A serjeant-at-arms, or sergeant-at-arms is an officer appointed by a deliberative body a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. The word "serjeant" is derived from the Latin serviens, which means "servant". Serjeants-at-arms were armed men retained by English lords and monarchs, the ceremonial maces with which they are associated were in origin a type of weapon.. The term "sergeant" can be given two main definitions. Whereas technically the two roles were not mutually exclusive, they were different in roles and duties; the soldier sergeant was a man of what would now be thought of as the'middle class', fulfilling a junior role to the knight in the medieval hierarchy. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well-trained professional infantry, either spearmen or crossbowmen. Most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the'sergeant' class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops; the sergeant class were deemed to be'worth half of a knight' in military value.
The office originated in medieval England to serve the sovereign in a police role, much like a bailiff in more recent times. Indeed, the sergeants-at-arms constitute the oldest royal bodyguard in England, dating from the time of King Richard I as a formed body; the title "sergeant-at-arms" appears during the crusades during the reign of King Philip II of France in 1192. The sergeant-at-arms was a personal attendant upon the king, specially charged with arresting those suspected of treason. Richard I had 24 with him on the Crusades, they were formed into a twenty-strong Corps of Sergeants-at-Arms by King Edward I in 1278, as a mounted close escort. In 1399 King Richard II limited the corps to thirty sergeants, King Charles II had sixteen; the number was reduced to eight in 1685 and since it has declined. The original responsibilities of the sergeant-at-arms included "collecting loans and, impressing men and ships, serving on local administration and in all sorts of ways interfering with local administration and justice."
Around 1415, the British House of Commons received its first sergeant-at-arms. From that time onwards the sergeant has been a royal appointment, the sergeant being one of the sovereign's sergeants-at-arms; the House of Lords has a similar officer. The formal role of a sergeant-at-arms in modern legislative bodies is to keep order during meetings, and, if necessary, forcibly remove any members or guests who are overly rowdy or disruptive. A sergeant-at-arms may thus be a retired soldier, police officer, or other official with experience in law enforcement and security; the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Commons has general charge of certain administrative and custodial functions, as well as security within the chamber of the House. The Australian House of Representatives operates under the Westminster parliamentary system; the Serjeant-at-Arms is a career officer of the Department of the House of Representatives. The ceremonial duties are as the custodian of the mace, the symbol of the authority of the Crown and the House, as the messenger for formal messages from the House to the Senate.
The Serjeant has the authority to remove disorderly people, by force if necessary, from the House or the public or press galleries on the instructions of the Speaker. The administrative duties of the Serjeant include allocation of office accommodation and fittings for members' offices, coordination of car transport for members and courier services for the House, security for the House and arrangements for school visits. Once a meeting has started in a House the Serjeant will stand at the door to keep authority and make sure no one else comes in or out; the Serjeant-at-Arms is the senior official of the National Parliament, responsible for maintaining order during sessions and to maintain security and protocol at Parliament under the guidance of Speaker. Presently, Commodore M. Ashraful Haq, a naval officer, is appointed as Serjeant-at-Arms; the Sergeant-at-Arms is the senior official of the House of Commons of Canada. In this role, the sergeant-at-arms is responsible for the building services and security of the House of Commons, is appointed by the Governor General acting on the advice of the Federal cabinet.
The Sergeant-at-Arms carries the mace, the symbol of the authority of the Crown, in the daily parade into the House of Commons chamber. Provincial legislative assemblies, houses of assembly, national assemblies, provincial parliaments employ sergeants-at-arms. Although the position has become ceremonial, during the 2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Commons, Kevin M. Vickers, assisted RCMP officers in engaging the gunman. Reports show that Sergeant-at-Arms Kevin Vickers alongside RCMP Constable Curtis Barrett shot and killed the gunman who had gained access to the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament buildings. René Jalbert, Sergeant-at-Arms of the National Assembly of Quebec, is known for his role in ending Denis Lortie's killing spree in the Parliament Building on 8 May 1984 by constituting himself hostage and negotiating with the shooter for four hours. In addition to the president pro tempore, the Senate of Liberia elects a Secretary of the Senate, Assistant Secretary of the Senate and a Sergeant-at-Arms as officers of the Senate, though these positions are not held by sitting senators.
