Carleton College is a private liberal arts college in Northfield, Minnesota. Founded in 1866, the college enrolled 2,105 undergraduate students and employed 269 faculty members in fall 2016; the 200-acre main campus is located between Northfield and the 800-acre Cowling Arboretum, which became part of the campus in the 1920s. In its 2019 edition of national liberal arts college rankings, U. S. News & World Report ranked Carleton fifth-best first for undergraduate teaching. From 2000 through 2016, the institution has produced 122 National Science Graduate Fellows, 112 Fulbright Scholars, 22 Watson Fellows, 20 NCAA Postgraduate Scholars, 13 Goldwater Scholars, 2 Rhodes Scholars. Carleton is one of the largest sources of undergraduate students pursuing doctorates per one hundred students for bachelors institutions; the school was founded in 1866, when the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches unanimously accepted a resolution to locate a college in Northfield. Two Northfield businessmen, Charles Augustus Wheaton and Charles Moorehouse Goodsell, each donated 10 acres of land for the first campus.
The first students enrolled at the preparatory unit of Northfield College in the fall of 1867. In 1870, the first college president, James Strong, traveled to the East Coast to raise funds for the college. On his way from visiting a potential donor, William Carleton of Charlestown, Strong was badly injured in a collision between his carriage and a train. Impressed by Strong's survival of the accident, Carleton donated $50,000 to the fledgling institution in 1871; as a result, the Board of Trustees renamed the school in his honor. The college graduated its first college class in 1874, James J. Dow and Myra A. Brown, who married each other that year. On September 7, 1876, the James-Younger Gang, led by outlaw Jesse James, tried to rob the First National Bank of Northfield. Joseph Lee Heywood, Carleton's Treasurer, was acting cashier at the bank that day, he was killed for refusing to open the safe. Carleton named a library fund after Heywood; the Heywood Society is the name for a group of donors. In its early years under the presidency of James Strong, Carleton reflected the theological conservatism of its Minnesota Congregational founders.
In 1903, modern religious influences were introduced by William Sallmon, a Yale Divinity School graduate, hired as college president. Sallmon was opposed by conservative faculty members and alumni, left the presidency by 1908. After Sallmon left, the trustees hired Donald J. Cowling, another theologically liberal Yale Divinity School graduate, as his successor. In 1916, under Cowling's leadership, Carleton began an official affiliation with the Minnesota Baptist Convention, it lasted until 1928, when the Baptists severed the relationship as a result of fundamentalist opposition to Carleton's liberalism, including the college's support for teaching evolution. Non-denominational for a number of years, in 1964 Carleton abolished its requirement for weekly attendance at some religious or spiritual meeting. In 1927, students founded the first student-run pub in The Cave. Located in the basement of Evans Hall, it continues to host live music shows and other events several times each week. In 1942, Carleton purchased land in Stanton, about 10 miles east of campus, to use for flight training.
During World War II, several classes of male students went through air basic training at the college. Since being sold by the college in 1944, the Stanton Airfield has been operated for commercial use; the world premiere production of the English translation of Bertolt Brecht's play, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, was performed in 1948 at Carleton's Nourse Little Theater. In 1963 the Reformed Druids of North America was founded by students at Carleton as a means to be excused from attendance of then-mandatory weekly chapel service. Within a few years, the group evolved to engage in legitimate spiritual exploration. Meetings continue to be held in the Carleton College Cowling Arboretum. President Bill Clinton gave the last commencement address of his administration at Carleton, on June 10, 2000, marking the first presidential visit to the college. Carleton is a small, liberal arts college offering 33 different majors and 31 minors, is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Students have the option to design their own major.
There are ten languages offered: Spanish, German, Japanese, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. The academic calendar follows a trimester system where students take three classes per 10-week term. In order to graduate with a degree from Carleton, students must take an Argument & Inquiry Seminar in their first year, a writing course, three quantitative reasoning encounters, international studies, intercultural domestic studies, humanistic inquiry, literary/artistic analysis, arts practice, formal or statistical reasoning, social inquiry, physical education; the average class size at Carleton is 16. 48% have 10–19 students, 24% of all classes have 2–9 students, 21% have 20–29 students, 5% have 30 or more students. The most popular areas of study are biology, political science and international relations, chemistry, psychology and computer science. Carleton is one of the few liberal arts colleges. Studying abroad is common at Carleton: 76% of the senior class of 2018 studied abroad at least once over their four years.
