Appleton is a city in Outagamie and Winnebago counties in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. One of the Fox Cities, it is situated on the Fox River, 30 miles southwest of Green Bay and 100 miles north of Milwaukee. Appleton is the county seat of Outagamie County; the population was 72,623 at the 2010 census. Of this, 60,045 were in Outagamie County, 11,088 in Calumet County, 1,490 in Winnebago County. Appleton is the principal city of the Appleton, Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, Wisconsin Combined Statistical Area; the city possesses the two tallest buildings in Outagamie County, the Zuelke Building and 222 Building, at 168 and 183 feet, respectively. Appleton serves as the heart of the Fox River Valley, is home to the Fox Cities Exhibition Center, Fox Cities Performing Arts Center, Fox River Mall, Neuroscience Group Field at Fox Cities Stadium, Appleton International Airport, the Valley's two major hospitals: St. Elizabeth Hospital and ThedaCare Regional Medical Center–Appleton.
It hosts a large number of regional events such as its Flag Day parade, Christmas parade and others. The territory where Appleton is today was traditionally occupied by the Menominee; the Menominee Nation ceded the territory to the United States in the Treaty of the Cedars in 1836, with Chief Oshkosh representing the Menominee. The treaty came at the end of several years of negotiations between the Menominee, the Ho-Chunk and the federal government about how to accommodate the Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, Brothertown peoples who were removed from New York to Wisconsin; the Ho-Chunk never ratified the final treaty as only the Menominee ceded land. In the Menominee language, Appleton is known as Ahkōnemeh, or "watches for them place". Fur traders seeking to do business with Fox River Valley Native Americans were the first European settlers in Appleton. Hippolyte Grignon built the White Heron in 1835 to house his family and serve as an inn and trading post. Appleton was settled in 1847 and incorporated as a village in 1853.
John F. Johnston was the first village president. Lawrence University founded in 1847, was backed financially by Amos A. Lawrence and known as the Lawrence Institute. Samuel Appleton, Lawrence's father-in-law from New England who never visited Wisconsin, donated $10,000 to the newly founded college library, the town took his name in appreciation; the community was incorporated as a city on March 1857, with Amos Storey as its first mayor. Early in the 20th century, it adopted the commission form of government. In 1890, 11,869 people lived in Appleton; the paper industry, beginning with the building of the first paper mill in the city in 1853, has been at the forefront of the development of Appleton. In order to provide electricity to the paper industry, the nation's first hydro-electric central station, the Vulcan Street Plant on the Fox River, began operation on September 30, 1882; the power plant powered the Hearthstone House, the first residence in the world powered by a centrally located hydroelectric station using the Edison system.
Shortly thereafter, in August 1886, Appleton was the site for another national first, the operation of a commercially successful electric streetcar company. Electric lights replaced gas lamps on College Avenue in 1912. Appleton had the first telephone in Wisconsin, the first incandescent light in any city outside of the East Coast. Appleton's tallest building, the 222 Building was built in 1952; the Valley Fair Shopping Center, built in 1954, laid claim to being the first enclosed shopping mall in the United States, although this claim is disputed by other malls. In 2007 most of the structure was demolished, leaving only a movie theater. A Pick'n Save Food Center now stands in its place. From 1930–1970, Appleton was a sundown town: black people were not allowed to stay overnight. There was no official city ordinance, only an unwritten law enforced informally, such as by police encouraging black people to leave town after dark. In 1936, the Institute of Paper Chemistry tried to hire the famous chemist Percy Julian but couldn't figure out how to get around the sundown law.
A partial exception was made for opera singer Marian Anderson when she sang at Lawrence University in 1941: she was allowed to stay overnight in the Conway Hotel but was not allowed to eat dinner in public. In May 2016, a report by 24/7 Wall St. found that Appleton had the highest rate of self-reported binge and heavy drinking in the country. In a Vanity Fair interview and Appleton native Willem Dafoe referred to Appleton as a "favela". Appleton is located at 44°16′N 88°24′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.82 square miles, of which, 24.33 square miles is land and 0.49 square miles is water. Appleton has a humid continental climate typical of Wisconsin. Summers are warm to hot and winters are rather cold in comparison. Precipitation is moderate compared to other areas close to the Great Lakes, which means lesser snowfall in winter than in many other cold areas. A dew point of 90 °F was observed at Appleton at 5 p.m. on July 13, 1995. This is tied for the second highest dew point observed in the United States.
