Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Kilmarnock is a large burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland with a population of 46,350, making it the 15th most populated place in Scotland and the second largest town in Ayrshire. The River Irvine runs through its eastern section, the Kilmarnock Water passes through it, giving rise to the name'Bank Street'; the first collection of work by Scottish poet Robert Burns, chiefly in the Scottish dialect, was published in Kilmarnock in 1786 by John Wilson and bookseller and became known as the Kilmarnnock Edition. The internationally distributed whisky brand Johnnie Walker originated in the town in the 19th century and until 2012 was still bottled and distilled in the town at the Johnnie Walker Hill Street plant. Protest and backing from the Scottish Government took place in 2009, after Diageo, the owner of Johnnie Walker announced plans to close the bottling plant in the town after 289 years; the economy of Kilmarnock today is dependent on skill force knowledge, with companies such as Vodafone and Teleperformance occupying a large part of the Rowallan Business Park Centre, home to Food Partners, a nationwide sandwich franchise.
Local property redevelopment and regeneration company, The KLIN Group occupies the former Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. offices in West Langland Street, Wabtec Rail Scotland operate a production factory for locomotives in the town centre and Utopia Computers, one of the UK's fastest growing computer companies have their headquarters and main site situated in Kilmarnock in High Glencairn Street. The bakery company, Brownings the Bakers, was established in 1945 in Kilmarnock, today, operates a large production plant at the town's Bonnyton Industrial Estate, with products being distributed across Scotland via chains such as Aldi and Scotmid; the local newspaper, the Kilmarnock Standard has main offices in the centre of the town with publications taking place each Thursday per week. Kilmarnock is home to Kilmarnock Academy, one of only two state schools in the world that have educated two Nobel Prize laureates, Alexander Fleming, who became known for his groundbreaking discovery of Penicillin in 1928, alongside John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr for his research and work into Nutrition as well as his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.
He was the first President of the World Academy of Art and Science. In recent years, Kilmarnock has been used for musical acts and film locations. Rock band Biffy Clyro were formed in the town in a primary school in the mid-1990s; the 2001 film, Pyaar Ishq Aur Mohabbat was shot in the town. The name Kilmarnock comes from the Gaelic cill, the name of Saint Marnock or Mernoc, remembered in the name of Portmarnock in Ireland and Inchmarnock, it may come from the three Gaelic elements mo,'my', Ernán and the diminutive ag, giving Church of My Little Ernán. According to tradition, the saint founded a church there in the 7th century. There are 12 Church of Scotland congregations in the town, plus other denominations. In 2005, the Reverend David W. Lacy, minister of the town's Henderson Church, was elected Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; the core of the early town appears to have lain around what is now the Laigh Kirk, although the oldest parts of the current building are no earlier than the 17th century, extending north and northwest.
In 1668 the town was destroyed by an accidental fire. About 120 families lost most of their possessions and were forced to live destitute in the fields surrounding the town; these tradespeople had no other way of making a living and had been driven to the edge of poverty by having troops stationed with them as part of the anti-Covenanter measures. Parish churches throughout Scotland collected money for the relief of these homeless citizens. A comparatively modest settlement until the Industrial Revolution, Kilmarnock extended from around 1800 onwards, requiring the opening of King Street, Portland Street, Wellington Street. Added was John Finnie Street, regarded as "one of the finest Victorian planned streets in Scotland." The Sandbed Street Bridge is the oldest known surviving bridge in the area. The Titchfield Street drill hall was completed in 1914. Kilmarnock, as part of the Kilmarnock and Loudoun parliamentary constituency, had long been considered a "safe seat" for the Scottish Labour Party, having been represented by a Labour MP since the establishment of the constituency in 1983.
