Libby Prison was a Confederate prison at Richmond, during the American Civil War. It gained an infamous reputation for the overcrowded and harsh conditions under which officer prisoners from the Union Army were kept. Prisoners suffered from malnutrition and a high mortality rate. By 1863, one thousand prisoners were crowded into large open rooms on two floors, with open, barred windows leaving them exposed to weather and temperature extremes; the building was built before the war as a food warehouse. The structure was moved to Chicago in 1889 to serve as a war museum, it was dismantled with its pieces sold as souvenirs. The prison was located in a three-story brick warehouse on two levels on Tobacco Row at the waterfront of the James River. Prior to use as a jail, the warehouse had been leased by Capt. Luther Libby and his son George W. Libby, they operated a ship's grocery business. The Confederate government started to use the facility as a hospital and prison in 1861, reserving it for Union officers in 1862 because of the influx of prisoners.
It contained each 103 by 42 feet. The second and third floors were used to house prisoners. Windows were open to the elements, increasing the discomfort. Lack of sanitation and overcrowding caused diseases. From 700 prisoners in 1862, the facility had a total of 1,000 by 1863. Mortality rates were high in 1864, aggravated by shortages of food and supplies; because of the high death toll, Libby Prison is regarded as only second in notoriety to Andersonville Prison in Georgia. "The building is of brick, with a front of near one hundred and forty feet, one hundred feet deep. It is divided into nine rooms; the Confederate Army used the prison for military criminals. After the occupation of Richmond in 1865, Union authorities used the prison for detention of former Confederate officers, they improved conditions over those for Union officers or prisoners of war on both sides during the war. In April 1865, U. S. President Abraham Lincoln visited Richmond and toured the city on foot; when he came across Libby Prison, a crowd of onlookers stated "We will tear it down", to which Lincoln replied, "No, leave it as a monument."In 1880, the building was purchased by Southern Fertilizer Company.
Nine years it was bought by Charles F. Gunther, a candymaker and moved to Chicago, Illinois. There it was renovated to serve as a war museum. After the museum failed to draw enough crowds, the building was dismantled and was sold in pieces as souvenirs. Upon their release from Libby a group of Union surgeons published an account in 1863 of their experiences treating Libby inmates in the attached hospital: Thus we have over ten per cent of the whole number of prisoners held classed as sick men, who need the most assiduous and skilful attention. Meat is no longer furnished to any class of our prisoners except to the few officers in Libby hospital, all sick or well officers or privates are now furnished with a poor article of corn bread in place of wheat bread, unsuitable diet for hospital patients prostrated with diarrhea and fever, to say nothing of the balance of startling instances of individual suffering and horrid pictures of death from protracted sickness and semi-starvation we have had thrust upon our observation.
They said that many were only half clad. Newly arriving prisoners who were ill died even in one night. Due to the "systematic abuse and semi-starvation," the surgeons believed that thousands of men would be left "permanently broken down in their constitutions" if they survived. In one story they noted that 200 wounded prisoners brought in from the battle of Chickamauga had been given only a few hard crackers during their three days' journey, but suffered two more days in the prison without medical attention or food. An article in the Daily Richmond Enquirer vividly described prison conditions in 1864: Libby takes in the captured Federals by scores, but lets none out. Lieut. Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada, who belonged to the Hot Air Balloon Unit of the Union Army, was captured during the Battle of Gettysburg and sent to Libby. Released in 1864, Fernandez Cavada that year published a book titled LIBBY LIFE: Experiences of A Prisoner of War in Richmond, VA, 1863-64, in which he told of the cruel treatment in the Confederate prison.
In the introduction, Cavada wrote: It was a beautiful country through which we had just passed, but it had presented no charms to weary eyes that were compelled to view it through a line of hostile bayonets. Many memoirs published; such memoirs should be read in context, however. After the war, former Union prisoners were not granted pensions unless they had sustained injuries or suffered from disease during their servic
Racine is a city in and the county seat of Racine County, United States. It is located on the shore of Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Root River. Racine is located 22 miles south of Milwaukee; as of the 2010 U. S. census, the city had a population of 78,860. Its median home price of $103,625 makes it one of the most affordable cities in Wisconsin to buy a home. In January 2017, it was rated "the most affordable place to live in the world" by the Demographia International Housing Affordability survey. Racine is the headquarters of a number of industries, including J. I. Case, S. C. Johnson & Son, Dremel Corporation, Reliance Controls Corporation, Twin Disc, Arthur B. Modine; the Mitchell & Lewis Company, a wagonmaker in the 19th century, began making motorcycles and automobiles as Mitchell-Lewis Motor Company at the start of the 20th century. Racine is home to InSinkErator, the first garbage disposal. Malted milk balls were developed in Racine. Architects of the city included Edmund Bailey Funston.
