Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, West London, England. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east-west axis; the north east is taken up by Kensington Gardens, containing the Albert Memorial, the Serpentine Gallery and Speke's monument. South Kensington is home to Imperial College London, the Royal College of Music and the Royal Albert Hall; the area is home to many European embassies. The manor of Chenesitone is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086, which in the Anglo-Saxon language means "Chenesi's ton". One early spelling is Kesyngton, as written in 1396; the manor of Kensington in the county of Middlesex, was one of several hundred granted by King William the Conqueror to Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances in Normandy, one of his inner circle of advisors and one of the wealthiest men in post-Conquest England. He granted the tenancy of Kensington to his follower Aubrey de Vere I, holding the manor from him as overlord in 1086, according to the Domesday Book.
The bishop's heir, Robert de Mowbray, rebelled against King William II and his vast feudal barony was forfeited to the Crown. Aubrey de Vere I thus became a tenant-in-chief, holding directly from the king after 1095, which increased his status in feudal England, he granted the church and an estate within the manor to Abingdon Abbey in Oxfordshire, at the deathbed request of his eldest son Geoffrey. As the de Veres became Earls of Oxford, their principal manor at Kensington came to be known as Earl's Court, as they were not resident in the manor, their manorial business was not conducted in the great hall of a manor house but in a court house. In order to differentiate it, the new sub-manor granted to Abingdon Abbey became known as Abbot's Kensington and the church St Mary Abbots; the original Kensington Barracks, built at Kensington Gate in the late 18th century, were demolished in 1858 and new barracks were built in Kensington Church Street. The focus of the area is Kensington High Street, a busy commercial centre with many shops upmarket.
The street was declared London's second best shopping street in February 2005 due to its wide range and number of shops. However, since October 2008 the street has faced competition from the Westfield shopping centre in nearby White City. Kensington's second group of commercial buildings is at South Kensington, where several streets of small to medium-sized shops and service businesses are situated close to South Kensington tube station; this is the southern end of Exhibition Road, the thoroughfare which serves the area's museums and educational institutions. The boundaries of Kensington are not well-defined. To the west, a border is defined by the line of the Counter Creek marked by the West London railway line. To the north, the only obvious border line is Holland Park Avenue, to the north of, the district of Notting Hill classed as within "North Kensington". In the north east is situated the large public Royal Park of Kensington Gardens; the other main green area in Kensington is Holland Park, on the north side of the eastern end of Kensington High Street.
Many residential roads have small communal garden squares, for the exclusive use of the residents. South Kensington largely comprises private housing. North Kensington and West Kensington are devoid of features to attract the visitor. Kensington is, in general, an affluent area, a trait that it shares with Chelsea, its neighbour to the south; the area has some of London's most expensive streets and garden squares, at about the turn of the 21st century the Holland Park neighbourhood became high-status. In early 2007 houses sold in Upper Phillimore Gardens east of Holland Park, for over £20 million. Brompton is another definable area of Kensington; the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea forms part of the most densely populated local government district in the United Kingdom. This high density has come about through the subdivision of large mid-rise Georgian and Victorian terraced houses into flats; the less-affluent northern extremity of Kensington has high-rise residential buildings, while this type of building in the southern part is only represented by the Holiday Inn's London Kensington Forum Hotel in Cromwell Road, a 27-storey building.
Notable attractions and institutions in Kensington include: Kensington Palace in Kensington Gardens. The Olympia Exhibition Hall is just over the western border in West Kensington. Kensington is administered within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, lies within the Kensington parliamentary constituency; the head office of newspaper group DMGT is located in Northcliffe House off Kensington High Street in part of the large Barkers department store building. In addition to housing the offices for the DMGT newspapers Daily Mail, Mail on Sunday and Metro, Northcliffe House accommodates the offices of the newspapers owned by Evgeny Lebedev: The Independent, The Independent on Sunday, the Evening Standard; the i newspaper, sold to Johnston Press in 2016, is still produced from offices in Northcliffe House. Most of these titles were for many decades produced and printed in Fl
Crass were an English art collective and punk rock band formed in 1977 who promoted anarchism as a political ideology, a way of life and a resistance movement. Crass popularised the anarcho-punk movement of the punk subculture, advocating direct action, animal rights, anti-fascism, environmentalism; the band used and advocated a DIY ethic approach to its albums, sound collages and films. Crass spray-painted stencilled graffiti messages in the London Underground system and on advertising billboards, coordinated squats and organised political action; the band expressed its ideals by dressing in black, military-surplus-style clothing and using a stage backdrop amalgamating icons of perceived authority such as the Christian cross, the swastika, the Union Jack and the ouroboros. The band was critical of the punk youth culture in general; the anarchist ideas that they promoted have maintained a presence in punk. Due to their free experimentation and use of tape collages, spoken word releases and improvisation, they have been associated with avant-punk and art punk.