However, in the 2015 General Election, for the first time since 1983, the seat changed hands from Labour to the Scottish National Party with the election of Alan Brown. The Member of Parliament for the Kilmarnock and Loudoun constituency area in the Westminster parliament is Kilmarnock-born Alan Brown. Brown defeated Labour candidate Cathy Jamieson with an overwhelming majority with Brown receiving 30,000 votes with Jamieson only receiving 16,363; the member of the Scottish Parliament for Kilmarnock is Willie Coffey. In the Scottish Parliament, the town, as part of the Kilmarnock and Irvine Valley constituency, is represented by Willie Coffey who has represented the seat since the 2007 Scottish Parliamentary elections. Similar to the voting pattern shown at UK General Elections, in the Scottish Parliament elections, Kilmarnock had always been seen as a safe seat for Labour with an MSP representing the area since the parliament's re-establishment in 1999. Kilmarnock is the home of the East Ayrshire Council Chambers and offices situated on the London Road, thus making Kilmarnock the main town within East Ayrshire.
In local counci
Louise, Princess Royal
Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife was the third child and the eldest daughter of the British king Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark. In 1905, her father gave her the title of Princess Royal, bestowed on the eldest daughter of the British monarch if there is no living holder. Princess Louise was born at Marlborough House, the London residence of her parents the Prince and Princess of Wales, she spent much of her childhood at her parents' country estate in Norfolk. Like her sisters, Princesses Victoria and Maud, she received limited formal education, she was baptised at Marlborough House on 10 May 1867 by Archbishop of Canterbury. She and her sisters and Victoria, were bridesmaids at the wedding of their paternal aunt Princess Beatrice, to Prince Henry of Battenberg in 1885. On Saturday 27 July 1889, Princess Louise married Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, at the Private Chapel in Buckingham Palace. Two days after the wedding, Queen Victoria created him Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The letters patent creating this dukedom contained the standard remainder to heirs male of the body lawfully begotten. However, it became apparent that the Duchess would not have a son. Therefore, on 24 April 1900, Queen Victoria signed letters patent creating a second Dukedom of Fife, along with the Earldom of Macduff in the Peerage of the United Kingdom with a special remainder: in default of a male heir, these peerages would pass to the daughters of the 1st Duke and to their male descendants; the Duke and Duchess of Fife had three children: Alastair Duff, Marquess of Macduff, stillborn 16 June 1890 Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife, married her first cousin once removed, Prince Arthur of Connaught, had issue. Her Highness Princess Maud of Fife married the 11th Earl of Southesk, had issue. On 9 November 1905, King Edward VII created Princess Louise the Princess Royal, the highest honour bestowed on a female member of the royal family. At the same time, the King declared that the two daughters of the Princess Royal would be styled as princesses, with precedence after all members of the royal family bearing the style of "Royal Highness".
In December 1911, while sailing to Egypt, the Princess Royal and her family were shipwrecked off the coast of Morocco. Although they escaped unharmed, the Duke of Fife fell ill with pleurisy contracted as a result of the shipwreck, he died at Assuan, Egypt in January 1912, Princess Alexandra succeeded to his dukedom, becoming Duchess of Fife in her own right. Princess Alexandra married Prince Arthur of Connaught, a first cousin of Princess Louise. Princess Louise of Wales received the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert in 1885 and the Imperial Order of the Crown of India in 1887, she became a Lady of the Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem in 1888 and a Dame Grand Cross of that order in 1929. She became colonel-in-chief of the 7th Dragoon Guards in 1914, she served as colonel-in-chief of the 4th and 7th Dragoon Guards when it was formed in 1921. In the autumn of 1929 at Mar Lodge she was taken ill with gastric hemorrhage and was brought back to London; the Princess Royal died fifteen months in January 1931, at her home in Portman Square, London, at the age of 63 and was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.
Her remains were removed to the Private Chapel, Mar Lodge, Aberdeenshire. 20 February 1867 – 27 July 1889: Her Royal Highness Princess Louise of Wales 27 July 1889 – 22 January 1901: Her Royal Highness Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife 22 January 1901 – 9 November 1905: Her Royal Highness The Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife 9 November 1905 – 4 January 1931: Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal 1914: Colonel-in-chief of the 7th Dragoon Guards 1922: Colonel-in-chief of the 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards Upon her marriage, Princess Louise was granted a coat of arms, being those of the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom with an inescutcheon for Saxony, all differenced with a label argent of five points, the outer pair and centre bearing crosses gules, the inner pair bearing thistles proper. The inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant in 1917
House of Lords
The House of Lords known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, though the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, S
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Ayrshire is a historic county and registration county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. Its principal towns include Ayr and Irvine. Like many other counties of Scotland, it has no administrative function, instead being sub-divided into the council areas of North Ayrshire, South Ayrshire and East Ayrshire, it has a population of 366,800. The electoral and valuation area named Ayrshire covers the three council areas of South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire and North Ayrshire, therefore including the Isle of Arran, Great Cumbrae and Little Cumbrae; these three islands are part of the County of Bute and are sometimes included when the term Ayrshire is applied to the region. The same area is known as Arran in other contexts. Ayrshire is one of the most agriculturally fertile regions of Scotland. Potatoes are grown in fields near the coast, using seaweed-based fertiliser, in addition the region produces pork products, other root vegetables, cattle. Ayrshire shares with Dumfries and Galloway some rugged hill country known as the Galloway Hills.
