John Langdon (politician)
John Langdon was a politician from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, a Founding Father of the United States. He served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, signed the United States Constitution, was one of the first two United States senators from that state; as a member of the Continental Congress Langdon was an early supporter of the Revolutionary War. He served in United States Congress for 12 years, including as the first president pro tempore of the Senate, before becoming governor of New Hampshire, he turned down a nomination for Vice Presidential candidate in 1812. Langdon's father was a prosperous farmer and local ship builder whose family had emigrated to America before 1660 from Sheviock, Cornwall; the Langdons were among the first to settle near the mouth of the Piscataqua River, a settlement which became Portsmouth, one of New England's major seaports. Langdon attended the local grammar school run by a veteran of the 1745 Siege of Louisbourg against the French at Fortress Louisbourg in New France.
After finishing his primary education, he served an apprenticeship as a clerk. He and his older brother, Woodbury Langdon, rejected the opportunity to join pop in their father's successful agricultural livelihood and apprenticed themselves to local naval merchants instead. By age 22, Langdon was captain of a cargo ship called sailing to the West Indies. Four years he owned his first merchantman, would continue over time to acquire a small fleet of vessels engaging in the triangle trade between Portsmouth, the Caribbean, London, his older brother was more successful in international trade, by 1777 both young men were among Portsmouth's wealthiest citizens. British control of the shipping industries hurt Langdon's business, motivating him to become a vigorous and prominent supporter of the revolutionary movement in the 1770s, he served on the New Hampshire Committee of Correspondence and a nonimportation committee, attended various Patriot assemblies. In 1774, he participated in the seizure and confiscation of British munitions from Fort William and Mary.
Langdon served as a member of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1776. He resigned in June 1776 to become agent for the Continental forces against the British and superintended the construction of several warships including the Raleigh, the America, the Ranger, captained by John Paul Jones. In 1777, he equipped an expedition against the British, participating in the Battle of Bennington and commanding Langdon's Company of Light Horse Volunteers at Saratoga and in Rhode Island. In 1784 he built at Portsmouth the mansion now known as the Governor John Langdon House. Langdon was elected to two terms as President of New Hampshire, once between 1785 and 1786 and again between 1788 and 1789, he was a member of the Congress of the Confederation in 1787 and became a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, serving as a member of the New Hampshire delegation. Langdon was elected to the U. S. Senate and served from March 4, 1789 to March 3, 1801, he was elected the first President pro tempore of the Senate on April 6, 1789, served as president pro tempore during the second Congress.
During the 1787 constitutional debates in Philadelphia, Langdon spoke out against James Madison's proposed "negative" on state laws because he felt that should the Senate be granted this power and not the House of Representatives, it would "hurt the feelings" of House members. In 1798, Langdon assisted Oney Judge to evade Burwell Bassett, the nephew of George and Martha Washington, who had intended to kidnap Judge and return her to slavery with the Washingtons. Langdon served as a member of the New Hampshire Legislature, with the last two terms as speaker. In 1808, his niece, Catherine Whipple Langdon, married Edmund Roberts. Langdon declined the nomination to be a candidate for Vice President with James Madison in 1812, retired, he was interred at the Langdon Tomb in the North Cemetery. The town of Langdon, New Hampshire is named after him, as well as Langdon Street in Madison, Wisconsin, a town with numerous streets named after founding fathers. United States Congress. "John Langdon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
"The Founding Fathers: New Hampshire." U. S. National Archives and Records Administration. Wright, Jr. Robert K. "John Langdon". Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 71-25. State Builders: An Illustrated Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire. State Builers Publishing Manchester, NH 1903 Mayo, Lawrence Shaw. John Langdon of New Hampshire. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1937. Governor John Langdon House, Historic New England Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Langdon, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Walter Harriman (governor)
Walter Harriman was an American preacher, merchant and politician who served two terms as the Governor of New Hampshire. He was a Colonel in the Union Army during the American Civil War. On July 23, 1866, the United States Senate confirmed President Andrew Johnson's May 31, 1866 nomination of Harriman for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865. Harriman was born in New Hampshire, where he was raised and educated, he taught school at a number of academies in New Hampshire and New Jersey from 1835 through 1840. While teaching, he in 1840 joined the Universalist Church, he preached in Harvard and his native Warner. In 1849, Harriman entered politics as a Democrat and was elected to the New Hampshire state legislature, serving through 1850; the following year, he resigned as a minister and opened a store in Warner, partnering with John S. Pillsbury, a future Governor of Minnesota and industrialist. In 1853, Harriman returned to politics and served as State Treasurer until 1854 when he moved to Washington, D.
