Christopher Bassford is an American military historian, best known for his works on the Prussian military philosopher Carl von Clausewitz. Bassford graduated from the College of William and Mary with a degree in history and honors for his dissertation on tactical nuclear weapons and completed his MA in American diplomatic history at Ohio University. Subsequent to receiving his MA, he served five years on active duty as a U. S. Army field artillery officer, with tours in Korea and Germany, he completed a Ph. D. in modern European history at Purdue University and became director of studies in the theory and nature of war at the U. S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College associate professor of National Policy Issues at the U. S. Army War College, he was Professor of Strategy at the National War College, in Washington, D. C. from 1999 until 2012, when he joined the faculty of the College of International Security Affairs as part of the JSOMA program supporting U. S. Army Special Operations Command.
He is the webeditor of The Clausewitz Homepage, a large educational website, on-line since 1995. Bassford has written scholarly studies, military doctrine, articles for the popular press, he is the author of several books, including Clausewitz in English: The Reception of Clausewitz in Britain and America, 1815-1945 and The Spit-Shine Syndrome: Organizational Irrationality in the American Field Army. He is one of the editors of the Boston Consulting Group's business-oriented Clausewitz On Strategy: Inspiration and Insight from a Master Strategist and Carl von Clausewitz and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, On Waterloo: Clausewitz and the Campaign of 1815, ed./trans. Christopher Bassford, Daniel Moran, Gregory W. Pedlow. From 1995 to 1999 he was involved in the writing of USMC doctrine, authoring MCDP Strategy, his academic articles include: "John Keegan and the Grand Tradition of Trashing Clausewitz," War in History, November 1994. "Reclaiming the Clausewitzian Trinity," Parameters, Autumn 1995.
"Clausewitz and His Works". "Doctrinal Complexity: Nonlinearity in Marine Corps Doctrine," in F. G. Hoffman and Gary Horne, eds. Maneuver Warfare Science, United States Marine Corps Combat Development Command, 1998. "Bringing Real Life to American Strategy in Afghanistan," Small Wars Journal, 3 March 2012. "Tiptoe Through the Trinity: The Strange Persistence of Trinitarian Warfare," working paper, 2005-2015. His on-line books include: Clausewitz in English: The Reception of Clausewitz in Great Britain and America, ISBN 978-0195083835. © C. Bassford. Full text on-line in HTML. "Policy, Politics and Military Strategy," working text, 1997-2015. This is derived from Bassford's original Draft of MCDP 1-1: Strategy, the US Marine Corps' Strategy manual. Full text on-line in HTML. Carl von Clausewitz and Arthur Wellesley, First Duke of Wellington, On Waterloo: Clausewitz and the Campaign of 1815, ed./trans. Christopher Bassford, Daniel Moran, Gregory W. Pedlow. ISBN 978-1453701508. Full text on-line in HTML.
Bassford is the editor of The Clausewitz Homepage, an educational website that focuses on the German military philosopher Carl von Clausewitz. Bassford's own work on Clausewitz concentrates on the evolution of Clausewitz's reception and impact in the English-speaking world, he is interested in the relationship between Clausewitzian theory, concepts from the field of nonlinear science, modern evolutionary theory. Biography at Clausewitz.com. Faculty bio page at National Defense University JSOMA program Video of a presentation at the Pentagon, 30 October 2015, speaking on how the notions of "limited war" and "total war" relate to Clausewitz's own strategic-analytical scheme
Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand is one of New Zealand's largest environmental organisations, is a national office of the global environmental organisation Greenpeace. Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand was founded in 1974, two years after the original Greenpeace, to protect the natural environment. Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand emerged from an amalgam of 1960s and 1970s NZ peace groups and activists, who had for a decade been promoting their opposition to the Vietnam War and nuclear testing. In particular, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament who were nationally campaigning against French nuclear testing in French Polynesia since 1961, culminating in an 80,238 signature petition presented to the New Zealand Government in 1962 demanding they take punitive action against the French to enforce a nuclear test ban in the Pacific. Two key NZ CND leaders in the 1970s involved with Greenpeace pursued political careers. Other groups in the peace collective included the NZ Peace Media, NZ Friends of the Earth, the Auckland Peace Squadron and Project Jonah.
