Michael J. Kirwan
Michael Joseph Kirwan was a United States Democrat from Ohio who served as a Representative to the United States Congress for the 19th electoral district of Ohio from 1937 until his death in 1970 in Bethesda, which resulted from complications related to a fall. At the peak of his long congressional career, Kirwan was hailed as one of the most influential Democratic members of Congress on matters related to conservation. Mike Kirwan was born in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, a manufacturing town in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 1907, he relocated to Youngstown, Ohio, a center of steel production located just west of the Pennsylvania border. During the First World War Kirwan served overseas as a sergeant in the Three Hundred and Forty-eighth Machine Gun Company with the Sixty-fourth Artillery, United States Army. Records indicate he served between 1917 and 1919. Kirwan was married to Alice Kane, they had three children, John and Mary Alice. Upon his return to Youngstown, Kirwan established himself as an outspoken proponent of a plan to construct a Lake Erie to Ohio River canal – a proposal for which he would lobby tirelessly as Congressman from the 19th Congressional District of Ohio.
Despite his occupancy of important committee positions, Kirwan was unsuccessful in his efforts to achieve his most cherished goal as a lawmaker. Throughout the 1930s and early 1940s, Kirwan was successful in garnering substantial federal support for a variety of public works projects including dams, public swimming pools, public park facilities. In 1940, he helped to secure government funding for the nation's first major housing project, Westlakes Housing Village, situated west of downtown Youngstown; the housing project comprised 618 units capable of sheltering 2,500 people. Erected under government financing, the project received 90 percent of its funding on a 60-year loan basis. Upon its completion, Kirwan lauded the housing project as a welcome alternative to what had been a dilapidated residential district, further declared that it would serve as a model for the nation. In years, Westlakes Terrace, like other low-income housing projects, yielded mixed results; the provision of cheap housing proved to be inadequate compensation for the loss of thousands of urban jobs, the decline of public transportation, the advent of suburbanization, a host of other trends that adversely affected urban dwellers.
Westlakes Terrace was converted to other purposes. Powerful testimony to Kirwan's growing influence in the U. S. Congress came in 1948, when he was unanimously elected chairman of the National Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, the first time a Northern Democrat had been named to that important post. In 1954, Kirwan was credited among Democratic Congressional leaders as the architect of the party's success in the November congressional elections. Despite his advancing years, he announced on December 3, 1957 that he would seek a 12th term in Congress; the following year, Kirwan was among scores of Mahoning Valley Democratic candidates who secured sweeping victories. Among the highlights of Kirwan's career was an event held in his honor at Youngstown's Idora Park Ballroom; the keynote speaker at that event was U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy, who would run as the Democratic presidential candidate the following year. In 1968, after being elected to his 17th term as a congressman, Kirwan announced that he would retire from public office at the close of his term.
The following year, he was injured in a fall at the University Club at Washington, D. C. and was confined to Bethesda Naval Hospital. Kirwan experienced failing health for the next several months and died in Bethesda in 1970, his funeral was attended by more than 600 people, including a delegation of 50 members of Congress. He is buried in Youngstown, Ohio. While aspects of Kirwan's legacy have proved durable, the constituency he served was adversely affected by deindustrialization, which swept through much of northeastern Ohio starting in the late 1970s; the primary educational television station in American Samoa bears Kirwan's name. Kirwan was an outspoken critic of the expansion of the Gettysburg National Military Park by way of U. S. Interior Department spending, he was once quoted as saying, "We have enough land at Gettysburg. There is no use taking any more."Kirwan's papers are archived at Youngstown State University's Maag Library Archives and Special Collections. The Michael J. Kirwan Reservoir impounds the west branch of the Mahoning River in Portage County, Ohio.
List of United States Congress members who died in office Aley, Howard C.. A Heritage to Share: The Bicentennial History of Youngstown and the Mahoning Valley. Youngstown, OH: The Bicentennial Commission of Youngstown and Mahoning County. United States Congress. "Michael J. Kirwan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Kirwan Interview Notes Michael J. Kirwan Dam and Reservoir Election Results, U. S. Representative from Ohio, 19th District
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
John G. Cooper
John Gordon Cooper was an Anglo-American politician who served as a U. S. Representative from Ohio. According to his birth certificate, Cooper was born in Smallthorne, England. Cooper emigrated from England to the United States in 1881 with his mother and brothers, as his father had emigrated in 1880; the family settled in Youngstown, where he attended the public schools and began work in local steel mills in 1885. He entered the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1896, where he was employed as a locomotive fireman between 1896 and 1900, as an engineer from 1900 and 1915. Cooper served as member of the Republican county committee in 1906. In 1910, he was a delegate to the Republican State convention, he served as a member of the State house of representatives from 1910 to 1912. Cooper was elected as a Republican to the 10 succeeding Congresses between, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1936 to the Seventy-fifth Congress, but went on to serve as chairman of the Board of Claims, Ohio Industrial Commission from 1937 to 1945.