The New Zealand House of Representatives operates under the Westminster parliamentary system. The current Serjeant-at-Arms is Commander Steve Streefkerk, RNZN, a permanent Officer
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
St Giles-without-Cripplegate is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Fore Street within the modern Barbican complex. When built it stood near the Cripplegate; the church is dedicated to St Giles, patron saint of lepers and the handicapped. It is one of the few medieval churches left in the City of London, having survived the Great Fire of 1666. There had been a Saxon church on the site in the 11th century but by 1090 it had been replaced by a Norman one. In 1394 it was rebuilt in the perpendicular gothic style; the stone tower was added in 1682. The church has been badly damaged by fire on three occasions: In 1545, in 1897 and during an air raid of the Blitz of the Second World War. German bombs gutted the church but it was restored using the plans of the reconstruction of 1545. A new ring of twelve bells was cast by Mears and Stainbank in 1954, this was augmented with a sharp second bell cast in 2006 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry; the church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.
John Field, curate of the church, c. 1570 John Field, buried in the church, c. 1587 John Foxe, author of the Book of Martyrs, surrogate for Crowley c. 1565 and buried in the church, 1587 Robert Crowley, rector of St Giles's and Protestant polemicist was buried in the church in 1588 Thomas Deloney, English novelist and balladist, had his son baptised in the church in 1586 Lancelot Andrewes, rector of the church after Crowley Roger Townshend, buried in the church in 1590 Sir Martin Frobisher, captain who fought against the Spanish Armada, buried in the church, 1594 Sir Francis Willoughby and coalowner, buried in the church in 1596 Nathaniel Eaton, first schoolmaster of Harvard College, baptised in the church in 1610 Oliver Cromwell, military commander and Lord Protector of England during the Commonwealth, married Elizabeth Bourchier in the church, 1620 Nicholas Tooley, Shakespearean actor, shareholder in the Globe Theatre, buried 5 June 1623 John Speed, author of the Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine, buried in the church in 1629 John Milton, author of Paradise Lost, buried in the church in 1674 John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress, attended the church Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe, died in the parish, 1731 Mark Catesby, naturalist and author of Natural History of Carolina and the Bahama Islands, was a parishioner and several of his children were baptised in the church, buried in the churchyard Rick Wakeman, recorded his track "Jane Seymour" and Yes track "Close to the Edge" using the pipe organ in the church Jack Nitzsche, pianist, recorded "St. Giles Cripplegate" with the London Symphony Orchestra in 1972 John Milton buried here in 1674 The altar from St. Luke's, Old Street, dismantled in the 1960s due to subsidence.
The east window. Designed by the Nicholson Studios, following the pattern of the original medieval window. Sedilia and piscina of the medieval church. Display cabinet containing the historic treasures of Cripplegate. John Foxe, author of "The Book of Martyrs" is buried here. Plaque commemorating Sir Martin Frobisher and sea Captain. Bust of John Speed, map historian. Statue of John Milton by Horace Montford The organ. From St. Luke's, Old Street Bust of Daniel Defoe, author of "Robinson Crusoe" and John Milton. Busts of Oliver Cromwell and John Bunyan, author of "Pilgrim's Progress". Portrait of Dr. William Nicholls, the first Rector of St. Luke's Church and Vicar of St. Giles'; the West Window – shows the coats of arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, Milton and Frobisher. The font – from St. Luke's Church; the Cripplegate Window which celebrates the centenary of the charity The Cripplegate Foundation. Bust of Sir William Staines, Lord Mayor of London in 1801. List of buildings that survived the Great Fire of London List of churches and cathedrals of London St Giles's Church website
Andrew Perne, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University and dean of Ely, was the son of John Perne of East Bilney, Norfolk. Perne was educated at St John's College, graduating BA in 1539, BD in 1547 and DD in 1552, he was elected fellow of St John's in 1540, but moved to Queens' that year. He was successively bursar and dean of Queens', culminating in becoming vice-president in 1551, was five times vice-chancellor of the university. Scurrilous Puritans said he had once been the homosexual lover of John Whitgift Archbishop of Canterbury, with whom he went to live in old age at Lambeth Palace, but he owes his notoriety to his remarkable versatility, like the Vicar of Bray, he was always faithful to the national religion, whatever it might be. A weathervane he donated with his initials of AP was said to have swung between'A Papist','A Protestant', and'A Puritan', depending on which way the wind blew. In April 1547 he advocated Catholic doctrines, but recanted two months and his Protestant faith was strengthened during Edward VI's reign.
