William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, PC, FRS, PC was a British Whig statesman. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807 as head of the Ministry of All the Talents, Grenville was the son of Whig Prime Minister George Grenville. His mother Elizabeth was daughter of the Tory statesman Sir William Wyndham Bart and he had two elder brothers Thomas and George - he was thus uncle to the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. Grenville was educated at Eton, Christ Church, Grenville entered the House of Commons in 1782. He soon became an ally of the Prime Minister, his cousin William Pitt the Younger. In 1789 he served briefly as Speaker of the House of Commons before he entered the cabinet as Home Secretary. He became Leader of the House of Lords when he was raised to the peerage the next year as Baron Grenville, the next year, in 1791, he succeeded the Duke of Leeds as Foreign Secretary. Grenvilles decade as Foreign Secretary was a one, seeing the Wars of the French Revolution.
Grenville left office with Pitt in 1801 over the issue of Catholic Emancipation and he did part-time military service at home as Major in the Buckinghamshire Yeomanry cavalry in 1794 and as Lieutenant-Colonel in the South Buckinghamshire volunteer regiment in 1806. In his years out of office, Grenville became close to the opposition Whig leader Charles James Fox, grenvilles cousin William Windham served as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, and his younger brother, Thomas Grenville, served briefly as First Lord of the Admiralty. The Ministry ultimately accomplished little, failing either to make peace with France or to accomplish Catholic emancipation and it did have one significant achievement, however, in the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. In the post-war years, Grenville gradually moved closer to the Tories. His political career was ended by a stroke in 1823, Grenville served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1810 until his death in 1834. Dropmore House was built in the 1790s for Lord Grenville, the architects were Samuel Wyatt and Charles Tatham.
Grenville knew the spot from rambles during his time at Eton College, on his first day in occupation, he planted two cedar trees. At least another 2,500 trees were planted, by the time Grenville died, his pinetum contained the biggest collection of conifer species in Britain. Part of the restoration is to use what survives as the basis for a collection of some 200 species. Lord Grenville married the Honourable Anne, daughter of Thomas Pitt, 1st Baron Camelford and he died in January 1834, aged 74, when the barony became extinct
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He is known for his plays such as The Rivals, The School for Scandal, The Duenna and he was a Whig MP for 32 years in the British House of Commons for Stafford and Ilchester. He is buried at Poets Corner in Westminster Abbey and his plays remain a central part of the canon and are regularly performed worldwide. RB Sheridan was born in 1751 in Dublin, where his family had a house on fashionable Dorset Street, while in Dublin Sheridan attended the English Grammar School in Grafton Street. The family moved permanently to England in 1758 when he was aged seven and he was a pupil at Harrow School from 1762 to 1768. His mother, Frances Sheridan, was a playwright and novelist and she had two plays produced in London in the early 1760s, though she is best known for her novel The Memoirs of Miss Sidney Biddulph. In 1772 Sheridan fought two duels with Captain Thomas Mathews, who had written a newspaper article defaming the character of Elizabeth Ann Linley, the woman Sheridan intended to marry.
In the first duel, they agreed to fight in Hyde Park, far from its romantic image, the duel was short and bloodless. Mathews lost his sword and, according to Sheridan, was forced to beg for his life, the apology was made public and Mathews, infuriated by the publicity the duel had received, refused to accept his defeat as final and challenged Sheridan to another duel. Sheridan was not obliged to accept this challenge, but could have become a social pariah if he had not, the second duel, fought in July 1772 at Kingsdown near Bath, was a much more ferocious affair. This time both men broke their swords but carried on fighting in a struggle for life and honour. His remarkable constitution pulled him through, and eight days after this affair the Bath Chronicle was able to announce that he was out of danger. Mathews escaped in a post chaise, the young couple entered the fashionable world and apparently held up their end in entertaining. In 1775 Sheridans first play, The Rivals, was produced at Londons Covent Garden Theatre and it was a failure on its first night.
Sheridan cast a more capable actor in the lead for its performance, and it was a smash which immediately established the young playwrights reputation. It has gone on to become a standard of English literature, shortly after the success of The Rivals and his father-in-law Thomas Linley the Elder, a successful composer, produced the opera, The Duenna. This piece was accorded such a reception that it played for seventy-five performances. In the next year,1776, his father-in-law and one other partner bought a half-interest in the Drury Lane theatre and, Sheridan was the manager of the theatre for many years, and became sole owner with no managerial role
An editorial cartoon, known as a political cartoon, is a drawing containing a commentary expressing the artists opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist and they typically combine artistic skill and satire in order to question authority and draw attention to corruption, political violence and other social ills. The pictorial satire of William Hogarth has been credited as the precursor to the political cartoon and his pictures combined social criticism with sequential artistic scenes. A frequent target of his satire was the corruption of early-18th-century British politics and his art often had a strong moralizing element to it, such as in his masterpiece of 1719, A Rakes Progress. However, his work was only tangentially politicized and was regarded on its artistic merits. George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend produced some of the first overtly political cartoons, Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, and has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon.