C. to take the role as Clerk of the Pension Office, a patronage position which he held until 1856. Harriman returned to New Hampshire and was elected to the state legislature in 1858, he was subsequently elected to the state senate, serving there from 1859 through 1861. Upon the completion of his term, he entered the newspaper business as an editor in Manchester, New Hampshire. In 1862, Harriman was appointed colonel of the 11th New Hampshire, a newly raised three-years regiment of infantry, he led his regiment from Cincinnati, across the rugged Cumberland Plateau of Kentucky and Tennessee to join Major General Ambrose Burnside's army in Knoxville, Tennessee. Harriman walked with his men. During this 20-day journey and his regiment camped for several days on the Emory River in Tennessee near the future location of the city of Harriman, he interrupted his military service, resigning on June 26, 1863, to run as a War Democrat in the 1863 New Hampshire gubernatorial campaign. He siphoned off enough regular Democratic votes to give the election to Republican candidate Joseph A. Gilmore.
Harriman rejoined the 11th New Hampshire Infantry as colonel on January 26, 1864. He was captured by the Confederates in May 1864 at the Battle of the Wilderness during the Overland Campaign, he was exchanged September 12, 1864. He commanded Brigade, 2, Division 2, IX Corps, Army of the Potomac from April 2, 1865 to April 22, 1865, he was mustered out of the volunteers on June 4, 1865. On May 31, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Harriman for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on July 23, 1866. Following the Civil War's conclusion in early 1865, Harriman joined the Republican Party and served as the New Hampshire Secretary of State until 1867, when he was elected as the state's governor. Harriman served two terms as Governor of New Hampshire from 1867 to 1869. Governor Harriman urged the public and the legislature to develop New Hampshire's agricultural and forest resources, in order to develop a post-war economy.
He was concerned with the education of post-war citizens of the state, he signed an act creating teacher institutes. He drafted a law to get education out from under county commissioners, he established an education fund with monies from the sale of state lands. In retirement, Harriman served as Naval Officer for the Port of Boston until 1877, he published his History of Warner in 1879, traveled to Europe and the Far East from 1882–83. He published Travels and Observations in the Far East in 1883. Walter Harriman died July 25, 1884 in Concord, New Hampshire and was buried in Pine Grove Cemetery in Warner, New Hampshire. In the early 1890s Harriman's son, Walter C. Harriman, was one of the founders of the city of Harriman, named for Governor Harriman. List of American Civil War brevet generals W. Calvin Dickinson, Walter C. Harriman in the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture Harriman at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Media related to Walter Harriman, Governor NH at Wikimedia Commons
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants, including by supporting immigration-restriction measures. In scholarly studies nativism is a standard technical term; those who hold this political view, however, do not accept the label. Dindar wrote. For them it is a negative term and they rather consider themselves as'Patriots'". According to Fetzer, opposition to immigration arises in many countries because of issues of national and religious identity; the phenomenon has been studied in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, as well as in continental Europe. Thus nativism has become a general term for "opposition to immigration" based on fears that the immigrants will distort or spoil existing cultural values. In situations where immigrants outnumber the original inhabitants, nativistic movements can allow cultural survival. Immigrants can "swamp" a local population due to birth rate relative to nationals. Contemporary opponents of immigration blame it for such problems as unemployment, harm to the environment, housing shortage, overwhelming social services such as hospitals, police.