Carleton offers a number of its own programs each year, which are led by Carleton faculty and available only to Carleton students. In 2017-2018 there were 17 of such programs offered. Although m
African Geographical Review
The African Geographical Review is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the American Association of Geographers' Africa Specialty Group. The journal was established in 1963 at Makerere University as the East African Geographical Review. Due to political turmoil in Uganda, the journal had to suspend publication for a number of years, it was renamed as the African Geographical Review in 2000. Since 2012 it is published by Francis. Official website
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia referred to as UGA or Georgia, is a public flagship research university with its main campus in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1785, it is one of the oldest public universities in the United States; the Center for Measuring University Performance ranks the University of Georgia among the top research universities in the nation and the university is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a Research I university. It classifies the student body as "more selective," its most selective admissions category, while the ACT Assessment Student Report places UGA student admissions in the "highly selective" category, the highest category. Incoming students include those from 47 countries around the world; the university is ranked as one of the "Best National Universities for Undergraduate Teaching", tied for 13th overall among all public national universities in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, is a Kiplinger's and Princeton Review top ten in value.
The university is organized into 17 constituent schools and colleges offering more than 140 degree programs. The university's historic North Campus is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district; the contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the contiguous campus is the university's 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees, several additional historic buildings. Athens has ranked among America's best college towns due to its vibrant restaurant and music scenes. In addition to the main campus in Athens with its 460 buildings, the university has two smaller campuses located in Tifton and Griffin; the university has two satellite campuses located in Lawrenceville. The university operates several outreach stations spread across the state; the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres.
The university owns a residential and research center in Washington, D. C. and three international residential and research centers located at Oxford University in Oxford, England, at Cortona, at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over 750 student organizations including academic associations, honor societies, cultural groups and intramural athletics, religious groups, social groups and fraternities and community service programs, philanthropic groups are integral parts of student life; the University of Georgia's intercollegiate sports teams known by their Georgia Bulldogs nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. UGA served as a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more than 120-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 45 national championships, 264 individual national championships, 170 conference championships, 45 Olympic medals; the Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the official marching band of the university, performs at athletic and other events.
In 1784, Lyman Hall, a Yale University graduate and one of three doctors to sign the Declaration of Independence, as Governor of Georgia persuaded the Georgia legislature to grant 40,000 acres for the purposes of founding a "college or seminary of learning." Besides Hall, credit for founding the university goes to Abraham Baldwin who wrote the original charter for University of Georgia. From Connecticut, Baldwin graduated from and taught at Yale University before moving to Georgia; the Georgia General Assembly approved Baldwin's charter on January 27, 1785 and UGA became the first university in the United States to gain a state charter. Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Baldwin would represent Georgia in the 1786 Constitutional Convention that created the Constitution of the United States and go on to be President pro tempore of the United States Senate; the task of creating the university was given to the Senatus Academicus, which consisted of the Board of Visitors – made up of "the governor, all state senators, all superior court judges and a few other public officials" – and the Board of Trustees, "a body of fourteen appointed members that soon became self-perpetuating."
The first meeting of the university's Board of Trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13, 1786. The meeting installed Baldwin as the university's first president. For the first sixteen years of the school's history, the University of Georgia only existed on paper. By the new century, a committee was appointed to find suitable land to establish a campus. Committee member John Milledge purchased 633 acres of land on the west bank of the Oconee River and gifted it to the university; this tract of land, now a part of the consolidated city–county of Athens-Clarke County, was part of Jackson County. As of 2013, 37 acres of that land remained as part of the North Campus; because Baldwin was elected to the U. S. Senate, the school needed a new president. Baldwin chose his former fellow professor at Yale, Josiah Meigs, as his replacement. Meigs became the school's president, as well as the only professor. After traveling the state to recruit a few students, Meigs opened the school with no building in the fall of 1801.
