Exchange Tower is a 36 storey 146 m tower in the First Canadian Place complex of Toronto, Canada completed in 1981. The International style building is named for the Toronto Stock Exchange, the building's highest profile tenant. Located in the heart of Toronto’s Financial District at the corner of King and York Streets, the Exchange Tower is home to National Bank Financial, offices of the federal Department of Justice, the Toronto campus of the University of Western Ontario's Ivey Business School. In April 2018, Restaurant Brands International announced that they would be moving their head office into the Exchange Tower. Exchange Tower at Brookfield Properties
Archives of Ontario
The Archives of Ontario are the archives for the province of Ontario, Canada. Founded in 1903 as the Bureau of Archives, the archives are now under the responsibility of the Ministry of Government and Consumer Services; the main offices of the archive are located at York University in Toronto. The Bureau of Archives, as it was known, was first located in the Ontario Legislative Building, under the leadership of Alexander Fraser, a prominent Scottish-born Toronto journalist and militia officer who held the position of Provincial Archivist from 1903 to 1935. During his tenure, Fraser remained a prolific author and amongst other things prepared annual reports for publication describing progress in making records available to the public, presenting the full texts of major document collections, he summarized his vision for the scope and work of the Archives in a paper he presented to the American Historical Association at Buffalo in 1911. In it he described the popularity of the Archives annual report volumes amongst historians and members of the public.
It is ironic that the publications issued over the course of Fraser's career to fulfill the Archives mandate are blocked from Internet access by Crown copyright. In the Depression era, the Archives was put on a precarious footing by Premier Mitch Hepburn's desire to close it down as a cost-cutting measure. Fraser was targeted for retirement and his assistant James J. Talman became acting head while tasked with heading the Legislative Library. Talman was able to save the Archives by agreeing to move its office and collections to basement vaults. Talman took new employment as Chief Librarian at the University of Western Ontario, where he started an archives collection that became the Regional History Division at UWO. Fraser's private papers as Provincial Archivist found their first home there; the Ontario Archives was not returned to a solid footing until the late 1940s under Helen McClung. The Archives moved to the Canadiana Building on the University of Toronto campus in 1951, at which time it was known as the Department of Public Records and Archives.
During the period the Archives was located there, staff archivists, including Edwin Guillet, became well known for their research work in support of the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board - which placed historical site plaques throughout the province - and for preparation of historical surveys of many regions of the province that were published as part of a series of volumes describing the work of conservation authorities in Ontario - restricted from Internet access by Crown copyright. The Archives relocated to 77 Grenville Street in 1972 and its name was changed to the Archives of Ontario; the reading room at the Grenville building closed on March 26, 2009 as part of the move to new facilities in North York. The official groundbreaking ceremony for the new Archives of Ontario building on the York University grounds, which houses the York University Research Tower, was on April 30, 2007; the groundbreaking was attended by former Minister of Government Services Gerry Phillips and former York University President and Vice-Chancellor Lorna Marsden.
The building was opened to the public on April 2, 2009 and is expected to be the site of the Archives for at least the next thirty-five years. In addition to preserving the records of the Ontario government, the Archives has from the outset sought records of private individuals and organizations that reflect Ontario's history. In the words of Alexander Fraser, "The Province has been so long neglected that when I undertook to organize the department I decided that the most valuable service I could render to the public was to acquire, to collect, safely preserve whatever material I could find, believing the day would soon come when the value of such material would be realized and the necessary office assistance provided to enable me to make the accumulated archives conveniently accessible to the public." Notable private records include the fonds of Eaton's, Conn Smythe, Moriyama and Teshima Architects. The head of the Archives has been known as the Archivist of Ontario since 1923, prior to that they were known as the Provincial Archivist.
Guild Park and Gardens
Guild Park and Gardens is a public park in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Canada. The park was the site of an artist colony and is notable for its collection of relics saved from the demolition of buildings in downtown Toronto arranged akin to ancient ruins. Located on the Scarborough Bluffs, Guild Park and Gardens has an outdoor Greek stage and a 19th-century log cabin among the oldest in Toronto; the principal building in the park is a former inn and estate mansion. The park is located on Guildwood Parkway, east of Eglinton Avenue Kingston Road, its 50 acres is accessed from the parking lots of the Guild Inn itself and from a parking lot for the Lake Ontario access trail, just to the east. The park is forested. South of the Inn is a large area of open space. To the east, a ravine leads down from Guildwood Parkway to Lake Ontario. Along the bluffs, an east–west trail connects to Livingston Road to the west, with several points for viewing the lake; the edges of the bluffs are roped off for safety, as the bluffs are tall and composed of soft, unstable material.