The band was based around Dial House, an open-house community near Epping and formed when Dial House founder Penny Rimbaud began jamming with Steve Ignorant. Ignorant was inspired to form a band after seeing The Clash perform at Colston Hall in Bristol, whilst Rimbaud, a veteran of avant garde performance art groups such as EXIT and Ceres Confusion, was working on his book Reality Asylum, they produced "So What?" and "Do They Owe Us A Living?" as a drum-and-vocal duo. They called themselves Stormtrooper before choosing Crass in reference to a line in the David Bowie song "Ziggy Stardust". Other friends and household members joined, Crass played their first live gig at a squatted street festival in Huntley Street, North London, they planned to play five songs. Guitarist Steve Herman left the band soon afterwards, was replaced by Phil Clancey, aka Phil Free. Joy De Vivre and Eve Libertine joined around this time. Other early Crass performances included a four-date tour of New York City, a festival gig in Covent Garden and regular appearances with the U.
K. Subs at The White Lion and Action Space in central London; the latter performances were poorly attended: "The audience consisted of us when the Subs played and the Subs when we played". Crass played two gigs at the Roxy Club in London. According to Rimbaud, the band were ejected from the stage. After the incident the band took themselves more avoiding alcohol and cannabis before shows and wearing black, military surplus-style clothing on and offstage, they introduced a logo designed by Rimbaud's friend Dave King. This gave the band a militaristic image. Crass countered that their uniform appearance was intended to be a statement against the "cult of personality", so no member would be identified as the "leader". Conceived and intended as cover artwork for a self-published pamphlet version of Rimbaud's Christ's Reality Asylum, the Crass logo was an amalgam of several "icons of authority" including the Christian cross, the swastika, the Union Jack and a two-headed Ouroboros. Using such deliberately mixed messages was part of Crass' strategy of presenting themselves as a "barrage of contradictions", challenging audiences to "make your own fucking minds up".
This included using loud, aggressive music to promote a pacifist message, a reference to their Dadaist, performance-art backgrounds and situationist ideas. The band eschewed elaborate stage lighting during live sets, preferring to play under 40-watt household light bulbs, they pioneered multimedia presentation, using video technology to enhance their performances, distributed leaflets and handouts explaining anarchist ideas to their audiences. Crass' first release was The Feeding of the 5000 in 1978. Workers at the record-pressing plant refused to handle it due to the blasphemous content of the song "Asylum", the record was released without it. In its place were two minutes of silence, entitled "The Sound of Free Speech"; this incident prompted Crass to set up their own independent record label, Crass Records, to prevent Small Wonder from being placed in a compromising position and to retain editorial control over their material. A re-recorded, extended version of "Asylum", renamed "Reality Asylum", was shortly afterwards released on Crass Records as a 7" single and Crass were investigated by the police due to the song's lyrics.
The band were interviewed at their Dial House home by Scotland Yard's vice squad, threatened with prosecution. "Reality Asylum" retailed at 45p, was the first example of Crass' "pay no more than..." policy: issuing records as inexpensively as possible. The band failed to factor value added tax into their expenses, causing them to lose money on every copy sold. A year Crass Records released new pressings of "The Feeding of the 5000", resto
Henry Purcell was an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music, he is considered to be one of the greatest English composers. Purcell was born in St Ann's Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster – the area of London known as Devil's Acre – in 1659. Henry Purcell Senior, whose older brother, Thomas Purcell, was a musician, was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal and sang at the coronation of King Charles II of England. Henry the elder had three sons: Edward and Daniel. Daniel Purcell, the youngest of the brothers, was a prolific composer who wrote the music for much of the final act of The Indian Queen after Henry Purcell's death. Henry Purcell's family lived just a few hundred yards west of Westminster Abbey from 1659 onwards. After his father's death in 1664, Purcell was placed under the guardianship of his uncle Thomas, who showed him great affection and kindness. Thomas was himself a gentleman of His Majesty's Chapel, arranged for Henry to be admitted as a chorister.