The first school building patterned after Yale's Connecticut Hall was built the year later. Yale's early influence on the new university extended into the classical curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. By 1803, the students
Macalester College is a private liberal arts college in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Founded in 1874, Macalester is an undergraduate four-year institution and enrolled 2,174 students in the fall of 2018 from 50 U. S. states, 4 U. S territories, the District of Columbia and 97 countries, it is a Forbes Top 100 College, a Forbes Top 50 School for International Students. In 2018, U. S. News & World Report ranked Macalester as 26th best liberal arts college in the United States, 16th for undergraduate teaching at a national liberal arts college, 21st for best value at a national liberal arts college. Macalester College was founded in 1874 by Rev. Dr. Edward Duffield Neill, who served as a chaplain in the Civil War and held positions in three U. S. presidential administrations. After journeying to the Minnesota Territory in 1849 to do missionary work, he founded two churches and served as the state’s first superintendent of public education and first chancellor of the University of Minnesota, he planned a college that would be Presbyterian-affiliated but nonsectarian, making it inclusive by the standards of his day.
Charles Macalester, a prominent businessman and philanthropist from Philadelphia, made the establishing gift by donating the Winslow House, a noted summer hotel in Minneapolis. With additional funding from the Presbyterian Church and from the new College’s trustees, Macalester opened in 1885 with five professors, six freshmen, 52 preparatory students. In 1887, a classical scholar named James Wallace joined the faculty and established himself as a fine and demanding teacher, he earned a national reputation for scholarship when he published two Greek textbooks that were used across the country. In spite of academic success, James Wallace’s early years at Macalester were financially difficult, his efforts built up a group of donors whose support, together with tuition from a growing student body, put the college on steady footing. By the time he rejoined the faculty in 1906, Wallace had enabled the college to pay off its debt, maintain a balanced budget, begin to establish an endowment to offer some protection against hard times.
In the 1940s and 1950s President Charles J. Turck gave new emphasis to the College’s internationalism by recruiting foreign students, creating overseas study opportunities, hiring faculty from diverse backgrounds; the College engaged in a period of advancement throughout the 1960s, made possible by DeWitt and Lila Wallace, founders of Reader’s Digest and benefactors of Macalester. Under the leadership of President Harvey M. Rice, the College strengthened the academic credentials of its faculty, enhanced academic programming, attracting more students to the small liberal arts college. A major building campaign resulted in new science facilities. During this time, Macalester committed itself to a liberal arts curriculum; the 1990s were another period of advancement for Macalester. In 1991, the College’s endowment became larger than it had been; the College increased the number of faculty positions, adding more broadly diverse perspectives to the educational program. The improved student-faculty ratio made possible more flexible and personalized teaching approaches, including significant enhancement of faculty-student collaborative research and writing.
Through a comprehensive campus improvement program and residential buildings on campus was renovated, as were the athletic facilities. Renovation of the science facilities, which merged two buildings into the Olin-Rice Science Center, was completed in 1997. George Draper Dayton residence hall opened in 1998, the Ruth Stricker Dayton Campus Center in 2001, the renovated Kagin Commons student services building in 2002. A comprehensive fund-raising campaign completed in 2000 raised $55.3 million to help support some of those building projects as well as scholarship funds, student-faculty research stipends, academic programs, annual operations. Macalester’s Institute for Global Citizenship, created in 2005, serves as a catalyst for strengthening programs by which students connect academic study with off-campus applications through internships and service-learning opportunities both in the United States and abroad. In fall 2008 Macalester publicly launched a $150 million campaign, raising funds for scholarships, faculty support, program enhancement, operating support, new facilities.
In 2009, construction was completed on Markim Hall, a new home for the Institute for Global Citizenship. Plans called for the building to qualify for Platinum certification under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design system, a building rating system devised by the U. S. Green Building Council that evaluates the sustainability and environmental impact of structures across the nation. In fall 2012, Macalester opened its renovated and expanded Janet Wallace Fine Arts Center; the Macalester College Student Government constructed an ice rink on campus during the spring of 2013. The rink was a notable experiment in direct democracy, as students voted the previous year on how to spend a'rollover' of extra funds that were not allocated to student organizations. After a continued debate on whether funds should be returned to student groups, invested in campus infrastructure improvements, or used to fund textbooks, a plurality of the student body opted to build the ice rink. 50 students 2.5% of the student body volunteered to maintain the rink, but it fell into disrepair and was not supervised by the college's facilities department, who noted the'questionable flatness' of the ground under the rink.
After complaints that the rink was underused, the student government voted that year to permanently close the rink. In its 2016 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked Macal
A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix, "geo," means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth; the word "geography" is a Middle French word, believed to have been first used in 1540. Although geographers are known as people who make maps, map making is the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or human society, but they study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to human society and how human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are employed by local and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.
The paintings by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer and The Astronomer are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting in 1668–69. There are three major fields of study, which are further subdivided: Physical geography: including geomorphology, glaciology, climatology, pedology, oceanography and environmental geography. Human geography: including Urban geography, cultural geography, economic geography, political geography, historical geography, marketing geography, health geography, social geography. Regional geography: including atmosphere and lithosphereThe National Geographic Society identifies five broad key themes for geographers: location place human-environment interaction movement regions Media related to Geographers at Wikimedia Commons Steven Seegel. Map Men: Transnational Lives and Deaths of Geographers in the Making of East Central Europe. University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, including several countries. The term southern Africa or Southern Africa includes Angola, Eswatini, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, though Angola may be included in Central Africa and Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe in East Africa. From a political perspective the region is said to be unipolar with South Africa as a first regional power. Another geographic delineation for the region is the portion of Africa south of the Cunene and Zambezi Rivers – that is: South Africa, Eswatini, Botswana and the part of Mozambique which lies south of the Zambezi River; this definition is most used in South Africa for natural sciences and in guide books such as Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because this definition cuts Mozambique in two.
In the United Nations scheme of geographic regions, five states constitute Southern Africa: Botswana Eswatini Lesotho Namibia South AfricaThe Southern African Customs Union, created in 1969 comprises the five states in the UN subregion of Southern Africa. The Southern African Development Community was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region, it includes: Angola Botswana Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Eswatini Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe The region is sometimes reckoned to include other territories: Angola – part of Central Africa in the UN scheme. Comoros, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Zambia, Zimbabwe – part of Eastern Africa in the UN scheme; the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, though more reckoned in Central and Eastern Africa are included in Southern Africa as they are SADC members. The terrain of Southern Africa is varied; the region has both low-lying coastal areas, mountains.
In terms of natural resources, the region has the world's largest resources of platinum and the platinum group elements, chromium and cobalt, as well as uranium, copper, titanium and diamonds. The region is distinct from the rest of Africa, with some of its main exports including platinum, gold, copper and uranium, but it is similar in that it shares some of the problems of the rest of the continent. While colonialism has left its mark on the development over the course of history, today poverty, HIV/AIDS are some of the biggest factors impeding economic growth; the pursuit of economic and political stability is an important part of the region's goals, as demonstrated by the SADC. In terms of economic strength, South Africa is by far the dominant power of the region. South Africa's GDP alone is many times greater than the GDP's of all other countries in the region. Mining and tourism sectors dominate the economies of Southern African countries, apart from South Africa which has a mature and flourishing financial sector, retail sector, construction sector.
Most global banks have their regional offices for Southern Africa based in Johannesburg, South Africa. Over the years, some the other Southern African nations have invested in economic diversification, invested public funds into rail and air transportation as part of a concerted effort through SADC to boost regional trade and improve communication and transportation; the countries in this region belong to the Southern Africa Power Pool, which facilitates the development of a competitive electricity market within the SADC region and ensures sustainable energy developments through sound economic and social practices. The main objective of the power pool is to develop a world class and safe interconnected electrical system across the Southern African Region. According to a report by Southern Africa Power Pool, the three largest producers of electricity in Southern Africa as at 2017, include Eskom in South Africa with an estimated 46,963MW, Zesco in Zambia with 2,877MW and SNL of Angola with 2,442MW.
Southern Africa has a wide diversity of ecoregions including grassland, karoo and riparian zones. Though considerable disturbance has occurred in some regions from habitat loss due to human overpopulation or export-focused development, there remain significant numbers of various wildlife species, including white rhino, African leopard, kudu, blue wildebeest, vervet monkey and elephant, it has complex Plateaus. There are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification. Southern Africa is home to many people, it was populated by indigenous or native Africans San and Pygmies in dispersed concentrations. Due to the Bantu expansion which edged the previous native African peoples to the more remote areas of the region, the majority of African ethnic groups in this region, including the Xhosa, Tsonga, Northern Ndebele, Southern Ndebele, Tswana and Shona people, BaLunda, Ovimbundu, Shona and Sukuma, speak Bantu languages; the process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of native European and Asian descent in many southern African co