The park is managed by Toronto Parks, on land, the property of the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. It was known as Guildwood Park, it became a park after the Guild Inn and its property was bought by Metropolitan Toronto and the Government of Ontario in 1978 from Rosa Hewetson Clark and Spencer Clark. The Inn continued to operate until it closed in 2001, it was managed by various hotel management companies, including Delta Hotels, Canadian National Railway and others. It was first the "Ranelagh Park" estate of Col. Harold Bickford it became the China Mission Seminary, the "Cliff Acres" estate of Richard Look, before it was bought in 1932 by Rosa Hewetson, along with her husband Spencer Clark converted it to "The Guild of all Arts" artists' colony and inn. During World War II and for a period afterward, it was used by the Government of Canada. From the 1990s onwards, the property was the subject of several redevelopment proposals, which failed or were rejected; the City of Toronto developed a management plan in 2014 for gardens.
The plan intends to preserve the park, protect the forest and lakeshore, maintain the heritage buildings. The inn was restored, part of a new facility for weddings and gatherings. One new wing is a banquet hall. Another new wing includes meeting rooms. In the late 1950s and older buildings in downtown Toronto were being torn down and replaced. Many of these had been standing for many decades and had been well-constructed, with stonework of a high quality and were considered historic to many. A movement to support the preservation of older buildings began in response to the amount of demolition, but it would not be until the 1970s that governments would pass laws that protected buildings considered to have'heritage' status. Rosa and Spencer Clark responded to this wholesale demolition by taking away remnants of the buildings from the demolition sites, they enlisted engineers and hired stonemason Arthur Hibberd, erected the remnants in the Guild gardens. Remnants of over 60 buildings from Toronto and elsewhere in Ontario exist in the Guild gardens, the front gate of the Guild Inn, the front gate of the Guildwood Village neighbourhood.
To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Guild Inn, the Clarks built an open-air theatre from remnants of the Bank of Toronto building, at a cost of CA$300,000 to Spencer Clark. The Bank of Toronto building had stood at Bay and King Streets in downtown Toronto since 1912, until 1966, when the Toronto–Dominion Centre was built. Eight marble columns, plus Corinthian capitals and arches were repurposed along with a concrete stage and steps to form an open-air theatre under the supervision of Hibberd. There were plans to build an amphitheatre in front of the stage, but it has not been built. Seating is either on the grass; the theatre hosted its first performance in 1984 of folk music by the Good Time Rolling Folk Music Medicine Show. From 1998 to 2003, The Gardens and Greek Theatre at The Guild Inn was home to Cliffhanger Productions theatre company, which specialized in adaptations of world mythology for family audiences; the Greek Stage at Guild Park hosts Guild Festival Theatre's annual productions of classic stage plays.
Eaton Co. Ltd College Street store was saved and taken to the Guild in 1976. Various other pieces of stone and terra-cotta were taken to the Guild by Clark. However, they remain un-erected. Source: Lidgold To the west of the Guild Inn property exists an 1800s-era log cabin, known as the Osterhout Log Cabin; the actual date of its construction is unknown. In 1795, surveyor Augustus Jones and his surveying team camped in the area and could have built a log cabin on the property while he surveyed Scarborough. However, Jones' accounts stated. In 1805, the property was granted to William Osterhout, but there is no record of a log cabin during the time Osterhout lived on the property; the property was owned by Alexander McDonnell, Duncan Cameron, John Ewart. James Humphreys bought the property in 1845, his son and family are the first recorded residents in the cabin, in 1861; the property was bought by the Clarks in 1934. As part of the 1978 sale of the Guild property, the land around the cabin came under the administration of the Conservation Authority.