Henry studied first under Captain Henry Cooke, Master of the Children, afterwards under Pelham Humfrey, Cooke's successor. The composer Matthew Locke was a family friend and with his semi-operas also had a musical influence on the young Purcell. Henry was a chorister in the Chapel Royal until his voice broke in 1673, when he became assistant to the organ-builder John Hingston, who held the post of keeper of wind instruments to the King. Purcell is said to have been composing at nine years old, but the earliest work that can be identified as his is an ode for the King's birthday, written in 1670, it is assumed that the three-part song Sweet tyranness, I now resign was written by him as a child. After Humfrey's death, Purcell continued his studies under Dr John Blow, he in 1676 was appointed copyist at Westminster Abbey. Henry Purcell's earliest anthem Lord, who can tell was composed in 1678, it is a psalm, prescribed for Christmas Day and to be read at morning prayer on the fourth day of the month.
In 1679, he wrote songs for John Playford's Choice Ayres and Dialogues and an anthem, the name of, unknown, for the Chapel Royal. From an extant letter written by Thomas Purcell we learn that this anthem was composed for the exceptionally fine voice of the Rev. John Gostling at Canterbury, but afterwards a gentleman of His Majesty's Chapel. Purcell wrote several anthems at different times for Gostling's extraordinary basso profondo voice, known to have had a range of at least two full octaves, from D below the bass staff to the D above it; the dates of few of these sacred compositions are known. In gratitude for the providential escape of King Charles II from shipwreck, of the royal party, put together some verses from the Psalms in the form of an anthem and requested Purcell to set them to music; the challenging work opens with a passage which traverses the full extent of Gostling's range, beginning on the upper D and descending two octaves to the lower. In 1679, appointed organist of Westminster Abbey 10 years before, resigned his office in favour of Purcell.
Purcell now devoted himself entirely to the composition of sacred music, for six years severed his connection with the theatre. However, during the early part of the year before taking up his new office, he had produced two important works for the stage, the music for Nathaniel Lee's Theodosius, Thomas d'Urfey's Virtuous Wife. Between 1680 and 1688 Purcell wrote music for seven plays; the composition of his chamber opera Dido and Aeneas, which forms a important landmark in the history of English dramatic music, has been attributed to this period, its earliest production may well have predated the documented one of 1689. It was written to a libretto furnished by Nahum Tate, performed in 1689 in cooperation with Josias Priest, a dancing master and the choreographer for the Dorset Garden Theatre. Priest's wife kept a boarding school for young gentlewomen, first in Leicester Fields and afterwards at Chelsea, where the opera was performed, it is considered the first genuine English opera, though that title is given to Blow's Venus and Adonis: as in Blow's work, the action does not progress in spoken dialogue but in Italian-style recitative.
Each work runs to less than one hour. At the time and Aeneas never found its way to the theatre, though it appears to have been popular in private circles, it is believed to have been extensively copied, but only one song was printed by Purcell's widow in Orpheus Britannicus, the complete work remained in manuscript until 1840, when it was printed by the Musical Antiquarian Society under the editorship of Sir George Macfarren. The composition of Dido and Aeneas gave Purcell his first chance to write a sustained musical setting of a dramatic text, it was his only opportunity to compose a work. The story of Dido and Aeneas derives from the original source in Virgil's epic the Aeneid. Soon after Purcell's marriage, in 1682, on the death of Edward Lowe, he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, an office which he was able to hold with his position at Westminster Abbey, his eldest son was born in this same year. H
St Edmund Hall, Oxford
St Edmund Hall is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. The college has a claim to be "the oldest academical society for the education of undergraduates in any university" and is the last surviving medieval hall at the University; the college is located just off Queen's Lane, near the High Street, in central Oxford. After more than seven centuries as a men-only college, it has been coeducational since 1979; as of 2018, the college had a financial endowment of £58 million. Similar to the University of Oxford itself, the precise date of establishment of St Edmund Hall is not certain; the name St Edmund Hall first appears in a 1317 rental agreement. St Edmund Hall began life as one of Oxford's ancient Aularian houses, the medieval halls that laid the foundation of the University, preceding the creation of the first colleges; as the only surviving medieval hall, its members are known as "Aularians". The college has a history of independent thought, which brought it into frequent conflict with both Church and State.