Appleton is the principal city of the Appleton–Oshkosh–Neenah CSA, a Combined Statistical Area which includes the Appleton and Oshkosh–Neenah metropolitan areas, which had a combined population of 367,365 at the 2010 census. As of the census of
Walter F. Dodd
Walter Fairleigh Dodd was a professor in the political science department at Johns Hopkins University who wrote "one of the most important books on the process of amending state constitutions." He graduated from Florida State College in 1898, received a Bachelors in Science from John B. Stetson University in 1901. At the University of Chicago, he was a Fellow, 1902–04, received a Ph. D. in 1905. In 1904-07, he was in charge of the section of foreign law in the Library of Congress, he held a research appointment at Johns Hopkins in 1908-10, in 1910-11 was associate in political science, in 1911-14 assistant professor, in 1914-15 associate professor of political science in the University of Illinois. After 1915, he was associate professor of political science in the University of Chicago, he served as the second Secretary of the State of Illinois' Legislative Reference Bureau in 1917-1918. He was president of the American Political Science Association from 1945-1946. In retirement, in 1946, Walter Dodd was retained to represent Vashti Cromwell McCollum in her landmark case challenging released time sectarian religious classes in the public schools of Champaign Illinois.
The result was eight to one, in her favor. The Revision and Amendment of State Constitutions Administration of workmen's compensation. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. 845pp
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established, it can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level, it represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include India, the United States, Mexico, Germany, Switzerland and Australia.
Some today characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the federal union of states. The terms'federalism' and'confederalism' both have a root in the Latin word foedus, meaning "treaty, pact or covenant." Their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. They were therefore synonyms, it was in this sense that James Madison in Federalist 39 had referred to the new US Constitution as'neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both'. In the course of the nineteenth century the meaning of federalism would come to shift, strengthening to refer uniquely to the novel compound political form established, while the meaning of confederalism would remain at a league of states. Thus, this article relates to the modern usage of the word'federalism'. Modern federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments.
The term federalist describes several political beliefs around the world depending on context. Federalism is sometimes viewed as in the context of international negotiation as "the best system for integrating diverse nations, ethnic groups, or combatant parties, all of whom may have cause to fear control by an overly powerful center." However, in some countries, those skeptical of federal prescriptions believe that increased regional autonomy is to lead to secession or dissolution of the nation. In Syria, federalization proposals have failed in part because "Syrians fear that these borders could turn out to be the same as the ones that the fighting parties have carved out."Federations such as Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia collapsed as soon as it was possible to put the model to the test. According to Daniel Ziblatt's Structuring the State, there are four competing theoretical explanations in the academic literature for the adoption of federal systems: Ideational theories, which hold that a greater degree of ideological commitment to decentralist ideas in society makes federalism more to be adopted.
Cultural-historical theories, which hold that federal institutions are more to be adopted in societies with culturally or ethnically fragmented populations. "Social contract" theories, which hold that federalism emerges as a bargain between a center and a periphery where the center is not powerful enough to dominate the periphery and the periphery is not powerful enough to secede from the center. "Infrastructural power" theories, which hold that federalism is to emerge when the subunits of a potential federation have developed infrastructures. Immanuel Kant was an advocate of federalism, noting that "the problem of setting up a state can be solved by a nation of devils" so long as they possess an appropriate constitution which pits opposing factions against each other with a system of checks and balances. In particular individual states required a federation as a safeguard against the possibility of war. On the 1st of January 1901 the nation-state of Australia came into existence as a federation.
The Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom in 1788, which subsequently established six self-governing, colonies there. In the 1890s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire; when all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia commenced, resulting in the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The model of Australian federalism adheres to the original model of the United States of America, although it does so through a parliamentary Westminster system rather than a presidential system. In Brazil, the fall of the monarchy in 1889 by a military coup d'état led to the rise of the presidential system, headed by Deodoro da Fonseca. Aided by well-known jurist Ruy Barbosa, Fonseca established federalism in Brazil by decree, but this system of government would be confirmed by every Brazilian constitution since 1891, although some of them would distort some of the federalist principles.