It has several immigrant communities. Native Americans inhabited the area of Racine for thousands of years. Artifacts that have survived include the burial mounds in. Historians separate the natives living in the Root watershed at that time into Woodland people, who were more common, Hopewell people, who were more advanced. After European contact, the Miami and the Potawatomi expanded into the area, taking part in the French fur trade. In November 1674, while traveling from Green Bay to the territory of the Illinois Confederation, Father Jacques Marquette and his assistants, Jacques Largillier and Pierre Porteret, camped at the mouth of the Root River; these were the first Europeans known to visit. Further expeditions were made in the area by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1679 and by François Jolliet De Montigny and Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes in 1698. Nearly a century in 1791, a trading post would be established along Lake Michigan near where the Root River empties into it.
Following the Blackhawk War, the area surrounding Racine, off-limits, was settled by Yankees from upstate New York and New England. In 1834 Captain Gilbert Knapp USRM, from Chatham, founded the settlement of "Port Gilbert" at the place where the Root River empties into Lake Michigan. Knapp had first explored the area of the Root River valley in 1818, returned with financial backing when the war ended. Within a year of Knapp's settlement hundreds of other settlers from New England and western New York had arrived and built log cabins in the area surrounding his own; some of the settlers were from the town of Derby and others came from the New England states of Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. The area was called "Kipi Kawi" and "Chippecotton" by the indigenous peoples, both names for the Root River; the name "Port Gilbert" was never accepted, in 1841 the community was incorporated as the village of Racine, after the French word for "root". After Wisconsin was admitted to the Union in 1848, the new legislature voted in August to incorporate Racine as a city.
In 1852, Racine College, an Episcopal college, was founded. Its location and many of its buildings are preserved today by the Community of St. Mary as part of the DeKoven Center. In 1852, Racine High School, the first public high school in Wisconsin, opened; the high school operated until 1926, when it was torn down to make way for the new Racine County Courthouse. Washington Park High School was built to replace it. Before the Civil War, Racine was well known for its strong opposition to slavery, with many slaves escaping to freedom via the Underground Railroad passing through the city. In 1854 Joshua Glover, an escaped slave who had made a home in Racine, was arrested by federal marshals and jailed in Milwaukee. One hundred men from Racine, 5,000 Wisconsinites and broke into the jail to free him, he was helped to escape to Canada. Glover's rescue gave rise to a great deal of litigation; this led to the Wisconsin Supreme Court declaring the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 unconstitutional, the Wisconsin State Legislature refusing to recognize the authority of the U.
S. Supreme Court. Waves of immigrants, including Danes and Czechs, began to settle in Racine between the Civil War and the First World War. African Americans started arriving in large numbers during World War I, as they did in other Midwestern industrial towns, Mexicans migrated to Racine from 1925 onward. Unitarians and Congregationalists from New England dominated Racine's religious life. Racine's Emmaus Lutheran Church, the oldest Danish Lutheran Church in North America, was founded on August 22, 1851. A founding member of the Danish American Lutheran Church, it has subsequently been a member of the United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the American Lutheran Church, since 1988, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. There was a large Catholic movement to the city, opening up churches for their own ethnicity, such as St. Stanislaus, St. Rose, Holy Name, St. Patrick, Sacred Heart, St. Joseph, St. Mary, Holy Trinity, St. Casimir, others; as years passed, populations moved and St. Stanislaus, Holy Name, Holy Trinity, St. Rose, St. Casimir merged in 1998, forming St. Richard.
With new waves of people a
Niles is a city in Berrien and Cass counties in the U. S. state of Michigan, near South Bend, Indiana. In 2010, the population was 11,600 according to the 2010 census, it is the larger, by population, of the two principal cities in the Niles-Benton Harbor Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with 156,813 people. Niles lies on the banks of the St. Joseph River, at the site of the French Fort St. Joseph, first built in 1697 to protect the Jesuit Mission established in 1691. After 1761, it was held by the British and was captured on May 25, 1763, by Native Americans during Pontiac's Rebellion; the British retook the fort but it was not re-garrisoned and served as a trading post. During the American Revolutionary War, the fort was held for a short time by a Spanish force; the occupation of the fort by the four nations of France, Britain and the United States has earned Niles the nickname City of Four Flags. The town was named after editor of the Niles Register, a Baltimore newspaper; the town of Niles as it exists today was settled in 1827.