There were two key developments in the New Zealand peace movement in 1974. The first was the official formation of the Greenpeace Foundation of New Zealand in April through the union of a collective of peace groups and their supporters; the second was the decision to send the yacht Fri on an epic voyage around the Pacific carrying the peace message to all nuclear weapons states. Fri’s Pacific Peace Odyssey, a 40,000 kilometres adventure across the Pacific and Indian Oceans was financed and co-ordinated by Greenpeace New Zealand and would last till 1977. Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand gained national prominence in the 1970s and 1980s for its action against nuclear testing in French Polynesia, acquired huge public sympathy after the French bombing of the Greenpeace ship the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland Harbour in 1985; the long campaign against whaling championed by Greenpeace is an issue which has had the full support of the New Zealand Government since the mid-1980s. Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand campaigns against nuclear weapons and nuclear power, the release of genetically engineered organisms into the natural environment, climate change, toxics.
It uses tactics of non-violent direct action to draw attention to what it considers significant threats to the environment, lobbies for solutions. In 2011 Greenpeace head Kumi Naidoo expressed concern that New Zealand is moving too slow to realise its clean potential. In February 2013 Greenpeace released a report calling for New Zealand's energy production to be 100 percent renewable by 2025; the Future is Here: New Jobs, New Prosperity and a New Clean Economy report suggests New Zealand makes a dramatic shift to clean energy. The report was authored by a collection of European and New Zealand academics and policy analysts; this report states that nearly 30,000 jobs could be created through the expansion of geothermal and bioenergy industries, with geothermal worth over NZ$4 billion annually to the New Zealand economy. Greenpeace had been involved in successful pressure to reform the tuna industry in the UK. Fish aggregating devices destroy much sealife as a side effect of fishing for one species.
Greenpeace in NZ and Australia started focusing on local tuna brands. Greenpeace campaigned for Sealord to put pressure on its supply chain to reduce the killing in other sea-life during tuna fishing, it culminated in Sealord making reforms to phase out tuna caught using fish aggregating devices Sealord announced it plans to remove the method from its supply chain of canned skipjack tuna by early 2014. These floating lures attract far more than adult tuna and this destructive method is said to be globally responsible for catching about 200,000 tonnes of other marine life every year. After the Bay of Plenty Rena oil spill Greenpeace volunteers assisted in cleaning up. Greenpeace and Eastern Bay of Plenty iwi Te Whanau-a-Apanui took the NZ government to court over its decision to grant an oil exploration permit to Brazilian oil giant Petrobras for deep sea oil exploration in the Raukumara Basin off the East Cape. To maintain its independence, Greenpeace does not solicit or accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties.
Greenpeace does not seek or accept donations that could compromise its independence, objectives or integrity. Greenpeace relies on grant-support from foundations and the voluntary donations of individual supporters. Greenpeace is committed to the principles of non-violence, political independence and internationalism. Greenpeace is non-party political, it does not align itself with any political party. In exposing threats to the environment and in working to find solutions, Greenpeace claims that it has no permanent allies or enemies. New Zealand's nuclear-free zone Fri Environment of New Zealand Environmental movement in New Zealand Greenpeace Aotearoa New Zealand Greenpeace International
The Convention of Dibra was organized on November 1, 1878 in the city of Dibra, on the initiative of the Committee of the Albanian League for the two Dibras chaired by Iljaz Pasha Dibra. The convention adopted a resolution in the form of a memorandum, drafted by Abdyl Frashëri who participated as representative of the whole of Vilayet of Ioannina, it contained the same requests that were included in the Istanbul Committee's program, summarized in five sections. The requests included the formation of the Vilayet of Albania, the development of Albanian-language education infrastructure, the usage of a large part of the budget for the advancement of educational and cultural activities. At the end of the resolution it was stated that these requests would be presented within a month on behalf of all Albanian people to the Sublime Porte by a chosen delegation. According to the agreement, the delegation that would present and defend the resolution before the Sublime Porte would consist of 14 prominent Albanians, including Iljaz Pasha Dibra, Sheh Mustafa Tetova, Hasan Pasha Prizren, Mustafa Pasha Vlora, Abedin Bey Dino, Mehmet Ali Vrioni, Sabri Gjirokastra, Mihal Kristo and Abdyl Frashëri.