The 1937 federal government had the authority to appoint State Governors at will, thus centralizing power in the hands of P
John Bassett Moore
John Bassett Moore was an American lawyer and authority on international law. Moore was a State Department official, a professor at Columbia University, a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice from 1921 to 1938, the first American judge to sit on that judicial body. Moore graduated from the University of Virginia and was admitted to the Delaware bar in 1883, he practiced law in Wilmington, before working as a law clerk at the Department of State from 1885 to 1886. He was an Third Assistant Secretary of State from 1886 to 1891, when he became Hamilton Fish Professorship of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia Law School, the first chair of international law in the United States. Moore remained a Columbia professor until 1924, taking frequent leaves of absence to take up U. S. diplomatic posts. Moore was Assistant Secretary of State in 1898. During his service with the Department of State he acted as secretary to the Conference on Samoan Affairs and to the Fisheries Conference.
After the close of the war with Spain was secretary and council to the American Peace Commission at Paris. In 1901, he served as professor of International Law at the Naval War College, where he initiated that college's long series of "International Law Blue Book" publications. Subsequently, Moore represented the government as agent before the United States and Dominican Arbitration Tribunal, as delegate to the Fourth International American Conference at Buenos Aires and special plenipotentiary to the Chilean centenary, as delegate to the International Commission of Jurists at Rio de Janeiro, he was on the Hague Tribunal from 1912 to 1938, was a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice from 1920 to 1928. Moore was a proponent of neutrality, believing that the post-World War I system of alliances would tend to broaden wars into global conflicts, he was a strong believer in the principle of separation of powers under the United States Constitution, asserting in 1921, "There can hardly be room for doubt that the framers of the constitution, when they vested in Congress the power to declare war, never imagined that they were leaving it to the executive to use the military and naval forces of the United States all over the world for the purpose of coercing other nations, occupying their territory, killing their soldiers and citizens, all according to his own notions of the fitness of things, as long as he refrained from calling his action war or persisted in calling it peace."
Moore was honored on a U. S. definitive postage stamp issued December 3, 1966, the five-dollar value of the Prominent Americans series. In 1922, a new school was dedicated to Moore in his hometown of Delaware; the John Bassett Moore Intermediate School now serves as a public school for the fifth and sixth grades. Moore is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in New York City. Reports on Extraterritorial Crime Extradition and Interstate Rendition American Notes on the Conflict of Laws History and Digest of International Arbitrations American Diplomacy Digest of International Law Works of James Buchanan Four Phases of American Development International Law and Some Current Illusions The Permanent Court of International Justice International Adjudications and Modern Collected Papers Works related to John Bassett Moore at Wikisource This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Moore, John Basset". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Works by or about John Bassett Moore at Internet Archive
Lawrence University is a liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Appleton, United States. Founded in 1847, the school held its first classes on November 12, 1849. Lawrence was the second college in the United States to be founded as a coeducational institution. In a study by the National Science Foundation, Lawrence ranked 28th nationally in the percentage of graduates who go on to earn doctorates in science and engineering. Lawrence is ranked in the top tier of national liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report. Lawrence's first president, William Harkness Sampson, founded the school with Henry R. Colman, using $10,000 provided by philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence, matched by the Methodist church. Both founders were ordained Methodist ministers; the school was named Lawrence Institute of Wisconsin in its 1847 charter from the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature, but the name was changed to Lawrence University before classes began in November 1849. Its oldest extant building, Main Hall, was built in 1853.
