New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
The Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts is the first in the line to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor following the incapacitation of the Governor of Massachusetts. The constitutional honorific title for the office is His, or Honor; the Massachusetts Constitution provides that when a governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the office of governor remains vacant for the rest of the 4-year term. The lieutenant governor discharges powers and duties as Acting Governor and does not assume the office of governor; the first time this came into use was five years after the constitution's adoption in 1785, when Governor John Hancock resigned his post five months before the election and inauguration of his successor, James Bowdoin, leaving Lieutenant Governor Thomas Cushing as acting governor. Most Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci; the lieutenant governor serves in place of the governor when he or she is outside the borders of Massachusetts.
A one-year term, the office of lieutenant governor now carries a four-year term, the same as that of the governor. The lieutenant governor is not on a ticket with the governor; the 1780 constitution required a candidate for either office to have lived in Massachusetts for at least seven years preceding election, own at least £1,000 worth of real property and to "declare himself to be of the Christian religion". However, only the residency requirement remains in effect, both men and women have served in the office. Amendment Article LXIV changed the election from every year to every two years, Amendment Article LXXXII changed it again to every four years; the office is held by Karyn Polito, inaugurated in January 2015. Part the Second, Chapter II, Section II, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads, There shall be annually elected a lieutenant governor of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, whose title shall be, His Honor and who shall be qualified, in point of religion and residence in the commonwealth, in the same manner with the governor: and the day and manner of his or her election, the qualifications of the electors, shall be the same as are required in the election of a governor.
The Lieutenant Governor serves ex officio as a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Massachusetts law provides for the lieutenant governor to serve as the chairman of the award selection committee for the Madeline Amy Sweeney Award for Civilian Bravery; the lieutenant governor is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, ensuring that they have the same political party affiliation. When the state constitution was first enacted in 1780, elections for the two offices were independent, were held annually. Constitutional amendments enacted in 1918 extended the terms of both offices to two years, with elections in even-numbered years. In 1964 the constitution was amended again to extend the terms to four years, in 1966 to allow for the grouping of governor and lieutenant governor on the ballot by political party. Elections are held in even-numbered years. Lieutenant governors who acted as governor during a portion of their terms are marked by asterisks. Parties Democratic Democratic-Republican Federalist Know Nothing Republican Whig As of January 2017, there are eight former lieutenant governors of Massachusetts who are living at this time, the oldest lieutenant governor of Massachusetts being Francis X. Bellotti.
The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Massachusetts was that of Paul Cellucci, on June 8, 2013. List of Governors of Massachusetts Government of Massachusetts Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2006 Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2002 Office of the Governor CNN.com 2006 election results OurCampaigns.com
William Phillips Jr.
William Phillips Jr. was a Boston merchant and philanthropist. Phillips was the son of William Phillips Sr. a merchant whom he joined in business and became wealthy. He was a descendant of Rev. George Phillips of Watertown, the progenitor of the New England Phillips family in America. Phillips was elected the tenth Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, serving from 1812 to 1823, he drafted the letter inviting New England Governors to send delegates to the Hartford Convention of 1815. On his death, he bequeathed large sums to Phillips Academy, to Andover Theological Seminary. Phillips married Miriam Mason on September 13, 1774 in Massachusetts, they had seven children. Phillips was the grandfather of Samuel H. Walley, a U. S. Representative from Massachusetts, he was the first president of the Massachusetts General Hospital and has a building there named after him. Phillips was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813. William Phillips Jr. at Find a Grave
William Tailer was a military officer and politician in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Born into the wealthy and influential Stoughton family, he twice married into other politically powerful families, he served as lieutenant governor of the province from 1711 until 1716, again in the early 1730s. During each of these times he was acting governor, he was a political opponent of Governor Joseph Dudley, was a supporter of a land bank proposal intended to address the province's currency problems. During his first tenure as acting governor he authorized the erection of Boston Light, the earliest lighthouse in what is now the United States, he was active in the provincial defense, commanded a regiment in the 1710 siege of Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, during Queen Anne's War. He was responsible for overseeing the defenses of Boston in the 1720s, was sent to negotiate with the Iroquois and Abenaki during Dummer's War. Jonathan Belcher a political opponent became an ally, selected him to serve as his lieutenant governor in 1730.
Tailer held the post until his death, was interred in the tomb of his uncle, William Stoughton. William Tailer was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts Bay Colony on February 25, 1675/6 to William Tailer and Rebecca Stoughton Tailer, his mother was the daughter of early Massachusetts settler Israel Stoughton and sister to magistrate William Stoughton. His father was merchant, his father owned commercial real estate in Boston and was a member of the Atherton Company, one of New England's most powerful and well-connected land development partnerships. He was one of "a selected fraternity" of merchants engaged in the "eastward trade" with neighboring French Acadia, one of whose leading members was Boston merchant John Nelson. Tailer's father committed suicide in 1682 suffering from depression which may have been brought on by financial reverses; the younger Tailer inherited a substantial estate. He was a beneficiary of the large estate of his uncle, who died a childless bachelor. By 1702 Tailer had married Sarah Byfield, daughter to Nathaniel Byfield, another leading colonial magistrate.