Immigration restrictionist sentiment is justified with one or more of the following arguments and claims about immigrants: Government expense: Government expenses may exceed tax revenue relating to new immigrants. Language: Isolate themselves in their own communities and refuse to learn the local language. Employment: Acquire jobs that would have otherwise been available to native citizens, depressing native employment. Patriotism: Damage a sense of community and nationality. Environment: Increase the consumption of scarce resources. Welfare: Make heavy use of social welfare systems. Overpopulation: May overpopulate countries. Culture: Can replace its culture with their own. Housing: Increase in housing costs: migrant families reduce vacancies and cause rent increases. Many Australians opposed the influx of Chinese immigrants at time of the nineteenth-century gold rushes; when the separate Australian colonies formed the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, the new nation adopted "White Australia" as one of its founding principles.
Under the White Australia policy, entry of Chinese and other Asians remained controversial until well after World War II, although the country remained home to many long-established Chinese families dating from before the adoption of White Australia. By contrast, most Pacific Islanders were deported soon after the policy was adopted, while the remainder were forced out of the canefields where they had worked for decades. Hostility of native-born white Australians toward British and Irish immigrants in the late 19th century was manifested in a new party, the Australian Natives' Association. Since early 2000, opposition has mounted to asylum seekers arriving in boats from Indonesia; the Brazilian elite desired the racial whitening of the country to Argentina and Uruguay. The country encouraged European immigration, but non-white immigration always faced considerable backlash. On July 28, 1921, representatives Andrade Bezerra and Cincinato Braga proposed a law whose Article 1 provided: "The immigration of individuals from the black race to Brazil is prohibited."
On October 22, 1923, representative Fidélis Reis produced another bill on the entry of immigrants, whose fifth article was as follows: "The entry of settlers from the black race into Brazil is prohibited. For Asian there will be allowed each year a number equal to 5% of those residing in the country.". In the 19th and 20th centuries, there were negative feelings toward the communities of German, Italian and Jewish immigrants, who conserved their language and culture instead of adopting Portuguese and Brazilian habit, were seen as tendentious to form ghettos, had high rates of endogamy, among other concerns, it affected more harshly the Japanese, because they were Asian, thus seen as an obstacle of the whitening of Brazil. Oliveira Viana, a Brazilian jurist and sociologist described the Japanese immigrants as follows: "They are like sulfur: insoluble"; the Brazilian magazine "O Malho" in its edition of December 5, 1908 issued a charge of Japanese immigrants with the following legend: "The government of São Paulo is stubborn.
After the failure of the first Japanese immigration, it contracted 3,000 yellow people. It insists on giving Brazil a race diametrically opposite to ours". In 1941, the Brazilian Minister of Justice, Francisco Campos, defended the ban on admission of 400 Japanese immigrants in São Paulo and wrote: "their despicable standard of living is a brutal competition with the country's worker; some years before World War II, the government of President Getúlio Vargas initiated a process of forced assimilation of people of immigrant origin in Brazil. The Constitution of 1934 had a legal provision about the subject: "The concentration of immigrants anywhere in the country is prohibited; the assimilationist project affected German, Italian and Jewish immigrants and their descendants. During World War II they were
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
The Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts is the first in the line to discharge the powers and duties of the office of governor following the incapacitation of the Governor of Massachusetts. The constitutional honorific title for the office is His, or Honor; the Massachusetts Constitution provides that when a governor dies, resigns, or is removed from office, the office of governor remains vacant for the rest of the 4-year term. The lieutenant governor discharges powers and duties as Acting Governor and does not assume the office of governor; the first time this came into use was five years after the constitution's adoption in 1785, when Governor John Hancock resigned his post five months before the election and inauguration of his successor, James Bowdoin, leaving Lieutenant Governor Thomas Cushing as acting governor. Most Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci; the lieutenant governor serves in place of the governor when he or she is outside the borders of Massachusetts.
A one-year term, the office of lieutenant governor now carries a four-year term, the same as that of the governor. The lieutenant governor is not on a ticket with the governor; the 1780 constitution required a candidate for either office to have lived in Massachusetts for at least seven years preceding election, own at least £1,000 worth of real property and to "declare himself to be of the Christian religion". However, only the residency requirement remains in effect, both men and women have served in the office. Amendment Article LXIV changed the election from every year to every two years, Amendment Article LXXXII changed it again to every four years; the office is held by Karyn Polito, inaugurated in January 2015. Part the Second, Chapter II, Section II, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads, There shall be annually elected a lieutenant governor of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, whose title shall be, His Honor and who shall be qualified, in point of religion and residence in the commonwealth, in the same manner with the governor: and the day and manner of his or her election, the qualifications of the electors, shall be the same as are required in the election of a governor.
