament full power over New Zealand law, the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947, an Act of the British
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
The Cyclopedia of New Zealand
The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: industrial, historical, biographical facts, illustrations was an encyclopaedia published in New Zealand between 1897 and 1908 by the Cyclopedia Company Ltd. Arthur McKee was one of the original directors of the company that published The Cyclopedia, his business partner H. Gamble worked with him on the first volume. Six volumes were published on the people and organisations of provinces of New Zealand. Despite being vanity press and wholly restricted to white male European colonists to the exclusion of Māori and other minorities, the Cyclopedia is now a key historical resource because of its breadth of coverage. Many small towns and social institutions were covered which were poorly covered by contemporary newspapers; the first volume, which covered Wellington included the colonial government, politicians and public servants. The first volume was produced in Wellington, the remaining volumes were produced in Christchurch. Volume 1. Wellington Provincial District.
Published 1897 Volume 2. Auckland Provincial District. Published 1902 Volume 3. Canterbury Provincial District. Published 1903 Volume 4. Otago and Southland Provincial Districts. Published 1905 Volume 5. Nelson and Westland Provincial Districts. Published 1906 Volume 6. Taranaki, Hawke's Bay and Wellington Provincial Districts. Published 1908The Cyclopedia of New Zealand was superseded by the three-volume An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand published by the Government of New Zealand in 1966 and later Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, a government-run, born-digital encyclopaedia established in 2002; the Cyclopedia was digitised by the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre in 2008–2009. Full text of The Cyclopedia of New Zealand at New Zealand Electronic Text Centre Commercially produced version on CD RootsWeb comments about the Cyclopedia, including comments on reliability
1891 Te Aroha by-election
The 1891 Te Aroha by-election was a by-election held on 9 July 1891 during the 11th New Zealand Parliament in the Waikato electorate of Te Aroha. The 1890 general election in the Te Aroha electorate had been contested by William Shepherd Allen and William Fraser. Allen was elected, but Fraser mounted a successful election petition, Allen was disqualified from standing again; the by-election was contested by Fraser and Sir Walter Buller, the well known ornithologist, who both represented the Liberal Party, plus a third candidate, not taken seriously. Shortly before the election, the Liberal Government made Fraser its official candidate. A candidate representing the opposition pulled out of the contest in late June, as it was clear that only a Liberal Party supporter could win. Fraser won the by-election; the Te Aroha electorate was first formed for the 11th New Zealand Parliament in 1890. William Shepherd Allen and William Fraser contested the 1890 election. Allen was declared elected. Fraser petitioned against the election on three grounds: that Allen had not given his consent to being nominated, that scrutineers had not been appointed by Allen in writing, charges of bribery and treating of Allen's agents.
The case was heard over two and a half days by Chief Justice James Prendergast and by Justice Edward Conolly. They issued their judgement on 3 April 1891, declared that Allen's nomination was legal, charges of bribery or corruption were not proven, but that T. O. Hammond having been a paid agent of Allen was in violation of the Corrupt Practices Prevention Act, 1881, the election was thus declared void. There was legal argument that Fraser should be declared duly elected instead, but Justice Conolly rejected this, stating that it was up to the House of Representatives to decide on that; the judges disqualified Allen from standing in the Te Aroha electorate for 12 months, but he could contest by-elections in other electorates should they arise. Allen regretted; some of his friends decided to petition parliament to have the disqualification overturned. The Public Petition Committee reported to the House on 10 July and recommended that the Government pass a bill to remove the stigma of disqualification.
The following table gives the final 1890 election results: Various potential candidates were approached by the electors and discussed in the newspapers. Fraser, a supporter of the Liberal Party, confirmed that he would contest the by-election on 15 April, after it had been reported that he would not stand again. William Herries of Shaftesbury in the Piako District was asked to become a candidate in April. Joseph Dargaville, who had represented the Auckland West electorate, was discussed as a probable candidate, the potential candidacy of Sir Maurice O'Rorke, who after 29 years in Parliament had been defeated at the 1890 election, was rumoured; the lawyer and ornithologist Walter Buller, unsuccessful in the 1876 and 1881 elections, started canvassing in the electorate as a supporter of the Liberal Government during April. William McCullough, a former Mayor of Thames, was asked in mid June to stand in the upcoming by-election. William Murray, who had until 1881 represented the Te Aroha electorate, was understood to be a candidate for the opposition to the ruling Liberal Government.
Dr. Charles Broome of Huntly announced his candidacy in late June, but his nomination was regarded as a "joke" by the local newspaper, the Thames Star. Lemuel Bagnall was another candidate, he retired from the contest in late June, as the public showed strong support for the government, that as opposition candidate he would not find sufficient support. Nominations were received by 29 June from Fraser and Broome. On 1 July, the government decided to make Fraser its official candidate; the by-election was won by Fraser. The following table gives the election results: Fraser represented the electorate until the end of the parliamentary term in 1893, when the electorate was abolished again. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
John Sheehan (New Zealand politician)
John Sheehan was a 19th-century New Zealand politician. He was the first New Zealand-born Member of Parliament elected by a general electorate and he was the first New Zealand-born person to hold cabinet rank. Sheehan was born in Auckland in 1844, he was educated at St Peter's School under the guidance of his teacher, Richard O'Sullivan and where he knew another Cabinet Minister, Joseph Tole. He was the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Māori Affairs from 1877 to 1879, he represented several North Island electorates: Rodney from 1872 to 1879 Thames from 1879 to 1884, when he was defeated. He represented Tauranga from a by-election on 22 May 1885 until he died shortly after on 12 June. A fluent Maori speaker and a lawyer, he is noted for his efforts with the Repudiation Movement in the 1870s to solve land issues on behalf of Hawkes Bay Maori chiefs who claimed large European land holders, such as McLean, had acquired land improperly; the Repudiation Movement failed. In 1877 he became Native Minister in the Grey Government.
He tried to negotiate land deals in Taranaki with iwi leaders and, in respect of the King Country, with King Tawhaio, but failed. However, during these meetings he discovered that Rewi Maniapoto wanted to sell land and negotiated land sales to Europeans in the King Country that the government hoped would speed up assimilation. Sheehan negotiated unsuccessfully with Te Whiti whose base of Parihaka was destroyed by the Armed Constabulary in November 1881 after Sheehan had ceased to hold ministerial office. Sheehan was active in promoting secular education and widening the franchise but he wanted only one system of Parliamentary representation, the abolition of separate Maori seats and the end of plural voting, he was one of the first ministers to advocate breaking up of the large runholder monopolies which he believed had created a social elite at the expense of the normal citizen. Sheehan died of pneumonia and cirrhosis of the liver in Napier on 13 June 1885 aged 40 years. Scholefield, Guy, ed..
A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography: M–Addenda. II. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 19 November 2015. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for The Highland Council and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands. Inverness lies near two important battle sites: the 11th-century battle of Blàr nam Fèinne against Norway which took place on the Aird and the 18th century Battle of Culloden which took place on Culloden Moor, it is the northernmost city in the United Kingdom and lies within the Great Glen at its north-eastern extremity where the River Ness enters the Moray Firth. At the latest, a settlement was established by the 6th century with the first royal charter being granted by Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim in the 12th century; the Gaelic king Mac Bethad Mac Findláich whose 11th-century killing of King Duncan was immortalised in Shakespeare's fictionalized play Macbeth, held a castle within the city where he ruled as Mormaer of Moray and Ross. The population of Inverness grew from 40,969 in 2001 to 46,869 in 2012; the Greater Inverness area, including Culloden and Westhill, had a population of 59,969 in 2012.
In 2018, it had a population of 69,989. Inverness is one of Europe's fastest growing cities, with a quarter of the Highland population living in or around it, is ranked fifth out of 189 British cities for its quality of life, the highest of any Scottish city. In the recent past, Inverness has experienced rapid economic growth: between 1998 and 2008, Inverness and the rest of the central Highlands showed the largest growth of average economic productivity per person in Scotland and the second greatest growth in the United Kingdom as a whole, with an increase of 86%. Inverness is twinned with one German city and two French towns, La Baule and Saint-Valery-en-Caux. Inverness College is the main campus for the University of the Islands. With around 8,500 students, Inverness College hosts around a quarter of all the University of the Highlands and Islands' students, 30% of those studying to degree level. In 2014, a survey by a property website described Inverness as the happiest place in Scotland and the second happiest in the UK.
Inverness was again found to be the happiest place in Scotland by a new study conducted in 2015. Inverness was one of the chief strongholds of the Picts, in CE 565 was visited by St Columba with the intention of converting the Pictish king Brude, supposed to have resided in the vitrified fort on Craig Phadrig, on the western edge of the city. A 93 oz silver chain dating to 500–800 was found just to the south of Torvean in 1983. A church or a monk's cell is thought to have been established by early Celtic monks on St Michael's Mount, a mound close to the river, now the site of the Old High Church and graveyard; the castle is said to have been built by Máel Coluim III of Scotland, after he had razed to the ground the castle in which Mac Bethad mac Findláich had, according to much tradition, murdered Máel Coluim's father Donnchad, which stood on a hill around 1 km to the north-east. The strategic location of Inverness has led to many conflicts in the area. Reputedly there was a battle in the early 11th century between King Malcolm and Thorfinn of Norway at Blar Nam Feinne, to the southwest of the city.
Inverness had four traditional fairs, including Legavrik or "Leth-Gheamhradh", meaning midwinter, Faoilleach. William the Lion granted Inverness four charters, by one. Of the Dominican friary founded by Alexander III in 1233, only one pillar and a worn knight's effigy survive in a secluded graveyard near the town centre. Medieval Inverness suffered regular raids from the Western Isles by the MacDonald Lords of the Isles in the 15th century. In 1187 one Domhnall Bán led islanders in a battle at Torvean against men from Inverness Castle led by the governor's son, Donnchadh Mac An Toisich. Both leaders were killed in the battle, Donald Ban is said to have been buried in a large cairn near the river, close to where the silver chain was found. Local tradition says that the citizens fought off the Clan Donald in 1340 at the Battle of Blairnacoi on Drumderfit Hill, north of Inverness across the Beauly Firth. On his way to the Battle of Harlaw in 1411, Donald of Islay harried the city, sixteen years James I held a parliament in the castle to which the northern chieftains were summoned, of whom three were arrested for defying the king's command.
Clan Munro defeated Clan Mackintosh in 1454 at the Battle of Clachnaharry just west of the city. Clan Donald and their allies stormed the castle during the Raid on Ross in 1491. In 1562, during the progress undertaken to suppress Huntly's insurrection, Queen of Scots, was denied admittance into Inverness Castle by the governor, who belonged to the earl's faction, whom she afterwards caused to be hanged; the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser of Lovat took the castle for her. The house in which she lived meanwhile stood in Bridge Street until the 1970s, when it was demolished to make way for the second Bridge Street development. Beyond the northern limits of the town, Oliver Cromwell built a citadel capable of accommodating 1,000 men, but with the exception of a portion of the ramparts it was demolished at the Restoration; the only surviving modern remnant is a clock tower. Inverness played a role in the Jacobite rising of 1689. In early May, it was besieged by a contingent of Jacobites led by MacDonell of Keppoch.
The town was rescued by Viscount Dundee, the overall Jacobite commander, when he arrived with the main Jacobite army, although he required Inverness to profess loyalty to King James VII. In 1715 the Jacobites occupie
New Zealand Liberal Party
The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912; the Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government established the basis of the welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage. New Zealand gained international attention for the Liberal reforms how the state regulated labour relations, it was innovating in the areas of maximum hour regulations, minimum wage laws, compulsory arbitration procedures. The goal was to discourage strikes and class conflict; the impact was strong on the reform movement in the United States. Coleman argues. Instead they approached the nation's problems pragmatically, keeping in mind the constraints imposed by democratic public opinion.
To deal with the issue of land distribution, they worked out innovative solutions to access, a graduated tax on unimproved values. Out of office after 1912, the Liberals found themselves pressed between the conservative Reform Party and the growing Labour Party; the Liberals fragmented in the 1920s, the remnant of the Liberal Party—later known as the United Party—eventually merged with Reform in 1936 to establish the modern National Party. Prior to the establishment of the Liberal Party, MPs were all independent, although grouped themselves into loose factions; some of these factions were referred to as "parties", but were vague and ill-defined. In the history of Parliament, factions were formed around a number of different views — at one time and provincialism were the basis of factions, while at another time, factions were based on geographical region. Towards the 1880s, factions had become stabilised along lines of liberalism and conservatism, although the line between the two was by no means certain.
The key figure in the establishment of the Liberal Party was John Ballance. Ballance, an MP, had served in a number of liberal-orientated governments, had held office in posts such as Treasurer, Minister of Defence, Minister of Native Affairs, he had a well-established reputation as a liberal, was known for supporting land reform, women's suffrage, Māori rights. During the last term in power of Harry Atkinson, a conservative, Ballance began to organise the liberal-aligned opposition into a more united movement, was named Leader of the Opposition in July 1889. In the 1890 elections, Ballance led his liberal faction to victory, early in the new year, became Premier. Ballance and his allies, recognising the benefit that they had gained from their unity, set about building a permanent organisation; the Liberal Party, with common policies and a well-defined leadership, was proclaimed. A national party organisation was established, with supporters of the new party encouraged to become members and help organise party activities — this was a new development in New Zealand, as parliamentary factions existed only as loose groupings of politicians, not as public organisations.
The Liberal Party drew its support from two basic sources — the cities, small farmers. In the cities, the Liberals were supported strongly by workers and labourers, but by the more progressive members of the middle class. In the countryside, the Liberals won support from those farmers who lacked the ability to compete with the large runholders, who monopolised most of the available land. Both groups saw themselves as being mistreated and oppressed by what had been described as New Zealand's "early colonial gentry" — the well-educated and aristocratic land-owners and commercial magnates, it was this group that most opposed the Liberal Party, denouncing its policies as an attempt by the unsuccessful to rob the prosperous. In power, the Liberals enacted a large number of reforms; this was made possible by their unity — reforms had stalled due to the need for long and complex negotiations to win support from individual MPs. Among the changes introduced were land reforms, progressive taxes on land and income, legislation to improve the working conditions of urban labourers.
Many of the Liberal Party's policies were decried as "socialist" by its opponents, but there is debate over whether this label is valid. William Pember Reeves, a Liberal Party politician and theorist, said that while the party supported an active role for the state in social matters, it did not in any way seek to discourage or inhibit private enterprise. Many historians have claimed that the Liberal Party's policies were based more on pragmatism than on ideology, although politicians such as Ballance and Reeves had theories behind their actions. In 1893, John Ballance died unexpectedly, it is believed that Ballance wished Robert Stout, a colleague known for his liberal views, to succeed him, but in the end, the leadership passed to Richard Seddon. Although Seddon went on to become New Zealand's longest serving Prime Minister, he was not as regarded by the Liberal Party as he was by the public. In particular, Seddon's social views were more conservative than those of Ballance or Stout, he was seen by many as having a controlling and autocratic style of management.
Seddon had assumed the leadership on an interim basis, with a full caucus