In 1980, Scarborough designated the cabin as the Osterhout Cabin, granted it protected heritage status. Some test pits were dug around the cabin in 1994 to determine its age. Artist Elizabeth Fraser Williamson used the cabin as a studio from 1970 to 1995
Streamline Moderne is an international style of Art Deco architecture and design that emerged in the 1930s. It was inspired by aerodynamic design. Streamline architecture emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, sometimes nautical elements. In industrial design, it was used in railroad locomotives, toasters, buses and other devices to give the impression of sleekness and modernity. In France, it was called the Style Paquebot, or "Ocean liner style", was influenced by the design of the luxurious ocean liner SS Normandie, launched in 1932; as the Great Depression of the 1930s progressed, Americans saw a new aspect of Art Deco, i.e. streamlining, a concept first conceived by industrial designers who stripped Art Deco design of its ornament in favor of the aerodynamic pure-line concept of motion and speed developed from scientific thinking. The cylindrical forms and long horizontal windowing in architecture may have been influenced by constructivism, by the New Objectivity artists, a movement connected to the German Werkbund.
Examples of this style include the 1923 Mossehaus, the reconstruction of the corner of a Berlin office building in 1923 by Erich Mendelsohn and Richard Neutra. The Streamline Moderne was sometimes a reflection of austere economic times; the style was the first to incorporate electric light into architectural structure. In the first-class dining room of the SS Normandie, fitted out 1933–35, twelve tall pillars of Lalique glass, 38 columns lit from within illuminated the room; the Strand Palace Hotel foyer, preserved from demolition by the Victoria and Albert Museum during 1969, was one of the first uses of internally lit architectural glass, coincidentally was the first Moderne interior preserved in a museum. Streamline moderne appeared most in buildings related to transportation and movement, such as bus and train stations, airport terminals, roadside cafes, port buildings, it had characteristics common with modern architecture, including a horizontal orientation, rounded corners, the use of glass brick walls or porthole windows, flat roofs, chrome-plated hardware, horizontal grooves or lines in the walls.
They were white or in subdued pastel colors. An example of this style is the Aquatic Park Bathouse in the Aquatic Park Historic District, in San Francisco. Built beginning in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, it features the distinctive horizontal lines, classic rounded corners railing and windows of the style, resembling the elements of ship; the interior preserves much of the original decoration and detail, including murals by artist and color theoretician Hilaire Hiler. The architects were William Mooser Jr. and William Mooser III. It is now the administrative center of Aquatic Park Historic District; the Normandie Hotel, which opened during 1942, is built in the stylized shape of the ocean liner SS Normandie, it includes the ship's original sign. The Sterling Streamliner Diners were diners designed like streamlined trains. Although Streamline Moderne houses are less common than streamline commercial buildings, residences do exist; the Lydecker House in Los Angeles, built by Howard Lydecker, is an example of Streamline Moderne design in residential architecture.
In tract development, elements of the style were sometimes used as a variation in postwar row housing in San Francisco's Sunset District. In France, the style was called ocean liner; the French version was inspired by the launch of the ocean liner Normandie in 1935, which featured an Art Deco dining room with columns of Lalique crystal. Buildings using variants of the style appeared in Belgium and in Paris, notably in a building at 3 boulevard Victor in the 15th arrondissement, by the architect Pierre Patout, he was one of the founders of the Art Deco style. He designed the entrance to the Pavilion of a Collector at the 1925 Exposition of Decorative Arts, the birthplace of the style, he was the designer of the interiors of three cruise ships, the Ile-de-France, the l'Atlantique, the Normandie. Patout's building on Avenue Victor lacked the curving lines of the American version of the style, but it had a narrow "bow" at one end, where the site was narrow, long balconies like the decks of a ship, a row of projections like smokestacks on the roof.
Another 1935 Paris apartment building at 1 Avenue Paul-Daumier in the 16 arrondissement had a series of terraces modeled after the decks of an ocean liner. The defining event for streamline moderne design in the United States was the 1933-34 Chicago World's Fair, which introduced the style to the general public; the new automobiles adapted the smooth lines of ocean liners and airships, giving the impression of efficiency and speed. The grills and windshields tilted backwards, cars sat lower and wider, they featured smooth curves and horizontal speed lines. Examples include the 1934 Studebaker Land Cruiser; the cars featured new materials, including bakelite plastic, Vitrolight opaque glass, stainless steel, enamel, which gave the appearance of newness and sleekness. Other examples include the 1950 Nash Ambassador "Airflyte" sedan with its distinctive low fender lines, as well as Hudson's postwar cars, such as the Commodore, that "were distinctive streamliners—ponderous, massive automobiles with a style all their own".
Streamlining became a widespread design practice for aircraft, railroad locomotives, ships. Streamline style can be contrasted with functionalism, a leading design style in Europe at the same time. One reason for the simple designs in functionalism was to lower the production costs of the items, making them
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site