University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the third-highest office of the Church of England, is the mother church for the Diocese of York and the Province of York, it is run under the Dean of York. The title "minster" is attributed to churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, serves now as an honorific title. Services in the minster are sometimes regarded as on the High Church or Anglo-Catholic end of the Anglican continuum; the minster, devoted to Saint Peter, has a wide Decorated Gothic nave and chapter house, a Perpendicular Gothic quire and east end and Early English North and South transepts. The nave contains the West Window, constructed in 1338, over the Lady Chapel in the east end is the Great East Window, the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the world. In the north transept is the Five Sisters Window, each lancet being over 53 feet high.
The south transept contains a rose window, while the West Window contains a heart-shaped design colloquially known as The Heart of Yorkshire. York has had a verifiable Christian presence from the 4th century; the first recorded church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptise Edwin, King of Northumbria. Moves toward a more substantial building began in the decade of the 630s. A stone structure was dedicated to Saint Peter; the church soon fell into disrepair and was dilapidated by 670 when Saint Wilfrid ascended to the See of York. He renewed the structure; the attached school and library were established and by the 8th century were some of the most substantial in Northern Europe. In 741, the church was destroyed in a fire, it was rebuilt as a more impressive structure containing thirty altars. The church and the entire area passed through the hands of numerous invaders, its history is obscure until the 10th century. There was a series of Benedictine archbishops, including Saint Oswald of Worcester and Ealdred, who travelled to Westminster to crown William in 1066.
Ealdred was buried in the church. The church was damaged in 1069 during William the Conqueror's harrying of the North, but the first Norman archbishop, Thomas of Bayeux, arriving in 1070, organised repairs; the Danes destroyed the church in 1075, but it was again rebuilt from 1080. Built in the Norman style, it was 111 m long and rendered in red lines; the new structure was soon repaired. The choir and crypt were remodelled in 1154, a new chapel was built, all in the Norman style; the Gothic style in cathedrals had arrived in the mid 12th century. Walter de Gray was made archbishop in 1215 and ordered the construction of a Gothic structure to compare to Canterbury; the north and south transepts were the first new structures. A substantial central tower was completed, with a wooden spire. Building continued into the 15th century; the Chapter House was begun in the 1260s and was completed before 1296. The wide nave was constructed from the 1280s on the Norman foundations; the outer roof was completed in the 1330s, but the vaulting was not finished until 1360.
Construction moved on to the eastern arm and chapels, with the last Norman structure, the choir, being demolished in the 1390s. Work here finished around 1405. In 1407 the central tower collapsed; the western towers were added between 1433 and 1472. The cathedral was declared complete and consecrated in 1472; the English Reformation led to the looting of much of the cathedral's treasures and the loss of much of the church lands. Under Elizabeth I there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Roman Catholicism from the cathedral. In the English Civil War the city was besieged and fell to the forces of Cromwell in 1644, but Thomas Fairfax prevented any further damage to the cathedral. Following the easing of religious tensions there was some work to restore the cathedral. From 1730 to 1736 the whole floor of the minster was relaid in patterned marble and from 1802 there was a major restoration. However, on 2 February 1829, an arson attack by Jonathan Martin inflicted heavy damage on the east arm.
An accidental fire in 1840 left the nave, south west tower and south aisle roofless and blackened shells. The cathedral slumped into debt and in the 1850s services were suspended. From 1858 Augustus Duncombe worked to revive the cathedral. During the 20th century there was more concerted preservation work following a 1967 survey that revealed the building, in particular the central tower, was close to collapse. £2,000,000 was raised and spent by 1972 to reinforce and strengthen the building foundations and roof. During the excavations that were carried out, remains of the north corner of the Roman Principia were found under the south transept; this area, as well as remains of the Norman cathedral, re-opened to the public in spring 2013 as part of the new exhibition exploring the history of the building of York Minster. On 9 July 1984, a fire considered "likely" to have been caused by a lightning strike destroyed the roof in the south transept, around £2.5 million was spent on repairs. The fire was photographed from just s
St. Radegund's Abbey
St. Radegund's Abbey at Bradsole was a medieval monastic house in the parish of Hougham Without near Dover in southeast England, it was dedicated to Radegund, the sixth-century Merovingian princess, once married to the unsavory King Chlothar I, turned to a life of asceticism and charitable works. The remains of the abbey buildings have since have been incorporated into a farm; the abbey was founded in 1191 on the land of Bradsole Manor, donated by King Richard I. The community was established by Premonstratensian Canons sent over from the mother abbey of Prémontré in Aisne and building commenced in 1191, lasting some fifty years. Although the abbey benefitted from its control of several local churches, the site itself proved inhospitable. By the end of the 13th century the monks were occupied in secular activities such as supervising the building of Dover Castle and by the end of the following century the monastic buildings had fallen into a state of neglect, with only 8 canons still in residence.
