Indian River (Florida)
The Indian River is a 121-mile long brackish lagoon in Florida, is part of the Indian River Lagoon system, which in turn forms part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. It was named Rio de Ais after the Ais Indian tribe, who lived along the east coast of Florida, but was given its current name; the Indian River extends southward from the Ponce de Leon inlet in New Smyrna Beach in Volusia County southward and across the Haulover Canal and along the western shore of Merritt Island. The Banana River flows into the Indian River on the island's south side; the Indian River continues southward to St. Lucie Inlet. At certain seasons of the year, bridges have tended to impede the flow of gracilaria, resulting in an odor of hydrogen sulfide in the area. Tributaries of the Indian River include the Merritt Island Barge Canal, the C-54 Canal, Crane Creek, the Eau Gallie River, Horse Creek, Mullet Creek, St. Sebastian River, St. Lucie River, Sykes Creek, Turkey Creek. An estuary of Indian River is Palm Bay.
The St. Johns-Indian River Barge Canal was proposed in the 1960s to provide a water link to the St. Johns River, but was cancelled in the early 1970s. Media related to Indian River at Wikimedia Commons An early 20th Century description of the Indian River Hernandez Trail History
Jennifer Sandra Carroll is a Trinidadian-born American politician and retired naval officer who served as the 18th Lieutenant Governor of Florida from January 4, 2011 to March 12, 2013. Carroll is the first black person and Trinidadian-American elected to the office. Carroll served as a Republican member of the Florida House of Representatives, she is the bestselling author of an autobiography entitled. Although she was cleared, Carroll came under scrutiny for public relations work for a charity that involved itself in gambling and for $24,000 in income that she failed to report on financial disclosures and tax returns. At the request of Governor Rick Scott, Carroll resigned her post as lieutenant governor on March 12, 2013; the Florida Department of Law Enforcement subsequently concluded. As a new group of florida's political leadership takes the reins of the state, black floridians ‒ including supporters of president Donald Trump ‒ were notable by their presence. Former Lt. Gov. Jennifer Carroll, the highest-ranking Black female elected official in Florida history thus far, was invited to the formal inauguration ceremony.
Carroll was born in Port of Spain and Tobago. She moved to the United States at the age of eight, graduated from Uniondale High School in Uniondale, Long Island New York in 1977, she enlisted in the U. S. Navy in 1979. After serving as an aviation machinist's mate, she was selected for the Enlisted Commissioning Program, becoming an Aviation Maintenance Duty Officer in 1985, she retired from the U. S. Navy in 1999 as a lieutenant commander. In 1981, she received an Associate of Arts degree from Leeward Community College, she followed this in 1985 with a Bachelor of Arts in political science from the University of New Mexico. She moved to Florida in 1986, she received a Master of Business Administration degree from unaccredited and now defunct Kensington University in 1995. Carroll resigned her position on the National Commission of Presidential Scholars to accept a presidential appointment to the Veterans' Disability Benefits Commission, she returned to school to earn an accredited Master of Business Administration degree online from St. Leo University in 2008.
Following the 2000 elections, Carroll was appointed Executive Director of the Florida Department of Veterans Affairs by Republican Governor Jeb Bush and served in that post until July 2002. Republican President George W. Bush appointed Carroll to the Commission on Presidential Scholars from 2001 to 2004, a seat on the Veterans' Disability Benefits Commission from 2004 to 2007. Carroll is a member of the Clay County Republican Executive Committee. In 2000, she ran for a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives in the Florida's 3rd congressional district. Incumbent Democrat U. S. Congresswoman Corrine Brown defeated Carroll 58%–42%. After redistricting, she ran for a rematch against Brown in the newly redrawn 3rd district in 2002. Brown defeated her 59%–41%. Carroll is one of the founders of Maggie's List, a federal PAC that supports conservative female candidates. Carroll ran for a seat Florida House of Representatives in the 13th state House district after incumbent State Representative Mike Hogan a Republican, resigned in 2003.
In the April 2003 special election, she won the Republican primary with 65.5 percent of the vote, defeating Linda Sparks, who won 34.5 percent of the vote. She became the first Black female Republican elected to the Florida Legislature, she won unopposed in 2004, 2006, 2008. Carroll was appointed Deputy Majority Leader from 2003–2004, served as Majority Whip in 2004–2006, she was Vice Chair of the Transportation and Economic Development Committee, Chair of the Finance Committee and Chair of the Economic and Development Council. On November 2, 2010, the Republican ticket of Rick Scott and Jennifer Carroll defeated the Democratic ticket of Alex Sink and Rod Smith, 48.9%-47.7%. The first black person, the first woman, the first Trinidadian American elected to the position, she assumed the office on January 4, 2011. Carroll was the first black Republican elected to statewide office in Florida since Reconstruction. Carroll came under scrutiny for public relations work for a charity that involved itself in gambling and for $24,000 in income that she failed to report on financial disclosures and tax returns.