She died childless in about 1708. Byfield and Tailer's father had been a relationship that Tailer continued, he served in the provincial militia during Queen Anne's War. In 1710 he commanded a militia regiment that saw action at the capture of Acadia. Following the victory he went London with Francis Nicholson, the expedition's leader, where he was "bigg with expectation" of advancement, his expectations were rewarded with a commission as lieutenant governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, serving under Governor Joseph Dudley. He returned to Massachusetts, where he was again active in the defense of the colonies, serving at Fort William and Mary in New Hampshire, reporting on the frontier defenses in what is now southern Maine. In early 1711/2 he married widow of Joseph Dudley's grandson Thomas; the couple had six children. Tailer joined the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in 1712 and was elected as its captain the same year. Tailer was elected to the Governor's Council from 1712 to 1729, was on three separate occasions commissioned as lieutenant governor of Massachusetts.
Despite his connection by marriage to the Dudleys, he had an awkward political relationship with the governor during the period of his first two commissions. A number of Anglicans in the colony, Tailer among them, were skeptical of Dudley's faith, he and Dudley were on opposite sides of the debate on the province's currency problems. Dudley favored the issuance of public bills of credit as a means to circumvent the inflationary issuance of paper currency that had become a serious problem by the end of Queen Anne's War in 1713, while Tailer, along with his father-in-law Nathaniel Byfield and others, favored the establishment of a private land bank, that would issue bills secured by the lands of its investors. Byfield in 1714 went to London to lobby on behalf of the land bank interests, to seek for himself the post of governor, open for consideration after the accession of King George I to the throne, he was unsuccessful in acquiring the governorship, but was able to convince Colonel Elizeus Burges, chosen to replace Dudley, to keep Tailer on as lieutenant governor.
Burges, was bribed by land bank opponents to resign his post before leaving England. The commissions of Burges and Tailer had by been sent to Massachusetts, Tailer became acting governor in November 1715 after they were formally proclaimed. After taking office Tailer engaged in political housecleaning, eliminating land bank opponents and Dudley supporters from a number of provincial positions, his efforts, backfired: the provincial assembly elected Joseph Dudley's son Paul as attorney general, London agents of the anti-bank party worked to ensure Tailer's replacement. Through their efforts the king chose Colonel Samuel Shute, a land bank opponent, to replace Burges, William Dummer as Shute's lieutenant governor. Tailer was turned out of office with Shute's arrival in October 1716. Shute deliberately snubbed Tailer upon his arrival, choosing to first meet with the Dudleys instead
Elbridge Gerry was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814, he is known best for being the eponym of gerrymandering. Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British colonial policy in the 1760s, was active in the early stages of organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, he was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not include a Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural United States Congress, where he was involved in drafting and passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state liberties. Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.
He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France, treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts several times before winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the word "gerrymander". Chosen by Madison as his vice presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and a half into his term, he is the only signer of the Declaration of Independence, buried in Washington, D. C. Elbridge Gerry was born on July 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts, his father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating ships out of Marblehead, his mother, Elizabeth Gerry, was the daughter of a successful Boston merchant. Gerry's first name came from one of his mother's ancestors. Gerry's parents had eleven children in all. Of these, Elbridge was the third.
He was first educated by private tutors, entered Harvard College shortly before turning fourteen. After receiving a B. A. in 1762 and an M. A. in 1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest Massachusetts merchants, with trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, along the North American coast. Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the local militia. Gerry was from an early time a vocal opponent of Parliamentary efforts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War ended in 1763. In 1770 he sat on a Marblehead committee that sought to enforce importation bans on taxed British goods, he communicated with other Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, others. In May 1772 he won election to the General Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. There he worked with Samuel Adams to advance colonial opposition to Parliamentary colonial policies.
He was responsible for establishing Marblehead's committee of correspondence, one of the first to be set up after that of Boston. However, an incident of mob action prompted him to resign from the committee the next year. Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island. Gerry reentered politics after the Boston Port Act closed that city's port in 1774, Marblehead became a port to which relief supplies from other colonies could be delivered; as one of the town's leading merchants and Patriots, Gerry played a major role in ensuring the storage and delivery of supplies from Marblehead to Boston, interrupting those activities only to care for his dying father. He was elected as a representative to the First Continental Congress in September 1774, but refused, still grieving the loss of his father. Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted itself as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress after Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the body in October 1774.