Lawrence University was the second coeducational institution in the country. Lawrence's first period of major growth came during the tenure of alumnus Samuel G. Plantz as president. From 1894 to 1924, when Plantz presided over the school, its student body grew from 200 to 800. From 1913 until 1964, the school was named Lawrence College, to emphasize its small size and liberal arts education focus; the name was changed to Lawrence University. The state of Wisconsin purchased the Milwaukee-Downer property and buildings to expand the campus of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; the university designated two entities: Lawrence College for Men and Downer College for Women. This separation has not lasted in any material form, though degrees are still conferred "on the recommendation of the Faculty of Lawrence and Downer Colleges" and the university by-laws still make the distinction. During World War II, Lawrence College was one of 131 colleges and universities in the nation that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
The Lawrence Conservatory of Music referred to as "the Con", was founded in 1874. Lawrence offers two degrees: a Bachelor of Music, it offers a five-year dual degree program, where students can receive both B. A. and B. Mus. Degrees. Freshman Studies at Lawrence is a mandatory two-term class, in which all students study the same selected 11 classic works of literature and music. President Nathan M. Pusey is credited with initiating the program in 1945, although Professor Waples chaired the Freshman Studies Committee and was responsible for implementing the program; the program continues to this day, despite being temporarily suspended in 1975. In 2005 Lawrence University initiated a capital campaign called "More Light!", which aimed at raising $150 million. By October 2011 the college had raised $160,272,839, with the conclusion event held on October 28, 2011. Lawrence University is part of a consortium of liberal arts college libraries; the traditions and heritage of Milwaukee-Downer are woven into the Appleton campus, from the grove of hawthorn trees between Brokaw and Colman halls, to the sundial on the back of Main Hall, to the bestowing upon each class a class color and banner.
The Lawrence Dean of Women was referred to as the "Dean of Downer", but when the offices of Dean of Men and Dean of Women were merged to form the Dean of Students, the substantive duties of the "Dean of Downer" came to an end. For many years the women's choir was called the Downer Chorus. At one time the BA was conferred upon women in the name of "Downer College of Lawrence University" and upon men in the name of "Lawrence College of Lawrence University". A. degrees are conferred in the name of "Lawrence & Downer Colleges of Lawrence University." 1849–1853 William Harkness Sampson, principal 1853–1859 Edward Cooke, president 1859–1865 Russell Zelotes Mason, president 1865–1879 George McKendree Steele, president 1879–1889 Elias DeWitt Huntley, president 1883–1889 Bradford Paul Raymond, president 1889–1893 Charles Wesley Gallagher, president 1893–1894 L. Wesley Underwood, acting president 1894–1924 Samuel G. Plantz, president 1925–1937 Henry Merritt Wriston, president 1937–1943 Thomas Nichols Barrows, president 1944–1953 Nathan Marsh Pusey, president 1954–1963 Douglas Maitland Knight, president 1963–1969 Curtis William Tarr, president 1969–1979 Thomas S. Smith, president 1979–2004 Richard Warch, president 2004–2013 Jill Beck, president 2013–present Mark Burstein, president 1895–1921 Ellen Sabin 1921–1951 Lucia Russell Briggs 1951–1964 John Johnson Lawrence University operates on a trimester calendar.
The academic year runs from mid-September to mid-June. The student/faculty ratio at Lawrence is 9:1. Lawrence grants Bachelor of Bachelor of Music degrees, with a double degree possible. Lawrence offers a number of cooperative degree programs in areas such as engineering, health sciences and environmental studies; the college offers majors in most of the liberal arts. The school offers the option of interdisciplinary areas of study and allows students to design their own majors. All students are required to take Freshman Studies, which introduces students to broad areas of study and provides a common academic experience for the college. Lawrence's freshman studies program focuses on a mixture of Great Books and more contemporary, influential works; the 2013–2014 list included Plato's Repu
John Archibald Fairlie
John Archibald Fairlie was a Scottish-born political scientist who spent his professional career in the United States. Fairlie was born in Glasgow, Scotland in October 1872, he moved with his family to Florida in 1881 at age eight. He graduated from Jacksonville High School in 1887, he attended Harvard University, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1895 and a Master of Arts degree in 1896. He enrolled at the Columbia University School of Political Science in 1897, earning a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1898. After spending a year as the secretary to the Roosevelt-Greene Committee on Canals of New York State, Fairlie became a lecturer on municipal administration at Columbia. In 1900, he joined the faculty of the University of Michigan as an assistant professor of administrative law, he became a junior professor in 1906. In 1929, he was elected president of the American Association of Political Science. Throughout his professional career, he was a frequent contributor to early political science journals, including "The Political Science Quarterly," "The Quarterly Journal of Economics," and "The Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science."