At the request of Governor Rick Scott, Carroll resigned her post as lieutenant governor on March 12, 2013. The Florida Department of Law Enforcement subsequently concluded. After working on the 2016 presidential campaign on behalf of Donald Trump, Carroll was appointed by President Donald J. Trump as a Commissioner on the American Battle Monuments Commission. Carroll has served on the Commission since April 2018. Carroll's husband is a retired senior master sergeant in the United States Air Force. Together, the Carrolls have three children. Carroll's son, Nolan Carroll II, has played football at the professional levels. List of female lieutenant governors in the United States Official website Project Vote Smart profile Profile, Florida House of Representatives website. Appearances on C-SPAN
Coquina is a sedimentary rock, composed either wholly or entirely of the transported and mechanically-sorted fragments of the shells of molluscs, brachiopods, or other invertebrates. The term coquina comes from the Spanish word for "cockle" and "shellfish". For a sediment to be considered to be a coquina, the particles composing it should average 2 mm or greater in size. Coquina can vary in hardness from poorly to moderately cemented. Incompletely consolidated and poorly-cemented coquinas are considered grainstones in the Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks. A well-cemented coquina is classified as a biosparite according to the Folk classification of sedimentary rocks. Coquinas accumulate in high-energy marine and lacustrine environments where currents and waves result in the vigorous winnowing, abrasion and sorting of the shells, which compose them; as a result, they exhibit well-developed bedding or cross-bedding, close packing, good orientation of the shell fragments.
The high-energy marine or lacustrine environments associated with coquinas include beaches, shallow submarine raised banks, swift tidal channels, barrier bars. Coquina is composed of the mineral calcite including some phosphate, in the form of seashells or coral. Coquinas dating from the Devonian period through to the much more recent Pleistocene are a common find all over the world, with the depositional requirements to form a coquina being a common thing in many marine facies. Adjacent to Shark Bay Road 45 kilometres southeast of Denham is an 110 kilometres long stretch of coastline composed of billions of tiny shells of the Shark Bay cockle, averaging less than 14 millimetres in length; the shell deposit, between 8 to 9 metres thick, has compacted and cemented in some areas into solid masses of limestone, quarried and cut into blocks used in local construction. St. Andrew's Anglican Church, the Old Pearler Restaurant, parts of the Shark Bay Hotel in Shark Bay were built from coquina shell blocks.
The church, built in 1954, has walls infilled with coquina shell blocks between a light steel frame and a shell facing, while the Old Pearler was built in 1974–1977 with buttressed coquina shell block walls. Discovered petroleum-bearing formations off the coast of northeastern Brazil hold coquina reservoirs of oil; the coquinas are heterogeneous in their porosity and permeability, but like other lacustrine carbonates, they are uncommonly reservoirs. Corbett et al. in their discussion of the reservoirs say the finding of the Badejo Field in 1975 was the first hydrocarbon discovery in the coquinas of the Lagoa Feia, followed by that of the Pampo and Linguado Fields in 1978. The coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation were formed by non-marine ostracods; the shells of the bivalves, which lived in shallow oxygenated water, were transported and deposited as washout over stream fans and beaches by storms and long-shore drift. The palynological record of coquinas of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin has been analyzed and the sediments dated to the late Barremian age.
Daniel Thompson asserts that the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation include a wide range of marine mollusca characteristic of brackish environmental conditions, suggesting periodic marine ingression during the Early Cretaceous. According to a paper by Senira Kattah published in The Sedimentary Record, the discovery of the Lula Field by Petrobras and partners in 2006 opened petroleum exploration in the Barremian/Aptian pre-salt play in the offshore Santos and Campos basins, deeper coquina reservoirs have become important targets, he says the two main reservoir targets recognized for the pre-salt within the study areas are: "late rift coquinas, lacustrine facies deposited at the Late Barremian to Early Aptian, the younger rift/sag microbial limestones deposited during the Aptian, just before the establishment of the major evaporitic sag basin between South America and Africa." There are abundant beds of coquina in the Outer High of the Santos Basin, similar to those from the neighboring Campos.
Pre-salt stratigraphy of the Santos Basin shows lacustrine sediments composed of coarse pelecypod coquina during the Barremian and Aptian sag phase of the continental crust subsidence. Coquina deposits in Florida occur along the eastern coast of the peninsula; this coquina is named the Anastasia Formation after Anastasia Island, where the Spanish quarried the rock to construct the Castillo de San Marcos, the fortress they built to defend St. Augustine; the Anastasia Formation stretches from just north of St. Augustine in St. Johns County to southern Palm Beach County; the formation and associated sand form part of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, a Pleistocene barrier island chain that extends from Duval County to Dade County. Other coquina deposits are found in the state, but only in limited areas; the Anastasia Formation is exposed in a number of places along the east coast including Washington Oaks Gardens State Park, Gilbert’s Bar House of Refuge, Hutchinson Island in Martin County and Blowing Rocks Preserve, owned by The Nature Conservancy, in Palm Beach County.