He was assigned to its committee of safety, responsible for assuring that the province's limited supplies of weapons and gunpowder remained out of British Army hands. His actions were responsible for the storage of weapons and ammunition in Concord. During the Siege of Boston that followed, Gerry continued to take a leading role in supplying the nascent Continental Army, something he would continue to do as the war progressed, he leveraged business contacts in France and Spain to acquire not just munitions, but supplies of all types, was involved in the transfer of financial subsidies from Spain to Congress. He sent ships to ports all along the American coast, dabbled in financing privateering operations. Unlike some merchants, there is no evidence that Gerry profiteered from this activity (he spoke out against it, in favor
John Endecott, regarded as one of the Fathers of New England, was the longest-serving governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which became the State of Massachusetts. He served a total of 16 years, including most of the last 15 years of his life; when not serving as governor, he was involved in other elected and appointed positions from 1628 to 1665 except for the single year of 1634. Endecott was a zealous and somewhat hotheaded Puritan, with Separatist attitudes toward the Anglican Church; this sometimes put him at odds with Nonconformist views that were dominant among the colony's early leaders, which became apparent when he gave shelter to the vocally Separatist Roger Williams. Endecott argued that women should dress modestly and that men should keep their hair short, issued judicial decisions banishing individuals who held religious views that did not accord well with those of the Puritans, he notoriously defaced the English flag because he saw St George's Cross as a symbol of the papacy, had four Quakers put to death for returning to the colony after their banishment.
An expedition he led in 1636 is considered the opening offensive in the Pequot War, which destroyed the Pequot tribe as an entity. Endecott used some of his properties to propagate fruit trees, he engaged in one of the earliest attempts to develop a mining industry in the colonies when copper ore was found on his land. His name is found on a rock in Lake Winnipesaukee, carved by surveyors sent to identify the Massachusetts colony's northern border in 1652. Places and institutions are named for him, he has several notable descendants. Most of what is known about John Endecott's origins is at best circumstantial. Biographers of the 19th century believed he was from the Dorset town of Dorchester because of his significant association with people from that place. In the early 20th century, historian Roper Lethbridge proposed that Endecott was born circa 1588 in or near Chagford in Devon. In the 16th century the prominent Endecott family, together with the Whiddons and Lethbridges, owned most of the mines around the stannary town of Chagford, which might—if he is indeed from this family—explain his interest in developing copper mining.
However, more recent research by the New England Historic Genealogical Society has identified problems with Lethbridge's claims, which they dispute. According to their research, Endecott may have been born in or near Chagford, but there is no firm evidence for this, nor is there evidence that identifies his parents, they conclude, based on available evidence, that he was born no than 1600. A John Endecott was active in Devon early in the 17th century, but there is no firm evidence connecting him to this Endecott. Little is known of Endecott's life before his association with colonisation efforts in the 1620s, he was known to Sir Edward Coke, may have come to know Roger Williams through this connection. He was literate, spoke French; some early colonial documents refer to him as "Captain Endecott", indicating some military experience, other records suggest he had some medical training. In March 1627/8 Endecott was one of seven signatories to a land grant given to "The New England Company for a Plantation in Massachusetts" by the Earl of Warwick on behalf of the Plymouth Council for New England.
Endecott was chosen to lead the first expedition, sailed for the New World aboard the Abigail with fifty or so "planters and servants" on 20 June 1628. The settlement they organized was first called Naumkeag, after the local Indian tribe, but was renamed Salem in 1629; the area was occupied by settlers of the failed Dorchester Company, some of whose backers participated in the New England Company. This group of earlier settlers, led by Roger Conant, had migrated from a settlement on Cape Ann after it was abandoned. Endecott was not formally named governor of the new colony until it was issued a royal charter in 1629. At that time, he was appointed governor by the Company's council in London, Matthew Craddock was named the Company's governor in London. Endecott's responsibility was to establish the colony and to prepare it for the arrival of additional settlers; the winters of 1629 and 1630 were difficult compared to those in England, he called on the Plymouth Colony for medical assistance. His wife, ill on the voyage over, died that winter.
Other difficulties he encountered included early signs of religious friction among the colony's settlers, poor relations with Thomas Morton, whose failed Wessagusset Colony and libertine practices were anathema to the conservative Puritanism practiced by most settlers in the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies. Early in his term as governor he visited the abandoned site of Morton's colony and had the maypole taken down; when one group of early settlers wanted to establish a church independent of that established by the colonial leadership, he had their leaders summarily sent back to England. Endecott's first tenure as governor came to an end in 1630, with the arrival of John Winthrop and the colonial charter; the company had reorganised itself, relocating its seat to the colony itself, with Winthrop as its sole governor. After seeing the conditions at Salem, Winthrop decided to
Roger Ludlow was an English lawyer, military officer, colonist. He was active in the founding of the Colony of Connecticut, helped draft laws for it and the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony. Under his and John Mason's direction, Boston's first fortification known as Castle William and Fort Independence was built on Castle Island in Boston harbor. At odds with his peers, he also founded Fairfield and Norwalk before leaving New England entirely. After a brief sojourn in Virginia, Ludlow returned to Europe, where he was appointed by a commission distributing seized and forfeited property in the aftermath of Oliver Cromwell's conquest of Ireland, he was appointed a magistrate administering justice in Dublin, where he is believed to have died. He was born in March 1590 in Dinton, England. Roger was the second son of Sir Thomas Ludlow of Maiden Bradley and Jane Pyle, sister of Sir Gabriel Pyle, he matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford in 1609 or 1610, was admitted to the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple in 1612.
Ludlow sailed to America in May 1630 aboard the ship Mary & John with his wife Mary Cogan, a sister-in-law of Governor John Endicott of Massachusetts. They settled at Dorchester, where they remained for five years. During that period he was chosen magistrate in the Court of Assistants for the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he was elected as Deputy Governor in 1634. During this time Ludlow negotiated the first treaty between the English and the Pequot. In 1635 he was defeated by John Haynes for Governor. In 1635 Roger Ludlow joined with other Puritans and Congregationalists who were dissatisfied with the rate of Anglican reforms, sought to establish an ecclesiastical society subject to their own rules and regulations; the Massachusetts General Court granted them permission to settle the cities of Windsor and Hartford in the area now known as Connecticut. The Ludlows settled into Windsor. However, ownership of the lands for the new towns along the Connecticut River was called into dispute by the English holders of the Warwick Patent of 1631, granted by Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick.
The Massachusetts General Court established the March Commission to mediate the dispute between the Connecticut colony and the Saybrook Colony, named Roger Ludlow as its head. The Commission named eight magistrates from the Connecticut towns to implement a legal system; the March Commission expired in March 1636. In late 1636 and early 1637 the burgeoning Connecticut colony faced armed conflict in the Pequot War; the Connecticut towns decided to send a force of more than 70 soldiers under the command of Captain John Mason, along with Narragansett and Mohegan allies to attack a Pequot fortified village on May 26, 1637. While Ludlow did not participate in what became known as the Mystic massacre, his role in the General Court meant that he took part in the decision to send the force. After the destruction at Mystic, Ludlow did leave the Windsor area to pursue Sassacus and other Pequot survivors, first to Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut river westward toward the Mattabesset village known as "Sasqua" or "Unquowa".
On July 13, 1637 the battle in swamps around Unquowa signaled the final military defeat of the remaining Pequots. On May 29, 1638 Ludlow wrote to Massachusetts Governor John Winthrop that the colonists wanted to "unite ourselves to walk and lie peaceably and lovingly together." Ludlow was a framer of a document called the Fundamental Orders, adopted on January 14, 1639. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is the world's first written constitution for a self-governing people. Roger Ludlow was a magistrate in 1637 and 1638, was named as the first Deputy Governor of Connecticut, he was chosen as a magistrate in 1640, every year from that date until he left the colony in 1654, except in 1642 and 1648, when he was again chosen Deputy Governor. In 1643 Ludlow was one of the representatives from Connecticut in the negotiations which led to the confederation of the colonies. In early 1639 Ludlow's political rival from Massachusetts John Haynes, who came to Connecticut not long after Ludlow, was elected governor.
Ludlow chose to take leave from Hartford and Windsor and obtained a charter from the General Court to begin a settlement at "Pequannocke". He left with a group of like-minded settlers from Windsor and Concord to purchase property along the coast of Long Island Sound west of the New Haven Colony. While on this task Ludlow recalled the attraction of the salt marshes west of the Pequonnock River near "Unquowa" and purchased land there from the native Sachem and founded the town of Fairfield. Ludlow settled his family in the new town, but returned to Hartford in the fall of 1639. In a session of the General Court held October 10, 1639 Ludlow was censured and fined by the Court for having exceeded the terms of the charter granted to settle areas that were to have been east of Fairfield. Governor Haynes and Thomas Welles visited Fairfield to investigate the settlement and found that it was acceptable; the purchase of property and settlement in the coastal area may have been part of an effort to obtain a Connecticut title to the area instead of allowing the land to be sold to the Dutch from New Netherland or the New Haven Colonists.
Early in 1640, Ludlow purchased land from the Siwanoy Sachem Mahackemo located still further west in an area that would become Norwalk, Connecticut. Ludlow contracted with fourteen men for the original planting of Norwalk. In 1649, Nathaniel Ely and Richard Olmsted became the first two settlers. Having been tried for slandering Mrs. Thoma