In 1538 the abbey was dissolved as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and much of the stone carried away to help build Sandgate Castle. The site was sold to Simon Edolph in 1590. Still standing, it is a Grade II* listed building; the remaining ruins, part of which act as a gateway to the farmhouse, have been Grade II* listed
Thomas de Cantilupe
Thomas de Cantilupe was Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Hereford and was canonised in 1320 by Pope John XXII. Cantilupe was born at Hambleden in Buckinghamshire, a son of William de Cantilupe, an Anglo-Norman magnate and a minister of King John, nephew of Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester. Cantilupe was educated at Oxford and Orléans, was a teacher of canon law at the University of Oxford, where he became Chancellor in 1261. During the Second Barons' War, Cantilupe favoured the baronial party, he represented the barons before King Louis IX of France at Amiens in 1264. On 25 February 1264, when he was Archdeacon of Stafford, Cantilupe was made Lord Chancellor of England, but was deprived of the office after de Montfort's death at the Battle of Evesham, lived abroad for a while. Following his return to England, he was again appointed Chancellor of Oxford University, where he lectured on theology and held several ecclesiastical appointments. In 1274 Cantilupe attended the Second Council of Lyons and on 14 June 1275 he was appointed Bishop of Hereford, being consecrated on 8 September 1275.
Cantilupe was now a trusted adviser of King Edward I and when attending royal councils at Windsor Castle or at Westminster he lived at Earley in Berkshire. When differing from the king's opinions, he did not forfeit his favour. Cantilupe had a "great conflict" in 1290 with the "Red Earl", Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, concerning hunting rights in Malvern, a ditch dug by de Clare; the issue was settled by costly litigation. After the death in 1279 of Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury, a friend of Cantilupe's, his confessor, a series of disputes arose between him and John Peckham, the new archbishop; the disagreements culminated in Peckham excommunicating Cantilupe, who proceeded to Rome to pursue the matter with the pope. Cantilupe died at Ferento, near Orvieto, in Italy, on 25 August 1282 He is buried in Hereford Cathedral. Part of the evidence used in his cause of canonisation was the supposed raising from the dead of William Cragh, a Welsh rebel, hanged in 1290, eight years after Cantilupe's death.
A papal inquiry was convened in London on 20 April 1307 to determine whether or not Cantilupe had died excommunicate, since this would have precluded his being canonised. Forty-four witnesses were called and various letters produced, before the commissioners of the inquiry concluded that Cantilupe had been absolved in Rome before his death, it was difficult for his cause of death to be determined. After a papal investigation lasting 13 years, Cantilupe was canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320, his feast day was fixed on 2 October. His shrine became a popular place of pilgrimage, but only its base survived the Reformation until a new upper section was recreated under the guidance of architect Robert Chitham; the new section is in vivid colours with a painted scene of the Virgin & Child holding the Mappa Mundi. A reliquary containing his skull has been held at Downside Abbey in Somerset since 1881. In the current Latin edition of the Roman Martyrology, Cantilupe is listed under 25 August as follows: "At Montefiascone in Tuscia, the passing of Saint Thomas Cantelupe, Bishop of Hereford in England, resplendent with learning, severe toward himself, to the poor however showed himself a generous benefactor".
Cantilupe appears to have been an exemplary bishop in both spiritual and secular affairs. His charities were large and his private life blameless, he was visiting his diocese, correcting offenders and discharging other episcopal duties, he compelled neighbouring landholders to restore estates which rightly belonged to the see of Hereford. Cantilupe has been lauded as the "Father of Modern Charity," and is cited as an inspiration by Mother Teresa and Melinda Gates; the Cantilupe Society was founded in 1905 to publish the episcopal registers of the See of Hereford, of which Cantilupe's is the first in existence. Royal Berkshire History: St. Thomas Cantilupe of Hereford Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online Saints and Angels Pilgrimage page at Hereford Cathedral Stirnet: CZmisc02
Robert Burnell was an English bishop who served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1274 to 1292. A native of Shropshire, he served as a minor royal official before entering into the service of Prince Edward, the future King Edward I of England; when Edward went on the Eighth Crusade in 1270, Burnell stayed in England to secure the prince's interests. He served as regent after the death of King Henry III of England, he was twice elected Archbishop of Canterbury, but his personal life—which included a long-term mistress, rumoured to have borne him four sons—prevented his confirmation by the papacy. In 1275 Burnell was elected Bishop of Bath and Wells, after Edward had appointed him Lord Chancellor in 1274. Burnell was behind the efforts of the royal officials to enforce royal rights during his term of office as chancellor, including the implementation of the Quo warranto procedures, he helped with the legislative and legal reforms of Edward's reign. During Burnell's tenure the chancellor's office and records became fixed in London rather than travelling with the king.