Cooper resided in Youngstown, Ohio. He died in Hagerstown, January 7, 1955, was interred in Lake Park Cemetery, in Youngstown, Ohio. United States Congress. "John G. Cooper". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov. Media related to John G. Cooper at Wikimedia Commons
William McKinley was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During his presidency, McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver. McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War and the only one to have started the war as an enlisted soldier, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity, his 1890 McKinley Tariff was controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests.
With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity. Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency, he promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition and in 1900 secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed he led the nation into the Spanish-American War of 1898; the United States victory was decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico and the Philippines while Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the United States Army; the United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a United States territory.
Historians regard McKinley's 1896 victory as a realigning election in which the political stalemate of the post-Civil War era gave way to the Republican-dominated Fourth Party System, which began with the Progressive Era. McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism and free silver, his legacy was cut short when he was shot on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a second-generation Polish-American with anarchist leanings. McKinley died eight days and was succeeded by his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt; as an innovator of American interventionism and pro-business sentiment, McKinley's presidency is considered above average, though his positive public perception was soon overshadowed by Roosevelt. William McKinley Jr. was born in 1843 in Niles, the seventh of nine children of William McKinley Sr. and Nancy McKinley. The McKinleys were of English and Scots-Irish descent and had settled in western Pennsylvania in the 18th century, tracing back to a David McKinley, born in Dervock, County Antrim, in present-day Northern Ireland.
There, the elder McKinley was born in Mercer County. The family moved to Ohio, he married her later. The Allison family was of English descent and among Pennsylvania's earliest settlers; the family trade on both sides was iron-making, McKinley senior operated foundries throughout Ohio, in New Lisbon, Niles and Canton. The McKinley household was, like many from Ohio's Western Reserve, steeped in Whiggish and abolitionist sentiment, the latter based on the family's staunch Methodist beliefs. William followed in the Methodist tradition, becoming active in the local Methodist church at the age of sixteen, he was a lifelong pious Methodist. In 1852, the family moved from Niles to Poland, Ohio so that their children could attend the better schools there. Graduating from Poland Seminary in 1859, he enrolled the following year at Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he was an honorary member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He remained at Allegheny for only one year, returning home in 1860 after becoming depressed.
He spent time at Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio as a board member. Although his health recovered, family finances declined and McKinley was unable to return to Allegheny, first working as a postal clerk and taking a job teaching at a school near Poland, Ohio; when the Southern states seceded from the Union and the American Civil War began, thousands of men in Ohio volunteered for service. Among them were McKinley and his cousin William McKinley Osbourne, who enlisted as privates in the newly formed Poland Guards in June 1861; the men left for Columbus where they were consolidated with other small units to form the 23rd Ohio Infantry. The men were unhappy to learn that, unlike Ohio's earlier volunteer regiments, they would not be permitted to elect their officers. Dennison appointed Colonel William Rosecrans as the commander of the regiment, the men began training on the outskirts of Columbus. McKinley took to the soldier's life and wrote a series of letters to his hometown newspaper extolling the army and the Union cause.
Delays in issuance of uniforms and weapons again brought the men into conflict with their officers, but Major Rut
Ohio's 20th congressional district
The 20th Congressional district of Ohio was created after the 1840 census. It was eliminated in the redistricting following the 1990 census, redistricted and renumbered as the 10th district. In its last decade, the district consisted of central Cuyahoga county; the following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 1983 District Maps of Ohio - United States Congress, Ohio Senate, Ohio House of Representatives, Ohio Court of Appeals, Sherrod Brown, Secretary of State
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Stephen A. Northway
Stephen Asa Northway was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Born in Christian Hollow, New York, Northway moved with his parents in 1840 to the township of Orwell, Ohio, he attended the district school, Kingsville Academy, Orwell Academy. He taught school, he studied law. He commenced practice in Jefferson, Ohio, he served as prosecuting attorney of Ashtabula County 1861-1865. He served as member of the State house of representatives in 1865 and 1866, he resumed the practice of law. Northway was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-third, Fifty-fourth, Fifty-fifth Congresses and served from March 4, 1893, until his death in Jefferson, Ohio, on September 8, 1898, he was interred in Oakdale Cemetery. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Stephen A. Northway". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov