Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14,1991, arXiv. org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3,2008, by 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month. The arXiv was made possible by the low-bandwidth TeX file format, around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Additional modes of access were added, FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992. The term e-print was quickly adopted to describe the articles and its original domain name was xxx. lanl. gov. Due to LANLs lack of interest in the rapidly expanding technology, in 1999 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and it is now hosted principally by Cornell, with 8 mirrors around the world. Its existence was one of the factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists regularly upload their papers to arXiv.
org for worldwide access, Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv. The annual budget for arXiv is approximately $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, annual donations were envisaged to vary in size between $2,300 to $4,000, based on each institution’s usage. As of 14 January 2014,174 institutions have pledged support for the period 2013–2017 on this basis, in September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXivs operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it was supposed to be a three-hour tour, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. The lists of moderators for many sections of the arXiv are publicly available, additionally, an endorsement system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content that is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines.
Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, new authors from recognized academic institutions generally receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for allegedly restricting scientific inquiry, perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating, If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, its all there – let them go and read about it. The arXiv generally re-classifies these works, e. g. in General mathematics, papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, and PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX. The submission is rejected by the software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large.
ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, the time stamp on the article is set when the submission is finalized
Stony Brook University
The State University of New York at Stony Brook is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university located in Stony Brook, New York in the United States. It is part of the State University of New York system, the institution was founded in 1957 in Oyster Bay as State University College on Long Island, and would evolve into the present university after a move to Stony Brook in 1962. Since its establishment in Stony Brook, the university has expanded to more than 200 major buildings with a combined area of more than 11 million gross square feet across 1,454 acres of land. In 2001, SUNY Stony Brook was elected to the Association of American Universities, joining four private universities and it is a member of the larger Universities Research Association for which its president Samuel Stanley is a council president. Stony Brook is the largest single-site employer on Long Island, more than 24,500 students are enrolled at the university, which has over 14,500 employees and over 2,400 faculty.
Stony Brook has a number of athletics teams, the Stony Brook Seawolves are members of the America East Conference and the Colonial Athletic Association competing at the Division I level of the NCAA since 1994. The State University of New York at Stony Brook was established in Oyster Bay in 1957 as the State University College on Long Island, by the governor and state of New York. Established almost a decade after the creation of New York’s public higher education system, leonard K. Olson was appointed as the first dean of the institution and was instrumental in the recruitment of faculty staff and planning of the Stony Brook campus. SUCOLI opened with an class of 148 students, on the grounds of the William Robertson Coe Planting Fields estate. These first students were admitted on a tuition-free basis,1961 was a year of firsts as thirty students were conferred degrees in the first commencement and the University was appointed its first president, John Francis Lee. Lee left that year due to political and bureaucratic matters regarding the future of the University, more recently, it has adopted the short-form name Stony Brook University.
In 1963, only three years after the release of the Heald Report, the Governor commissioned the “Education of Health Professions” report, the report outlined the need for expansion of the university system to prepare medical professionals for the future needs of the state. In 1965 the State University appointed John S. Toll, a renowned physicist from the University of Maryland as the president of Stony Brook. In 1966 the University set forth initial timetables for the development of the Health Science Center which would house the University’s health programs, despite the budgetary concerns and challenges from Albany the University released a formalized plan early in 1968 and funding for recruitment of faculty was provided. At the same time, residential housing was expanded to 3,000, the Stony Brook Union opened in 1970, and in 1971, but the University lagged significantly in undergraduate education, prioritizing graduate education and research over undergraduate studies and student life. By 1975, enrollment had reached 16,000 and expansion crossed over Nicolls Road with the construction of the Health Science Center which would be completed in 1980, in 1981 John Marburger was inaugurated as the third president of the University and would continue the expansion of the institution.
By the late 1980s the administration affirmed the need to other areas of the institution which included undergraduate education and residential life. The University approved a decision to transition athletics to the Division I of the NCAA and followed with the construction of the Stony Brook Arena, the 1990s affirmed Stony Brook’s success at building a research university with a strong undergraduate education
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Computer science is the study of the theory and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. An alternate, more succinct definition of science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems and its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory, are highly abstract, other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.
Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623, in 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons and he started developing this machine in 1834, and in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer. A crucial step was the adoption of a card system derived from the Jacquard loom making it infinitely programmable. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information, when the machine was finished, some hailed it as Babbages dream come true. During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, as it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. Computer science began to be established as an academic discipline in the 1950s.
The worlds first computer science program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science. The first computer science program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962. Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights and it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM704 and the IBM709 computers, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again. During the late 1950s, the science discipline was very much in its developmental stages. Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology, modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base
Computational complexity theory
A problem is regarded as inherently difficult if its solution requires significant resources, whatever the algorithm used. The theory formalizes this intuition, by introducing mathematical models of computation to study these problems and quantifying the amount of resources needed to solve them, such as time and storage. Other complexity measures are used, such as the amount of communication, the number of gates in a circuit. One of the roles of computational complexity theory is to determine the limits on what computers can. Closely related fields in computer science are analysis of algorithms. More precisely, computational complexity theory tries to classify problems that can or cannot be solved with appropriately restricted resources, a computational problem can be viewed as an infinite collection of instances together with a solution for every instance. The input string for a problem is referred to as a problem instance. In computational complexity theory, a problem refers to the question to be solved.
In contrast, an instance of this problem is a rather concrete utterance, for example, consider the problem of primality testing. The instance is a number and the solution is yes if the number is prime, stated another way, the instance is a particular input to the problem, and the solution is the output corresponding to the given input. For this reason, complexity theory addresses computational problems and not particular problem instances, when considering computational problems, a problem instance is a string over an alphabet. Usually, the alphabet is taken to be the binary alphabet, as in a real-world computer, mathematical objects other than bitstrings must be suitably encoded. For example, integers can be represented in binary notation, and graphs can be encoded directly via their adjacency matrices and this can be achieved by ensuring that different representations can be transformed into each other efficiently. Decision problems are one of the objects of study in computational complexity theory. A decision problem is a type of computational problem whose answer is either yes or no. A decision problem can be viewed as a language, where the members of the language are instances whose output is yes.
The objective is to decide, with the aid of an algorithm, if the algorithm deciding this problem returns the answer yes, the algorithm is said to accept the input string, otherwise it is said to reject the input. An example of a problem is the following
University of Maryland, College Park
Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and competes in athletics as a member of the Big Ten Conference, the University of Marylands proximity to the nations capital has resulted in research partnerships with the Federal government. The operating budget of the University of Maryland during the 2009 fiscal year was projected to be approximately $1.531 billion, for the same fiscal year, the University of Maryland received a total of $518 million in research funding, surpassing its 2008 mark by $118 million. As of December 12,2012, the universitys Great Expectations campaign had exceeded $1 billion in private donations, on March 6,1856, the forerunner of todays University of Maryland was chartered as the Maryland Agricultural College. Two years later, Charles Benedict Calvert, a future U. S. Congressman, Calvert founded the school that year. On October 5,1859, the first 34 students entered the Maryland Agricultural College, the school became a land grant college in February 1864.
During the Civil War, Confederate soldiers under Brigadier General Bradley Tyler Johnson moved past the college on July 12,1864 as part of Jubal Earlys raid on Washington, D. C. By the end of the war, financial problems forced the administrators to sell off 200 acres of land, for the next two years the campus was used as a boys preparatory school. Following the Civil War, in February 1866 the Maryland legislature assumed half ownership of the school, the college thus became in part a state institution. By October 1867, the school reopened with 11 students, in the next six years, enrollment grew and the schools debt was paid off. In 1873, Samuel Jones, a former Confederate Major General, twenty years later, the federally funded Agricultural Experiment Station was established there. Morrill Hall was built the following year, on November 29,1912, a fire destroyed the barracks where the students were housed, all the schools records, and most of the academic buildings, leaving only Morrill Hall untouched.