Burnell went abroad on diplomatic missions for Edward, for a time governed Gascony. He continued to enjoy the king's trust until his death in 1292. By 1198 Burnell's family had bestowed its name on Acton Burnell in Shropshire, where Burnell was born in about 1239, as he was close in age to King Edward, his father was Roger Burnell, who died in about 1259. He had three brothers, two of whom died fighting the Welsh at the Battle of Moel-y-don in 1282. Hugh's son Philip was Robert's eventual heir. Burnell worked as a clerk in the royal chancery, the office responsible for the writing of documents, before moving to the household of Prince Edward King Edward I of England. By 1257 Burnell was spending most of his time with the prince's household. After Simon de Montfort's victory at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, Burnell continued to serve Edward, was named the prince's clerk in December 1264; as a reward for his service, Burnell was given the prebend of Holme in the diocese of York some time before 1267, was named Archdeacon of York in December 1270.
He held the office of chancellor to Edward from the time of the Battle of Evesham in 1265 until 1270, when Edward left on crusade. Prince Edward tried to have Burnell elected to the Archbishopric of Canterbury in 1270, but was frustrated by the Canterbury cathedral chapter's members, who instead elected their prior, William Chillenden. Pope Gregory X set Chillenden aside and installed his own choice in the see, Robert Kilwardby. Burnell did not accompany the prince on crusade in late 1270, although he had planned to do so. Instead, he was appointed one of the four lieutenants who looked after Edward's interests while the prince was away, thus he was still in England when Henry III died in November 1272. Burnell acted as one of the regents of the kingdom until August 1274, when the prince, now king, returned from Palestine. During the regency Burnell supervised a parliament, dealt with raids on the Welsh Marches and resolved a trade conflict with Flanders. After the king's return to England Burnell was made chancellor.
The historian Richard Huscroft considers that Burnell gained valuable experience governing England during Edward's absence, ensuring Burnell's dominance in the English government after Edward's return. On 23 January 1275 Burnell was elected to the see of Wells, he received the temporalities of the see on 19 March 1275 and was consecrated on 7 April 1275. Three years Edward once more tried to secure the see of Canterbury for his favourite. Burnell was elected to the archbishopric in June or July 1278, but the election was quashed by Pope Nicholas III in January 1279. King Edward sent a deputation, including the eventual appointee, John Peckham, to secure Nicholas' confirmation of the election; the pope named three cardinals as investigators, appointed Peckham instead. The bishop's second failure to obtain the archbishopric was a consequence of his lifestyle, which included keeping a mistress. Edward made one final attempt to promote his friend to a wealthier see in early 1280, when Burnell was nominated to become Bishop of Winchester, but Pope Nicholas III quashed the election on 28 June 1280.
Burnell was the chief and most influential of Edward I's advisers during the first half of his reign. As part of his duties Burnell spent most of his time in attendance on the king, he heard many requests and petitions from those who desired patronage or other advancements, was diligent and active in dealing with routine business. Burnell played a leading role in the legislation introduced by King Edward; the king's major legislative acts date to Burnell's tenure of the office of chancellor, from 21 September 1274 until Burnell's death in 1292. Burnell was instrumental in the enforcement of royal writs and enactments, including the Statutes of Westminster, enacted in 1275, 1285, 1290; those of 1275 attempted to deal with the usurpation of royal rights. Keeping the peace in the realm and the extension of royal jurisdiction to cover rape was dealt with in the statutes from 1285, along with a number of other issues; the last statute, from 1290, regulated land law, the result of pressure from the magnates, the leading laymen of England.
During Burnell's time in office Edward and his royal officials made great efforts to reassert royal rights that were felt to have been usurped by the king's subjects. These efforts were made under writs of Quo warranto, which asked the recipient what royal grant or warrant gives the recipien
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.
The current Lord Chancellor is David Gauke, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605. Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them.
A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; the curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords.
As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself. The Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century. In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office.
Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitled to "like place, pre-eminence, juri
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, situated in the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England. It lies on the River Stour; the Archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of the Church of England and the worldwide Anglican Communion owing to the importance of St Augustine, who served as the apostle to the pagan Kingdom of Kent around the turn of the 7th century. The city's cathedral became a major focus of pilgrimage following the 1170 martyrdom of Thomas Becket, although it had been a well-trodden pilgrim destination since the murder of St Alphege by the men of King Canute in 1012. A journey of pilgrims to Becket's shrine served as the frame for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th century classic The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury is a popular tourist destination: one of the most-visited cities in the United Kingdom, the city's economy is reliant upon tourism; the city has been occupied since Paleolithic times and served as the capital of the Celtic Cantiaci and Jute Kingdom of Kent.
Many historical structures fill the area, including a city wall founded in Roman times and rebuilt in the 14th century, the ruins of St Augustine's Abbey and a Norman castle, the oldest extant school in the world, the King's School. Modern additions include the Marlowe Theatre and the St Lawrence Ground, home of the Kent County Cricket Club. There is a substantial student population, brought about by the presence of the University of Kent, Canterbury Christ Church University, the University for the Creative Arts, the Girne American University Canterbury campus. Canterbury remains, however, a small city in terms of geographical size and population, when compared with other British cities; the Roman settlement of Durovernum Cantiacorum occupied the location of an earlier British town whose ancient British name has been reconstructed as *Durou̯ernon, although the name is sometimes supposed to have derived from various British names for the Stour. In Sub-Roman Britain, it was known in Old Welsh as Cair Ceint.
Occupied by the Jutes, it became known in Old English as Cantwareburh, which developed into the present name. The Canterbury area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Lower Paleolithic axes, Neolithic and Bronze Age pots have been found in the area. Canterbury was first recorded as the main settlement of the Celtic tribe of the Cantiaci, which inhabited most of modern-day Kent. In the 1st century AD, the Romans named it Durovernum Cantiacorum; the Romans rebuilt the city, with new streets in a grid pattern, a theatre, a temple, a forum, public baths. Although they did not maintain a major military garrison, its position on Watling Street relative to the major Kentish ports of Rutupiae and Lemanae gave it considerable strategic importance. In the late 3rd century, to defend against attack from barbarians, the Romans built an earth bank around the city and a wall with seven gates, which enclosed an area of 130 acres. Despite being counted as one of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain, it seems that after the Romans left Britain in 410 Durovernum Cantiacorum was abandoned for around 100 years, except by a few farmers and decayed.
Over the next 100 years, an Anglo-Saxon community formed within the city walls, as Jutish refugees arrived intermarrying with the locals. In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine to convert its King Æthelberht to Christianity. After the conversion, being a Roman town, was chosen by Augustine as the centre for his episcopal see in Kent, an abbey and cathedral were built. Augustine thus became the first Archbishop of Canterbury; the town's new importance led to its revival, trades developed in pottery and leather. By 630, gold coins were being struck at the Canterbury mint. In 672, the Synod of Hertford gave. In 842 and 851, Canterbury suffered great loss of life during Danish raids. In 978, Archbishop Dunstan refounded the abbey built by Augustine, named it St Augustine's Abbey; the Siege of Canterbury saw a large Viking army besiege Canterbury in 1011, culminating in the city being pillaged and the eventual murder of Archbishop Alphege in 19 April 1012. Remembering the destruction caused by the Danes, the inhabitants of Canterbury did not resist William the Conqueror's invasion in 1066.
William ordered a wooden motte-and-bailey castle to be built by the Roman city wall. In the early 12th century, the castle was rebuilt with stone. After the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket at the cathedral in 1170, Canterbury became one of the most notable towns in Europe, as pilgrims from all parts of Christendom came to visit his shrine; this pilgrimage provided the framework for Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th-century collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales. Canterbury Castle was captured by the French Prince Louis during his 1215 invasion of England, before the death of John caused his English supporters to desert his cause and support the young Henry III. Canterbury is associated with several saints from this period who lived in Canterbury: Saint Augustine of Canterbury Saint Anselm of Canterbury Saint Thomas Becket Saint Mellitus Saint Theodore of Tarsus Saint Dunstan Saint Adrian of Canterbury Saint Alphege Saint Æthelberht of Kent The Black Death hit Canterbury in 1348. At 10,000, Canterbury had the 10th largest population in England.
In 1363, during the Hundred Years' War, a Commission of Inquiry found that disrepai