During the late 14th and early 15th centuries it was a bastion of John Wycliffe's supporters, for which college principal William Taylor was burnt at the stake, principal Peter Payne fled the country. In the late 17th century, St Edmund Hall incurred the wrath of the Crown for fostering non-jurors, men who remained loyal to the Scottish House of Stuart and who refused to take the oath to the German House of Hanover, whom they regarded as having usurped the British throne. Queen Elizabeth II approved St Edmund Hall's charter of incorporation as a full college of the University of Oxford in 1957, although it deliberately retained its ancient title of "Hall"; the Duke of Edinburgh presented the royal charter to the college in June 1958. In 1978, women were first admitted as members of the Hall, with the first matriculations of women in 1979 and in 2015 the college celebrated the matriculation of its 3000th female student with events and exhibitions, including the display of portraits of notable women who had taught, studied or worked at the Hall in the Dining Hall, a noticeable change from the styles of portraits in most colleges.
St Edmund Hall is located on the north side of the High Street, off Queen's Lane. It borders the Carrodus Quad of The Queen's College to the south; the front quadrangle houses the porters' lodge, the Old Dining Hall, built in the 1650s, the college bar, the chapel, the Old Library and accommodation for students and Fellows. An engraving of the college coat of arms is found above the entrance to the college on Queen’s Lane; as seen in this image, the coat of arms sits above the following Latin dedication "sanctus edmundus huius aulae lux", or "St Edmund, light of this Hall". It is a common practice within the University to use chronograms for dedications; when transcribed into Latin, they are written in such a way that an important date that of a foundation or the dedication itself, is embedded in the text in Roman numerals. In the above dedication, the text is rendered as sanCtVs edMVndVs hVIVs aVLae LVX and, in this case, adding the numerals gives: C + V + M + V + V + V + I + V + V + L + L + V + X = 1246, a popular, if conservative, estimate for the establishment of the Hall.
It is the date of the canonisation of St Edmund of Abingdon. In the centre of the quadrangle is a medieval well, uncovered in 1926 during the construction of a new lecture room and accommodation; this well is believed to be the original from water. A new wellhead was added, with the inscription "haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus salvatoris," Latin for "with joy, draw water from the wells of salvation." These words, from Isaiah 12:3, are believed to be those spoken by St Edmund on his deathbed at Salisbury. A metal grate was added to the well to prevent injuries, but water can still be seen in the well at a depth of about 9 feet. Plans to add a wooden frame and bucket were scrapped to maintain the overall appearance of the quad; the east side of the Front Quad contains the chapel. The chapel contains a stained glass window, one of the earliest works by the artists Sir Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris, a painting above the altar named Supper at Emmaus, by Ceri Richards. Described as a'marmite painting' due to its anachronous style within the chapel, which dates to the late 17th century, the painting commemorates the granting of the college's Royal Charter.
The organ was built by Wood of Huddersfield in the 1980s. The St Edmund Hall Chapel Choir consists of eight choral scholars, two organ scholars and many other non-auditioning singers; the choir goes on two annual tours, including trips to Wells Cathedral in 2017, France, the burial place of St Edmund, in 2016 and Warsaw, Poland in 2015. Above the chapel is the Old Library, it was the last among Oxford colleges to chain its valuable books, but the first to have shelves against the walls. The Old Library is used for events and for research; the college library, the deconsecrated 12th century church of St Peter-in-the-East, was converted in the 1970s, includes the 14th century tower, which houses a tutor’s room at the top. The oldest part of the library still standing is the crypt below the church, which dates from the 1