There were no injuries or fatalities, and all but two returned to the university and insisted on classes continuing. Students were housed by families in neighboring towns until housing could be rebuilt, a large brick and concrete compass inlaid in the ground designates the former center of campus as it existed in 1912. The state took control of the school in 1916, and the institution was renamed Maryland State College and that year, the first female students enrolled at the school. On April 9,1920, the became part of the existing University of Maryland, replacing St. Johns College. In the same year, the school on the College Park campus awarded its first PhD degrees. In 1925 the university was accredited by the Association of American Universities, by the time the first black students enrolled at the university in 1951, enrollment had grown to nearly 10,000 students—4,000 of whom were women
P versus NP problem
The P versus NP problem is a major unsolved problem in computer science. Informally speaking, it asks whether every problem whose solution can be verified by a computer can be quickly solved by a computer. The underlying issues were first discussed in the 1950s, in letters from John Nash to the National Security Agency and it is one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems selected by the Clay Mathematics Institute to carry a US$1,000,000 prize for the first correct solution. The general class of questions for which some algorithm can provide an answer in time is called class P or just P. For some questions, there is no way to find an answer quickly. The class of questions for which an answer can be verified in polynomial time is called NP, consider the subset sum problem, an example of a problem that is easy to verify, but whose answer may be difficult to compute. Given a set of integers, does some nonempty subset of them sum to 0, for instance, does a subset of the set add up to 0. The answer yes, because the subset adds up to zero can be verified with three additions.
There is no algorithm to find such a subset in polynomial time. An answer to the P = NP question would determine whether problems that can be verified in polynomial time, like the subset-sum problem, can be solved in polynomial time. Although the P versus NP problem was defined in 1971, there were previous inklings of the problems involved, the difficulty of proof. In 1955, mathematician John Nash wrote a letter to the NSA, if proved this would imply what we today would call P ≠ NP, since a proposed key can easily be verified in polynomial time. Another mention of the problem occurred in a 1956 letter written by Kurt Gödel to John von Neumann. The most common resources are time and space, in such analysis, a model of the computer for which time must be analyzed is required. Typically such models assume that the computer is deterministic and sequential, arguably the biggest open question in theoretical computer science concerns the relationship between those two classes, Is P equal to NP. In 2012,10 years later, the poll was repeated.
To attack the P = NP question, the concept of NP-completeness is very useful, NP-complete problems are a set of problems to each of which any other NP-problem can be reduced in polynomial time, and whose solution may still be verified in polynomial time. That is, any NP problem can be transformed into any of the NP-complete problems, informally, an NP-complete problem is an NP problem that is at least as tough as any other problem in NP
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Bob Dylan is an American songwriter, singer and writer. He has been influential in music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when his songs chronicled social unrest, early songs such as Blowin in the Wind and The Times They Are a-Changin became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement. Leaving behind his initial base in the American folk music revival, his six-minute single Like a Rolling Stone, recorded in 1965, Dylans lyrics incorporate a wide range of political, social and literary influences. They defied existing pop music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture, initially inspired by the performances of Little Richard and the songwriting of Woody Guthrie, Robert Johnson, and Hank Williams, Dylan has amplified and personalized musical genres. Dylan performs with guitar and harmonica, backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured steadily since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed the Never Ending Tour.
His accomplishments as a recording artist and performer have been central to his career, since 1994, Dylan has published seven books of drawings and paintings, and his work has been exhibited in major art galleries. As a musician, Dylan has sold more than 100 million records and he has received numerous awards including eleven Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and Songwriters Hall of Fame. The Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a citation for his profound impact on popular music and American culture. In May 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition. Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Marys Hospital on May 24,1941, in Duluth, Minnesota and he has a younger brother, David.
Dylans paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire and his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. Dylans father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice Beatty Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community. They lived in Duluth until Robert was six, when his father had polio and the returned to his mothers hometown, Hibbing. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and and he formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Little Richard and their performance of Danny & the Juniors Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. In 1959, his high school yearbook carried the caption Robert Zimmerman, the same year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, playing piano and clapping