These hills lie to the west of the A713 and they run south from the Loch Doon area to the Solway Firth. To the east of this route through the hills lie the Carsphairn and Scaur Hills which lie to the south east of Dalmellington and south of New Cumnock. Glen Afton runs deep into these hills. Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, serving Glasgow and the West of Scotland more is located 32 miles away from Glasgow in Ayrshire; the name Glasgow was added in front of Prestwick as per American military airport naming conventions, as the airport was in the past oft-used as a stopover by US military personnel on their way to and from military bases in Germany. Moreover, it is known in rock history as the only place in Britain visited by Elvis Presley, on his way home from army service in Germany in 1960; the area that today forms Ayrshire was part of the area south of the Antonine Wall, occupied by the Romans during the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius. It was inhabited by the Damnonii, it formed part of the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, incorporated into the Kingdom of Scotland during the 11th century.
In 1263, the Scots drove off the Norwegian leidang-army in a skirmish known as the Battle of Largs. A notable historic building in Ayrshire is Turnberry Castle, which dates from the 13th century or earlier, which may have been the birthplace of Robert the Bruce; the historic shire or sheriffdom of Ayr was divided into three districts or bailieries which made up the county of Ayrshire. The three districts were: Carrick in the south, it was situated between the Doon and the wild district of Galloway in the adjoining Stewartries, an area, little else than a vast tract of hills and mosses. Kyle in the centre, which included the royal burgh of Ayr, occupied the central district between the River Irvine in the north, the River Doon in the south and south-west, an area, quite hilly inland, it was subdivided into "Kyle Stewart", "King's Kyle," the former embracing the country between the Irvine and the River Ayr. Cunninghame in the north which included the royal burgh of Irvine was that part of the county which lay north of the Irvine water, was in an area, level and fertile.
The area used to be industrialised, with steel making, coal mining and in Kilmarnock numerous examples of production-line manufacturing, most famously Johnnie Walker whisky. In more recent history, Digital Equipment had a large manufacturing plant near Ayr from about 1976 until the company was taken over by Compaq in 1998; some supplier companies grew up to service this site and the more distant IBM plant at Greenock in Renfrewshire. Scotland's aviation industry has long been based in and around Prestwick and its international airport, although aircraft manufacture ceased at the former British Aerospace plant in 1998, a significant number of aviation companies are still based on the Prestwick site. However, unemployment in the region is above the national average. Throughout the 17th century, huge numbers of people from Ayrshire moved to Ulster, the northern province in Ireland, as part of the Plantation of Ulster, many of them with surnames such as Burns, Morrow, Flanagan and Cunningham. Today, the Ulster Scots dialect is an offshoot of the version of Lowland Scots spoken in Ayrshire.