Soon after Mary's accession, however, he perceived the error of his ways and was made Master of Peterhouse in 1553 and Dean of Ely in 1557. He preached the sermon in 1557 when the bodies of Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were disinterred in Cambridge and burnt for heresy, remarkably, in 1560 when these proceedings were reversed and the dead heretics were rehabilitated. In Elizabeth's reign he subscribed the Thirty-nine Articles, denounced the pope and tried to convert Abbot Feckenham to Protestantism, he was selected as the type of Anglican prelate by the authors of the Martin Marprelate tracts and other Puritans, who nicknamed him "Old Andrew Turncoat", "Andrew Ambo", "Old Father Palinode". Cambridge wits, it was said, translated "perno" by "I turn, I rat, I change often". Historian Alice Hogge recounts an episode in which a close friend asked Perne "to tell her and, the holy religion that see her safe to heaven". Perne replied that, if she wished, she could live in the religion which the Queen and the kingdom professed – Anglicanism – "but don't die in it.
Die in faith and communion with the Catholic Church, that is, if you want to save your soul". As Hogge notes wryly, he never had the chance to follow his own advice, dying on the way back to his room after dining – and "in the headquarters of that faith, Lambeth Palace itself". On his death, he bequeathed the greater part of his library to Peterhouse, where he had been Master, together with the funds to house it in what is now the Perne Library there. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Pollard, Albert Frederick. "Perne, Andrew". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 21. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 178–179
James Wood (mathematician)
James Wood was a mathematician, Master of St John's College, Cambridge. In his years he was Dean of Ely. Wood was born in Holcombe, Bury where his father ran an evening school and taught his son the elements of arithmetic and algebra. From Bury Grammar School he proceeded to St John's College, Cambridge in 1778, graduating as senior wrangler in 1782. On graduating he became a fellow of the college and in his long tenure there produced several successful academic textbooks for students of mathematics. Between 1795 and 1799 his The principles of mathematics and natural philosophy, was printed, in four volumes, by J. Burges. Vol. I:'The elements of algebra', by Wood. II:'The principles of fluxions' by Samuel Vince. III Part I:'The principles of mechanics" by Wood. III Part II: "The principles of hydrostatics" by Samuel Vince. IV "The principles of astronomy" by Samuel Vince. Three other volumes -"A treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry" and "The elements of the conic sections" by Samuel Vince and "The elements of optics" by Wood (1801" may have been issued as part of the series.
Wood remained for sixty years at St. John's, serving as both Master. Wood was ordained as a priest in 1787 and served as Dean of Ely from 1820 until his death; the Elements of Algebra The Principles of Mechanics The Elements of Optics W. W. Rouse Ball, A History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge University, 1889, repr. Cambridge University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-108-00207-3, p. 110
Harvey Goodwin was a Cambridge academic and Anglican bishop, Bishop of Carlisle from 1869 until his death. Born at King's Lynn, he was a son of Charles Goodwin, a solicitor there. One of his brothers was Charles Wycliffe Goodwin the judge. From 1825 to 1833 he was educated at a private school at High Wycombe. Before going into residence at Cambridge, he joined a party at Keswick and read with William Hepworth Thompson a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, he was admitted pensioner of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge on 16 November 1835, soon gave evidence of ability in mathematics. From Lady-day 1837 to Michaelmas 1839 he was scholar of his college. In his second year he became a pupil of the private tutor William Hopkins, in the Mathematical Tripos of 1839 came out second to Robert Leslie Ellis, he was elected Ellis being first. In 1840 he won the Schuldham prize, in 1844 delivered the Wortley speech, he graduated Bachelor of Arts in 1840 and Cambridge Master of Arts in 1843. After graduating BA, Goodwin was appointed to a mathematical lectureship at Caius, at Michaelmas 1841 became Fellow of his college.
In 1842 he was ordained deacon, priest in 1844. His close friends at Cambridge, besides Leslie Ellis and Charles Mackenzie, whose life he wrote in 1864, were Thomas Thorp, John Mason Neale, Philip Freeman, Benjamin Webb. With them he shared advanced ecclesiological views, with Neale and Webb he set on foot in 1848 the Ecclesiological Society, which afterwards developed into the Cambridge Camden Society. In 1844 Goodwin took charge, of St Giles' Church, Cambridge. In the same year he preached for the first time in the university pulpit, in the year following was nominated select preacher. In 1845 he preached before the British Association. After his marriage, in the same year, he continued to reside at Cambridge, taking pupils and occupying himself with parish work, he was instrumental in establishing the industrial school at Chesterton. In 1848 he was appointed to the incumbency of St Edward's, where he was a popular preacher. Goodwin was offered the colonial bishopric of Grahamstown in 1853. In November 1858 he was appointed by Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby to the deanery of Ely.