The times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable to the growth of a school of caricature. Party warfare was carried on with vigour and not a little bitterness. Gillrays incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, george Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray. His early career was renowned for his caricatures of English life for popular publications. He gained notoriety with his prints that attacked the royal family. His work included a personification of England named John Bull who was developed from about 1790 in conjunction with other British satirical artists such as James Gillray, and Thomas Rowlandson. The art of the cartoon was further developed with the publication of the periodical Punch in 1841, founded by Henry Mayhew. It was bought by Bradbury and Evans in 1842, who capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies to turn the magazine into a preeminent national institution. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene.
This group became known as The Punch Brotherhood, which included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman, Punch authors and artists contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week, created in response to Dickens departure from Household Words. For over five decades he was a steadfast social witness to the sweeping changes that occurred during this period alongside his fellow cartoonist John Leech. By the mid 19th century, major newspapers in many countries featured cartoons designed to express the publishers opinion on the politics of the day
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published. Magazines are generally published on a schedule and contain a variety of content. They are generally financed by advertising, by a price, by prepaid subscriptions. At its root, the magazine refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles and this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at three, with the standard sizing being 8 3/8 ×10 7/8 inches. However, in the sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume. Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy, academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are generally professional magazines.
That a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense, magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations. The subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a basis or by subscription. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics and this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed and this is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. This allows a level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertisers target audience.
This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, for the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International. The earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, the Gentlemans Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentlemans Magazine under the pen name Sylvanus Urban, was the first to use the term magazine, founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics, Caricatures can be insulting or complimentary and can serve a political purpose or be drawn solely for entertainment. Caricatures of politicians are commonly used in cartoons, while caricatures of movie stars are often found in entertainment magazines. The term is derived from the Italian caricare—to charge or load, an early definition occurs in the English doctor Thomas Brownes Christian Morals, published posthumously in 1716. Expose not thy self by four-footed manners unto monstrous draughts, with the footnote, When Mens faces are drawn with resemblance to some other Animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in Caricatura Thus, the word caricature essentially means a loaded portrait. Some of the earliest caricatures are found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci, the point was to offer an impression of the original which was more striking than a portrait.
Caricature took a road to its first successes in the aristocratic circles of France and Italy. These caricatures were the work of Brig. -Gen, george Townshend whose caricatures of British General James Wolfe, depicted as Deformed and crass and hideous, were drawn to amuse fellow officers. Elsewhere, two great practitioners of the art of caricature in 18th-century Britain were Thomas Rowlandson and James Gillray, Rowlandson was more of an artist and his work took its inspiration mostly from the public at large. Gillray was more concerned with the vicious visual satirisation of political life and they were, great friends and caroused together in the pubs of London. In a lecture titled The History and Art of Caricature, the British caricaturist Ted Harrison said that the caricaturist can choose to either mock or wound the subject with an effective caricature. Drawing caricatures can simply be a form of entertainment and amusement – in which case gentle mockery is in order – or the art can be employed to make a social or political point. A caricaturist draws on the characteristics of the subject, the acquired characteristics.
Sir Max Beerbohm and published caricatures of the men of his own time. His style of single-figure caricatures in formalized groupings was established by 1896 and his published works include Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, The Poets Corner, and Rossetti and His Circle. He published widely in magazines of the time, and his works were exhibited regularly in London at the Carfax Gallery. George Cruikshank created political prints that attacked the family and leading politicians. He went on to create caricatures of British life for popular publications such as The Comic Almanack
Sarah Baartman, called Saartjie, was likely born in 1789 in the Gamtoos valley in the eastern part of the Cape Colony. In 1810, she went to England with her employer, a black man called Hendrik Cesars, and William Dunlop. They sought to show her for money on the London stage, Sara Baartman spent four years on stage in England and Ireland. Early on, her treatment on the Picadilly stage caught the attention of British abolitionists, who argued that her performance was indecent, the court ruled in favour of her exhibition after Dunlop produced a contract made between himself and Baartman. It is doubtful that this contract was valid, it was produced for the purposes of the trial. Cesars left the show and Dunlop continued to display Baartman in country fairs, Baartman moved to Manchester where she was baptized as Sarah Bartmann. In 1814, after Dunlops death, a man called Henry Taylor brought Baartman to Paris and he sold her to an animal trainer, S. Reaux, who made her amuse onlookers who frequented the Palais-Royal.