The Lieutenant Governor serves ex officio as a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Massachusetts law provides for the lieutenant governor to serve as the chairman of the award selection committee for the Madeline Amy Sweeney Award for Civilian Bravery; the lieutenant governor is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, ensuring that they have the same political party affiliation. When the state constitution was first enacted in 1780, elections for the two offices were independent, were held annually. Constitutional amendments enacted in 1918 extended the terms of both offices to two years, with elections in even-numbered years. In 1964 the constitution was amended again to extend the terms to four years, in 1966 to allow for the grouping of governor and lieutenant governor on the ballot by political party. Elections are held in even-numbered years. Lieutenant governors who acted as governor during a portion of their terms are marked by asterisks. Parties Democratic Democratic-Republican Federalist Know Nothing Republican Whig As of January 2017, there are eight former lieutenant governors of Massachusetts who are living at this time, the oldest lieutenant governor of Massachusetts being Francis X. Bellotti.
The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Massachusetts was that of Paul Cellucci, on June 8, 2013. List of Governors of Massachusetts Government of Massachusetts Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2006 Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2002 Office of the Governor CNN.com 2006 election results OurCampaigns.com
John Hardy Steele
John Hardy Steele served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1844 to 1846. John H. Steele was born in Salisbury, North Carolina on January 4, 1789, his mother, Elizabeth Taylor, was unmarried. His father, John Steele was married to another woman, was the father of several children with his wife; as a result of the circumstances of his parentage and the early death of his mother, John Hardy Steele was raised by his maternal grandfather, Absalom Taylor. Steele was educated in Salisbury, at age 14 was apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and chair maker. At age 22 Steele settled in Fayetteville, where he worked at his trade for Nathaniel Morrison, a native of Peterborough, New Hampshire. Morrison was impressed with Steele's mechanical aptitude, asked Steele to accompany him to New Hampshire to establish a textile manufacturing business. Steele designed and constructed the spinning mules and looms for Morrison's mills, one of, the first to weave cotton cloth by waterpower. In 1824 Steele joined several partners to establish the Union Manufacturing Company, a cloth production factory which operated with Steele as manager.
A Democrat in a town, predominantly Whig in its politics, Steele was popular enough to win election to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1829. He declined reelection, declined an 1831 nomination for a seat in the New Hampshire State Senate. From 1830 to 1838 Steele served as Peterborough's Town Meeting Moderator. Steele was active in the New Hampshire Militia, attained the rank of Colonel as aide-de-camp to Governor Matthew Harvey. In 1840 Steele won election to the Executive Council of New Hampshire, he was reelected in 1841. Steele was elected Governor in 1844, reelected in 1845, his term was marked by the creation of a state railroad commission. In addition, Steele provided letters of introduction to James Knox Polk and members of Polk's cabinet for his friend Jesse Carter Little, a Mormon pioneer who sought government assistance to enable the Mormons to begin settling in Utah. After leaving office Steele retired to a farm, where he conducted experiments in animal husbandry and other scientific agriculture techniques.
He was President of the Peterborough Savings Bank. He served as a Selectman in 1846, in 1850 he was a delegate to New Hampshire's constitutional convention. Steele was buried in the Village Cemetery. Biography at New Hampshire Historical Resources John Hardy Steele at Find a Grave John Hardy Steele at National Governors Association
Frederick Smyth (New Hampshire)
Frederick Smyth was an American banker, railroad executive, politician from Manchester, New Hampshire. Born in 1819 in Candia, New Hampshire, he became City Clerk of Manchester at the age of 30. A Republican, he served four terms as mayor of Manchester from 1852 to 1854 and again in 1864, was twice elected Governor of New Hampshire. Smyth was the third of five children. Around 1838, he and Thomas Wheat began running a country store in Candia under the name of Wheat and Smyth; the store was owned by Wheat's father. They soon left to attend Phillips Andover Academy in Massachusetts. Financial difficulties forced them to leave Phillips Academy after one term. Smyth moved to Manchester, New Hampshire, where he found a job working for George Porter in Porter's general store and mercantile business. After three years, Smyth was made a partner in the business. On December 11, 1844, Smyth married Emily Lane of daughter of John Lane and Nabby Emerson. Emily Lane Smyth died on January 14, 1885. Smyth's second wife was Marion Hamilton Cossar of Manchester, daughter of James Cossar and Jessie Finlay.
They were married on February 22, 1886 at Carmichael, Scotland. He continued to be a merchant until 1849, when he sold his share of the business following his election to the post of Manchester city clerk, at the age of 30, he was reelected to that post in 1850 and 1851. In 1852, he was elected to his first term as mayor of Manchester, he was reelected in 1853 and 1854. Many of the decisions he made as mayor remain today, including many "firsts", such as overseeing the construction of the city's first highways, the first water and sewer systems, the first sidewalks, streetlights, he is credited with the idea to plant trees along city streets to provide shade and maintain the natural beauty of the city. In 1857 and 1858, he was a member of the New Hampshire General Court, representing Manchester's Ward 3, he was active in the New Hampshire Agriculture Society, serving as treasurer for 10 years. He was a director in the American Agriculture Society and a vice-president of the American Pomological Society.
He served as one of the commissioners on the part of the General Government of New Hampshire at the International Exhibition of 1862, in London. When Abraham Lincoln visited the state in 1860, Smyth introduced him to a crowd as the "next president of the United States", he was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of New Hampshire in 1860, but was elected in 1865, again in 1866. Smyth's terms as governor were consumed by efforts to straighten out the state's wartime finances, which were in substantial disarray because of Civil War expenditures, he borrowed $1.2 million to fund the state's war debt, settled all state claims against the federal government on terms favorable to the state. He is credited with putting New Hampshire's credit on a sound financial footing, "mustered out" soldiers remaining in wartime military units, he oversaw a revision of state statutes, was a strong supporter of passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees due process and equal protection to all United States citizens.
He undertook to restore fish to certain state rivers, he began publication of state papers. On July 7, 1866, during his second term as governor, Smyth signed a bill providing for the incorporation of the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. Smyth had advocated legislation to create the school in his inaugural address; the bill provided that the college be established as part of Dartmouth College and that it should be governed by a nine-member board of trustees. The agricultural college was located in Hanover, New Hampshire. In 1893, it moved to Durham and became the University of New Hampshire in 1923. On July 19, 1866 the trustees appointed Smyth a trustee of the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, he continued to serve as a trustee until October 7, 1897. At the first meeting of the board, on September 28, 1866, he was elected treasurer, he held the post until August 1895 when he relinquished the post due to ill health. On April 10, 1895, Smyth was elected president of the board.
However, business commitments and declining health prevented him from presiding as president though he held the post until his term as a trustee expired in 1897. In addition to his service as a trustee, Smyth established and provided funds for the Smyth Prize for Writing and Elocution for students of the agricultural college; the Smyth Prizes were awarded from 1881 until 1904. After Smyth's death in 1899, the prize money came from provisions in his will and was funded by his wife, Marion C. Smyth. Prizes ranged from $25 to $10; the essay and elocution competitions were open to the senior and middle class while the reading competition was only open to first-year students. Smyth served as one of the board of managers of the National Homes for Disabled Soldiers, he was a delegate-at-large to the 1872 Republican national convention, President Hayes appointed him honorary commissioner to the 1878 International Exposition at Paris. Smyth was a principal president of the Concord and Montreal Railroad.
He was a trustee of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, served as president of the New Hampshire Orphans' Home at Franklin. He died in Manchester on April 22, 1899, at the age of 80, he is buried there at Valley Cemetery. Some sources say he died at his winter home in Bermuda. Smyth's name was honored when, in 1949, Smyth's wife Marion C. Smyth founded the Smyth Trust; the trust provides scholarships to music students in the greater Manchester area. Smyth Tower, a folly built on his Manchester estat