The Ulster Scots dialect is still spoken throughout County Antrim and in parts of County Down and County Londonderry, as well as still being spoken in West Tyrone and parts of County Donegal. The Local Government Act 1889 established a uniform system of county councils in Scotland and realigned the boundaries of many of Scotland's counties. Subsequently, Ayr county council was created in 1890. In 1930 the Local Government Act 1929 was implemented; this re-designated the Burghs into small burghs. This new categorisation influenced the level of autonomy that the Burghs enjoyed from the county council; the act abolished the parish as a unit of local government in Scotland. In Ayrshire in excess of 30 parishes were consolidated into ten district councils; the Di
George Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon
General George Duncan Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon, styled Marquess of Huntly until 1827, was a Scottish nobleman and politician and the last of his illustrious line. George was born at Edinburgh on 2 February 1770, the eldest son of Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon and his wife, the celebrated Jane Gordon, Duchess of Gordon, née Lady Jane Maxwell, he was educated at Eton. He rose to the rank of general; as Marquess of Huntly, he served with the guards in Flanders from 1793 to 1794. He commanded the 92nd Highlanders, raised by his father the Alexander Gordon as the 100 Regiment of Foot 1794 and renumbered in 1798, commanded the regiment in Spain, Corsica and the Netherlands from 1795 to 1799, where he was badly wounded, he commanded a division in the Walcheren Expedition of 1809. He was a freemason and was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland from 1792 to 1794, he was Member of Parliament for Eye from 1806 to 1807. On 11 April 1807, at the age of 37, he was summoned to the House of Lords in one of the minor peerages of his father.
He was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1830, was Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland from 1828 to 1830, from 1827 to 1836 was Governor of Edinburgh Castle. He married at Bath, on 11 December 1813, Elizabeth Brodie, twenty-four years his junior. Brodie was the daughter of Alexander Brodie of Arnhall in Kincardineshire. Elizabeth Grant described her thus: His bride was young, good, rich, but neither clever nor handsome, she made him happy and paid his most pressing debts, her father did, old Mr Brodie of the Burn, brother to Brodie of Brodie.... He made a large fortune. To her husband her large fortune was the least part of her value. In her years she got into the cant of the Methodists. However, at the time of his marriage and, in fact, until he inherited the Dukedom, George found himself in constant financial difficulties, he was referred to as "Lord Huntly now in the decline of his rackety life, overwhelmed with debts, sated with pleasure, tired of fashion, the last heir male of the Gordon line".
While his marriage remedied some of these problems, it did not supply the much sought-after heir. Like his father, George acquired many of the positions which the Gordon family could expect as of right; these included the posts of Lord Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire, Chancellor of Marischal College and Lord High Constable of Scotland. He held the latter post of Lord High Constable for the Coronation of King George the Fourth in 1820. By the time of his succession to the dukedom, he had established a reputation as an extreme reactionary, he steadfastly opposed the Great Reform Bill and when the majority of Tory Peers opted to abstain, he remained one of the twenty-two "Stalwarts" who voted against the Third Reading of the Bill in the House of Lords on 4 June 1832. Throughout much of this period, his wife served Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, wife of King William IV, at Court. Indeed, she was given the Queen's Coronation robe, now to be found with many other Gordon memorabilia at Brodie Castle. Nathaniel Parker Willis, the American journalist, has left us with an interesting account of life at Gordon Castle in the twilight years of the 5th Duke's life.
He described the "canonically fat porter" at the lodges who admitted him to a "rich private world peopled by ladies cantering sidesaddle on palfreys, ladies driving nowhere in particular in phaetons, gentlemen with guns, keepers with hounds and terrier at heel, everywhere a profusion of fallow deer and pheasants. At the castle a dozen lounging and powdered menials." Willis continued: "I never realised so forcibly the splendid results of wealth and primogeniture." Just before dinner the Duke called at his room, "an affable white-haired gentleman of noble physiognomy, but singularly cordial address, wearing a broad red ribbon across his breast, led him through files of servants to a dining room ablaze with gold plate." The Duke died at Belgrave Square, London, on 28 May 1836, aged 66. The Dukedom of Gordon became extinct, but the Marquessate of Huntly passed to his distant cousin the Earl of Aboyne while the Gordon estates passed to his nephew, Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond; the Gordon moveable property was left by the Duchess to the Brodies of Brodie.
Elizabeth Brodie, the last Duchess of Gordon, retired to Huntly Castle Lodge, where she became more fervently religious than she had been until her death on 31 January 1864, when the last trace of the original Dukedom of Gordon was extinguished. The Duke and Duchess of Gordon established the Gordon Chapel in Fochabers that contains a memorial tablet to the 5th and last Duke; the Duke had three illegitimate children: Charles Gordon, Susan Sordet, Georgiana McCrae. "Gordon, George". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Gordon George Gordon, 5th Duke of Gordon