Between 1820 and 1865, Niles was an integral part of the Underground Railroad, helping slaves escape from as far south as New Orleans through the Heartland, into Canada. The city is situated on the St. Joseph River and is surrounded by Niles Township. Glacial deposits of large boulders and smooth stones mingle with heavy sedimentary deposits, producing rolling hills and steep river banks; the soil is fertile. Crinoida and related fossils are found south of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.95 square miles, of which 5.79 square miles is land and 0.16 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,600 people, 4,806 households, 2,836 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,003.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,428 housing units at an average density of 937.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.3% White, 12.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population. There were 4,806 households of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 36.1 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.1% male and 52.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,204 people, 5,096 households, 3,052 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,109.5 per square mile. There were 5,531 housing units at an average density of 956.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.19% White, 12.36% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.26% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.97% of the population. There were 5,096 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,208, the median income for a family was $38,870. Males had a median income of $31,395 versus $22,991 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,584. About 9.9% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
Chapin Mansion, built by Henry A. Chapin and serving as Niles City Hall, is located downtown; the Riverfront Park in Niles stretches about a half of the St. Joseph River; the park and the immediate surrounding down town area is the main stage for many of the city's seasonal cultural events, including the Niles Riverfest, the Bluegrass Festival, the Hunter Ice Festival, the Apple Festival Parade. The park includes the Armed Forces Memorial, public stage, City's free skateboard park and sand volleyball courts. Niles includes two other notable parks; the Saint Joseph River Park, parts of which are now being excavated by archeologists, is south of the French Paper Mill Factory Dam. It includes part of the original Fort St. Joseph. Archaeologists from Western Michigan University have uncovered numerous artifacts at this location. In the summer they host an "Open House" that allows patrons to visit the dig site, see displays of some of the artifacts, see demonstrations of historical reenactments. Niles has a small park, Island Park, on an island in the middle of the St. Joseph River.
The park has been known to become submerged during high flood waters. In 2003, the City of Niles was awarded a MEDC Commu
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Jefferson Finis Davis was an American politician who served as the only President of the Confederate States from 1861 to 1865. As a member of the Democratic Party, he represented Mississippi in the United States Senate and the House of Representatives prior to switching allegiance to the Confederacy, he was appointed as the United States Secretary of War, serving from 1853 to 1857, under President Franklin Pierce. Davis was born in Fairview, Kentucky, to a moderately prosperous farmer, the youngest of ten children, he grew up in Wilkinson County and lived in Louisiana. His eldest brother Joseph Emory Davis secured the younger Davis's appointment to the United States Military Academy. After graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the United States Army, he fought as the colonel of a volunteer regiment. Before the American Civil War, he operated a large cotton plantation in Mississippi, which his brother Joseph gave him, owned as many as 113 slaves. Although Davis argued against secession in 1858, he believed that states had an unquestionable right to leave the Union.
Davis married Sarah Knox Taylor in 1835. They were both stricken with malaria soon thereafter, Sarah died after three months of marriage. Davis recovered and suffered from recurring bouts of the disease throughout his life. At the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez, educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North, they had six children. Only two survived him, only one married and had children. Many historians attribute some of the Confederacy's weaknesses to the poor leadership of Davis, his preoccupation with detail, reluctance to delegate responsibility, lack of popular appeal, feuds with powerful state governors and generals, favoritism toward old friends, inability to get along with people who disagreed with him, neglect of civil matters in favor of military ones, resistance to public opinion all worked against him. Historians agree he was a much less effective war leader than his Union counterpart, President Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and imprisoned at Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia.
He was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Robert E. Lee. Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union. Ex-Confederates came seeing him as a Southern patriot, he became a hero of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy in the post-Reconstruction South. Jefferson Finis Davis was born at the family homestead in Fairview, Kentucky, on June 3, 1808, he sometimes gave his year of birth as 1807. He dropped his middle name in life, although he sometimes used a middle initial. Davis was the youngest of ten children born to Samuel Emory Davis, he was named after then-incumbent President Thomas Jefferson. In the early 20th century, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site was established near the site of Davis's birth. Coincidentally, Abraham Lincoln was born in Hodgenville, only eight months less than 100 miles to the northeast of Fairview.
Davis's paternal grandparents were born in the region of Snowdonia in North Wales, immigrated separately to North America in the early 18th century. His maternal ancestors were English. After arriving in Philadelphia, Davis's paternal grandfather Evan settled in the colony of Georgia, developed chiefly along the coast, he married the widow Lydia Emory Williams, who had two sons from a previous marriage, their son Samuel Emory Davis was born in 1756. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, along with his two older half-brothers. In 1783, after the war, he married Jane Cook, she was born in 1759 to William Cook and his wife Sarah Simpson in what is now Christian County, Kentucky. In 1793, the Davis family relocated to Kentucky, establishing a community named "Davisburg" on the border of Christian and Todd counties. During Davis's childhood, his family moved twice: in 1811 to St. Mary Parish and less than a year to Wilkinson County, Mississippi. Three of his older brothers served in the War of 1812.
In 1813, Davis began his education at the Wilkinson Academy in the small town of Woodville, near the family cotton plantation. His brother Joseph encouraged Jefferson in his education. Two years Davis entered the Catholic school of Saint Thomas at St. Rose Priory, a school operated by the Dominican Order in Washington County, Kentucky. At the time, he was the only Protestant student at the school. Davis returned to Mississippi in 1818, he returned to Kentucky in 1821. His father Samuel died on July 1824, when Jefferson was 16 years old. Joseph arranged for Davis to get an appointment and attend the United States Military Academy starting in late 1824. While there, he was placed under house arrest for his role in the Eggnog Riot during Christmas 1826. Cadets smuggled whiskey into the academy to make eggnog, more than one-third of the cadets were involved in the incident. In June 1828, Davis graduated 23rd in a class of 33. Fol