Georges Cuvier and professor of anatomy at the Museum of Natural History examined Baartman as he searched for proof of a so-called missing link between animals and human beings. Baartmans body became the foundation for racist science, Baartman lived in poverty, and died in Paris of an undetermined inflammatory disease in December 1815. After her death, Cuvier dissected her body, and displayed her remains, for more than a century and a half, visitors to the Museum of Man in Paris could view her brain and genitalia as well as a plaster cast of her body. Her remains were returned to South Africa in 2002 and she was buried in the Eastern Cape on South Africas Womens Day. Sara Baartman was born to a Khoisan family in the vicinity of the Gamtoos River in what is now the Eastern Cape of South Africa and her father was killed by Bushmen while driving cattle. Saartjie is the form of Sara, in Cape Dutch the use of the diminutive form commonly indicated familiarity. Baartman spent her childhood and teenage years on settler farms and she went through puberty rites, and kept the small tortoise shell necklace, probably given to her by her mother, until her death in France.
In the 1790s, a free black trader named Peter Cesars met her and encouraged her to move to Cape Town, records do not show whether she was made to leave, or went willingly, or was sent by her family to Cesars. She lived in Cape Town for at least two working in households as a washerwoman and a nursemaid, first for Peter Cesars. She moved finally to be a wet-nurse in the household of Peter Cesars brother-in-law, Hendrik Cesars, Sara Baartman lived alongside slaves in the Cesars household. As someone of Khoisan descent she could not be formally enslaved, there is evidence that she had two children, though both died as babies
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Argus Panoptes is a many-eyed giant in Greek mythology. The monstrous entity has been either included or indirectly alluded to in a wide variety of works influenced by Greco-Roman thought over the past several centuries. Argus Panoptes, guardian of the heifer-nymph Io and son of Arestor, was a giant whose epithet, all-seeing, led to his being described with multiple, often one hundred. The epithet Panoptes was applied to the Titan of the Sun and was taken up as an epithet by Zeus, Zeus Panoptes. In a way, Walter Burkert observes, the power and order of Argos the city are embodied in Argos the neatherd, lord of the herd and lord of the land, whose name itself is the name of the land. And the goddess stirred in him unwearying strength, sleep never fell upon his eyes and his great service to the Olympian pantheon was to slay the chthonic serpent-legged monster Echidna as she slept in her cave. Heras defining task for Argus was to guard the white heifer Io from Zeus and she charged him to Tether this cow safely to an olive-tree at Nemea.
Hera knew that the heifer was in reality Io, one of the many nymphs Zeus was coupling with to establish a new order, to free Io, Zeus had Argus slain by Hermes. The sacrifice of Argus liberated Io and allowed her to wander the earth, according to Ovid, to commemorate her faithful watchman, Hera had the hundred eyes of Argus preserved forever, in a peacocks tail. The myth makes the closest connection of Argus, the neatherd, in the Library of pseudo-Apollodorus, Argos killed the bull that ravaged Arcadia, clothed himself in its skin. Media related to Argus Panoptes at Wikimedia Commons Theoi Project - Gigante Argos Panoptes Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
National Library of Australia
In 2012–2013, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia, from its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a truly national collection. The present library building was opened in 1968, the building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden. The foyer is decorated in marble, with windows by Leonard French. In 2012–2013 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, the Librarys collections of Australiana have developed into the nations single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are actively sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas, approximately 92. 1% of the Librarys collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue.
The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, and maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson, the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Librarys considerable collections of general overseas and rare materials, as well as world-class Asian. The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings, the Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection. The Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers, williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Librarys catalogue. The National Library holds a collection of pictures and manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space, the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific.
The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have received as part of formed book collections. Examples are the papers of Alfred Deakin, Sir John Latham, Sir Keith Murdoch, Sir Hans Heysen, Sir John Monash, Vance Palmer and Nettie Palmer, A. D. Hope, Manning Clark, David Williamson, W. M. The Library has acquired the records of many national non-governmental organisations and they include the records of the Federal Secretariats of the Liberal party, the A. L. P, the Democrats, the R. S. L. Finally, the Library holds about 37,000 reels of microfilm of manuscripts and archival records, mostly acquired overseas and predominantly of Australian, the National Librarys Pictures collection focuses on Australian people and events, from European exploration of the South Pacific to contemporary events. Art works and photographs are acquired primarily for their informational value, media represented in the collection include photographs, watercolours, lithographs, engravings and sculpture/busts