In 1859 received from his university the degree Doctor of Divinity, the public orator William George Clark spoke of his work. On 11 December 1880 he was elected honorary fellow of Gonville and Caius, in 1885 was created honorary Doctor of Civil Law of Oxford University; as Dean of Ely, Goodwin continued the work of the restoration of the cathedral begun by George Peacock, under Robert Willis's guidance, he saw completed the painting of the nave roof, executed in part by Henry L'Estrange Styleman Le Strange of Hunstanton, after his death in 1862, completed by his friend Thomas Gambier Parry. The lantern was rebuilt, the nave pavement relaid, the Galilee entrance restored, a warming apparatus placed for the first time in the cathedral. While at Ely he served on two royal commissions, those on clerical subscription and ritual. In October 1869 he accepted Gladstone's offer, became Bishop of Carlisle, he held the post until his death. From his known interest in scientific subjects he was asked by George Bradley, Dean of Westminster, to preach in Westminster Abbey on the Sunday after the funeral of Charles Darwin, 1 May 1882.
He died on 25 November 1891 at Bishopthorpe, while on a visit to William Maclagan, Archbishop of York, was buried in the churchyard of Crosthwaite, Keswick. His monument in Carlisle Cathedral consists of a recumbent figure in bronze, executed by Hamo Thornycroft. A street in Cambridge and a school in Carlisle are named after Goodwin. Apart from sermons and lectures, commentaries on the Gospels of St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, his major publications were: Elementary Course of Mathematics, 1847. 1857. Parish Sermons, 1847–62, 5 vols. Guide to the Parish Church, Cambridge, 1855. Hulsean Lectures, 1855; the Doctrines and Difficulties of the Christian Faith, 1856. A new translation of the De Imitatione, 1860. 1869. Essays on the Pentateuch, 1867. Walks in the Region of Science and Faith, a collection of essays, 1883. Goodwin, Harvey. An address to women. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; the Foundations of the Creed, 1889. 1899. He was a contributor to the Quarterly Review, Contemporary Review and The Nineteenth Century.
Goodwin married, on 13 August 1845, eldest daughter of George King of Bebington Hall, by her had three sons and four daughters. His son-in-law Henry Ware was Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness from 1891 until 1909, Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Goodwin, Harvey". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1901
Robert Moss (priest)
Robert Moss was an English churchman and controversialist, Dean of Ely from 1713. The eldest son of Robert and Mary Moss, he was born at Gillingham, Norfolk in 1666, his father was a country gentleman living at Postwick. After Norwich School he was admitted a sizar of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 19 April 1682, at the age of sixteen, he graduated B. A. 1685, M. A. 1688, B. D. 1696, D. D. 1705. Soon after his first degree he was elected to a fellowship at Corpus, he was ordained deacon in 1688, priest in 1690. In 1693 he was appointed by the university to be one of their twelve preachers, his sermons at Great St. Mary's were popular. After missing by a few votes an appointment to the office of public orator at Cambridge in 1698, he was chosen preacher of Gray's Inn on 11 July of that year, in succession to Thomas Richardson, master of Peterhouse. In December 1716 he was allowed to nominate Thomas Gooch, master of Caius College, as his deputy in this office. Early in 1699 he was elected assistant-preacher at St. James's, was successively chaplain in ordinary to William III, Queen Anne, George I.
In 1708 the parishioners of St. Lawrence Jewry offered him their Tuesday lectureship, which he accepted, succeeding George Stanhope, who had become dean of Canterbury. Moss's preferments were now numerous; the Master of his college, Thomas Greene, was of opinion that his fellowship was rendered void. A long controversy followed between Moss and the Master, in which it was alleged that the total value of the church preferments held by Moss, £240 in all, was equivalent to six fellowships; the master, did not press the matter, Moss retained his fellowship till 1714. In 1708, or soon afterwards, he was collated to the rectory of Hertfordshire. After suffering much from gout, he died 26 March 1729, was buried in Ely Cathedral, where a Latin inscription with his arms marks his resting-place; the bulk of his fortune, less an endowment for a sizarship at Caius College, was bequeathed to one of his nephews, Charles Moss, bishop of Bath and Wells. Moss is described as a kind and loyal friend, his sermons were collected and published in 1736, in 8 vols. with a biographical preface by Zachary Grey, who had married one of his step-daughters.
An engraved portrait of the author by Vertue is prefixed. He married a Mrs. Hinton of Cambridge, who survived him. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lupton, Joseph Hirst. "Moss, Robert". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co