However, the delegation did not do so and plans were changed due to situation in Chameria, being claimed by Greece. League of Prizren Buda, Aleks. Konferenca Kombëtare e Studimeve për Lidhjen Shqiptare të Prizrenit, 1878-1881: 12-28 qershor 1978. Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë. Pollo, Stefanaq. Historia e Shqipërisë: Vitet 30 të shek. XIX-1912. Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë. Pulaha, Selami. Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime: Shqiptarët gjatë luftës së dytë botërore dhe pas saj, 1939-1990. Botimet Toena
The Toren van Goedereede is a gray square brick tower in Goedereede, Netherlands, 39.5 metres high, belonging to the Catharina church. It was built in 1512. From 1552 to 1912 the tower served as a lighthouse, went through various changes during this period. Today it is a museum, housing a carillon; the original tower was part of a large parish church in the then-prosperous fishing and trading port. Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, the future Pope Adrian VI, was pastor of the church. During a great fire in Goedereede in 1482 the old "Katharina Church" and its tower were destroyed. A new church was erected in 1512 beside a giant new tower. A large bell that sounded the hours was cast in 1519, with the Latin inscription, Est mea vox grata, quia sum Maria vocata et Georgius Waghevens Me fecit Anno Domini MCCCCCXVIII A second bell was added in 1647. Although at first unlit, the tower served as a landmark to help ships navigate. From 1552 the tower served as a lighthouse; the light came from an open coal fire.
Goederede went into a long decline. There were insufficient funds to maintain the church. In 1706 the dilapidated building was pulled down. In 1823, the spire of the church was removed to improve use of the tower as a lighthouse. On 26 February 1834 a 45 metres high light with optics was installed; the optics were replaced in 1879. In 1908 the tower was equipped with rotating optics with a light intensity of 180,000 candlepower. In 1912 the lighthouse was extinguished. In 1967 the tower was designated a national monument. From 1973 to 1978 the tower was restored at a cost of over two million euros, made into a museum. A carillon of bells were hung in the tower; the carillon of 37 bells was inaugurated on 24 June 1978. In 1999 it was extended with seven treble bells. Two more bells were added in 2010. In April 2011 the Dutch Carillon Society organized an international competition for carilloneurs, each of whom had twelve minutes to perform. Notes Citations Sources
William James Gay "Lachie" Thomson was an English professional footballer who played as a defender for Stoke in the Football League before joining Southampton St Mary's for the inaugural Southern League season in 1894. Thomson was born in Chatham and joined Stoke in July 1892. Stoke had struggled during the early years of the Football League, finishing each of the first three seasons at or near the foot of the table. For the 1892–93 season, they were able to field a settled team, reflected in their league position, finishing in seventh position. During this season, Thomson was an understudy to the former England international left-back, Alf Underwood, as a consequence only made seven first-team appearances. On 26 April 1893, he was part of a Stoke side who were invited to play a friendly match against Southampton St Mary's, played at the County Cricket ground in Northlands Road, Southampton; the "Saints", who included the 18-year-old Charles Miller in their line-up, were "outplayed and squarely on every point", although the spectators "thoroughly enjoyed the exhibition" and looked forward to witnessing "more matches of a similar character" in future.
Playing for Stoke were Charles Baker, Willie Naughton and Alf Littlehales, all of whom were to move to Southampton within two years. Although Underwood had retired in the summer of 1893, Thomson now found his way into the first-team blocked by Billy Dickson, moved back from inside-right; as a consequence, Thomson made only two appearances in the No. 3 shirt. By the end of the season, Thomson had moved to Southampton, appeared in the "Saints" matches in the Hampshire County Cricket Club Charity Cup, played at the County Ground in April 1894, with the Saints emerging victorious, defeating the Royal Artillery 5–0 in the final. Described as "strong, with plenty of pluck, he the game with judgement as well as energy". In 1894, Southampton were one of the nine founder members of the Southern League, created to enable clubs in southern England, who were not admitted to the Football League to play competitive football on a regular basis. For Southampton's inaugural league season, Thomson was one of three players recruited from Stoke, together with Charles Baker and Alf Littlehales.
Thomson and Littlehales, together with Bill Jeffery and local men George Marshall and Ernie Taylor, were the mainstay of the Saints' defence throughout the season in which they finished in third place. In the FA Cup, Southampton played through all four qualifying rounds, scoring 31 goals to six conceded, but were defeated in the First Round proper, going out 1–4 to Football League First Division opponents Nottingham Forest; the 1895–96 season followed a similar pattern to the previous year, with Southampton finishing third, behind Millwall Athletic and Luton Town, reaching the First Round proper of the FA Cup, where they were defeated by a First Division club. Thomson appeared in all five Cup matches as well as twelve league matches playing at left-half. In 1896, he moved to the Isle of Wight. In his two years with Southampton, he made a total of 37 appearances, scoring twice. Thomson remained with Cowes until the turn of the century, helping them to join the Southern League in Division Two South-West in 1898.
Cowes took the Division title. The overall Southern League Division Two title went to Thames Ironworks after a play-off match. Cowes were unable to survive financially in the Southern League First Division and, after 13 matches, they withdrew from the competition. Source: Cowes Southern League Division Two South-West champions: 1898–99