He served on the board of editors of "The American Political Science Review." Fairlie joined the faculty of the University of Illinois and became chair of the university's political science department. Fairlie died in January 1947. "The Centralization of Administration in the State of New York, by John Archibald Fairlie The Economic Effects of Ship Canals, by J. A. Fairlie "Municipal Administration", by John Archibald Fairlie "American Municipal Councils," by John Archibald Fairlie "The National Administration of the United States of America, by John A. Fairlie "The Relation of Civil Service Reform to Municipal Administration, by John Archibald Fairlie "Local Government in Counties and Villages," by John Archibald Fairlie "Some Suggested Changes in the Constitution of Michigan, by John Archibald Fairlie "The Street Railway Question in Chicago, by John Archibald Fairlie "Essays in Municipal Administration, by John A. Fairlie "Public regulation of water power in the United States and Europe, by John A. Fairlie "Taxation in Illinois, by John Archibald Fairlie "The Referendum and Initiative in Michigan, by John Archibald Fairlie "County and Town Government in Illinois, by John Archibald Fairlie "British War Administration", by John Archibald Fairlie "Administrative Procedure in Connection with Statutory Rules and Orders in Great Britain, by John Archibald Fairlie Works by or about John Archibald Fairlie at Internet Archive
Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction between rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in computer science, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.
Game theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. It was explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s. Game theory has been recognized as an important tool in many fields; as of 2014, with the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole, eleven game theorists have won the economics Nobel Prize. John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology. Early discussions of examples of two-person games occurred long before the rise of modern, mathematical game theory; the first known discussion of game theory occurred in a letter written by Charles Waldegrave, an active Jacobite, uncle to James Waldegrave, a British diplomat, in 1713. In this letter, Waldegrave provides a minimax mixed strategy solution to a two-person version of the card game le Her, the problem is now known as Waldegrave problem. In his 1838 Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses, Antoine Augustin Cournot considered a duopoly and presents a solution, a restricted version of the Nash equilibrium.
In 1913, Ernst Zermelo published Über eine Anwendung der Mengenlehre auf die Theorie des Schachspiels. It proved that the optimal chess strategy is determined; this paved the way for more general theorems. In 1938, the Danish mathematical economist Frederik Zeuthen proved that the mathematical model had a winning strategy by using Brouwer's fixed point theorem. In his 1938 book Applications aux Jeux de Hasard and earlier notes, Émile Borel proved a minimax theorem for two-person zero-sum matrix games only when the pay-off matrix was symmetric. Borel conjectured that non-existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games would occur, a conjecture, proved false. Game theory did not exist as a unique field until John von Neumann published the paper On the Theory of Games of Strategy in 1928. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior co-authored with Oskar Morgenstern.
The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of utility, which reincarnated Daniel Bernoulli's old theory of utility as an independent discipline. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in this 1944 book; this foundational work contains the method for finding mutually consistent solutions for two-person zero-sum games. During the following time period, work on game theory was focused on cooperative game theory, which analyzes optimal strategies for groups of individuals, presuming that they can enforce agreements between them about proper strategies. In 1950, the first mathematical discussion of the prisoner's dilemma appeared, an experiment was undertaken by notable mathematicians Merrill M. Flood and Melvin Dresher, as part of the RAND Corporation's investigations into game theory. RAND pursued the studies because of possible applications to global nuclear strategy. Around this same time, John Nash developed a criterion for mutual consistency of players' strategies, known as Nash equilibrium, applicable to a wider variety of games than the criterion proposed by von Neumann and Morgenstern.
Nash proved that every n-player, non-zero-sum non-cooperative game has what is now known as a Nash equilibrium. Game theory experienced a flurry of activity in the 1950s, during which time the concepts of the core, the extensive form game, fictitious play, repeated games, the Shapley value were developed. In addition, the first applications of game theory to philosophy and political science occurred during this time. In 1979 Robert Axelrod tried setting up computer programs as players and found that in tournaments between them the winner was a simple "tit-for-tat" program that cooperates on the first step on subsequent steps just does whatever its opponent did on the previous step; the same winner was often obtained by natural selection. In 1965, Reinhard Selten introduced his solution concept of subgame perfect equilibria, which further refined the Nash equilibrium. In 1994 Nash and Harsanyi became Economics Nobel Laureates for their contributi