Still quarried or mined, used as a building stone in Florida for over 400 years, coquina forms the walls of the Castillo in St. Augustine; the stone makes a good material for forts those built during the period of heavy cannon use. Because of coquina's softness, cannonballs would sink into, rather than shatter or puncture the walls; the first Saint Augustine lighthouse, built by the Spanish
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Fort Dallas was a military base during the Seminole Wars, located on the banks of the Miami River in what is now downtown, Florida, United States. Old Fort Dallas was established on the plantation of Richard Fitzpatrick and William English in 1836 as a United States military post and cantonment in southern Florida during the Seminole Wars. In 1836, the U. S. Navy established patrols on Biscayne Bay to prevent trading between the Seminoles and traders from Cuba or the West Indies. Fort Dallas was established to support the Navy's efforts, but more pointedly, "for the purpose of harassing the enemy." It was named in honor of Commodore Alexander James Dallas, United States Navy in command of the United States naval forces in the West Indies. The first commandant was Lieutenant F. M. Powell. Another noteworthy commander was U. S. Army Colonel William S. Harney of the 2nd Dragoons who led an attack against Seminole chief Chakaika in 1840. From 1836 to 1857 it was occupied much of the time by troops.
Quite a number of buildings were erected, today only two remain. In addition to these, there were a ten barracks, slave quarters, a blacksmith forge; the Post Surgeon took meteorological observations. During the tumultuous Seminole Wars, Fort Dallas not only provided the nervous Miami River settlers with a sense of security during the hostilities, but soldiers from the fort contributed to the development of the area; these early-to-mid-nineteenth century infrastructure expansions included a hospital, a road from Miami to Fort Lauderdale, a trading post. Fort Dallas was abandoned afterward. During the war, the place was occupied by refugees from many places, at the close of the war by a band of desperadoes. Judah P. Benjamin, who served as Attorney General, Secretary of War, Secretary of State for the Confederacy, made his escape to Cuba through Indian River and Bay Biscayne. In describing the trip, he refers to the rough treatment he received at the hands of occupants of the fort, but, he added that it was a beautiful and picturesque spot, with its white houses and fine parade ground.
The interior of the fort has been improved, care has been taken to preserve the exterior unchanged. When the soldiers left, the fort became the base for a tiny village established by William H. English, the new owner, which he called Miami; some of the buildings were razed to the ground and removed to other locations, in 1872, while the property was occupied by Dr. Harris, all the remaining buildings except the two still standing were burned, the fire originating accidentally in the house occupied by Dr. Harris. In 1891, Julia Tuttle brought her family to live in a large home on the Miami River, in use when Fort Dallas occupied the spot. Tuttle repaired and converted the home into one of the show places in the area with a sweeping view of the river and Biscayne Bay; the "barracks", as they are called, served as plantation slave quarters as army barracks during the Seminole Wars, as Julia Tuttle's home in 1891. The building remained on the site as the only remnant of the fort until 1924 when an apartment building was slated to occupy the site.
The coquina stone building was disassembled in sections and moved to Lummus Park on the north side of the Miami River at Northwest River Drive and North Third Street. In 1895, following the successful efforts of Tuttle and fellow landowner William Brickell to attract a railroad, Fort Dallas was part of the site of the new city of Miami, Florida when Henry M. Flagler extended his Florida East Coast Railway south from Palm Beach. Coincidentally, Tuttle and Flagler were all from Cleveland, Ohio. Notes Bibliography"Old Fort Dallas", Official Directory to the City of Miami and Nearby Towns, 1904 "History of Fort Dallas"; the Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Retrieved May 8, 2013. "Fort Dallas". City of Miami Historic Preservation. Retrieved May 8, 2013. "Fort Dallas is Abandoned in 1858". Miami-history.com. 10 June 2016
Slavery in the United States
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, it lasted in about half the states until 1865, when it was prohibited nationally by the Thirteenth Amendment. As an economic system, slavery was replaced by sharecropping. By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry; when the United States Constitution was ratified in 1789, a small number of free people of color were among the voting citizens. During and following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states and a movement developed to abolish slavery. Northern states depended on free labor and all had abolished slavery by 1805.
The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin increased demand for slave labor to pick cotton when it all ripened at once, the Southern states continued as slave societies. Those states attempted to extend slavery into the new Western territories to keep their share of political power in the nation. Southern leaders wanted to annex Cuba as a slave territory; the United States became polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states, in effect divided by the Mason–Dixon line which delineated Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware. During the Jefferson administration, Congress prohibited the importation of slaves, effective 1808, although smuggling via Spanish Florida was not unusual. Domestic slave trading, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South. More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families.
New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, the total slave population in the South reached 4 million before liberation. As the West was developed for settlement, the Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a political balance of power in Congress; the new territories acquired from Britain and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises. By 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, tensions continued to rise. Many white Southern Christians, including church ministers, attempted to justify their support for slavery as modified by Christian paternalism; the largest denominations—the Baptist and Presbyterian churches—split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven states broke away to form the Confederacy; the first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South.
Shortly after, the Civil War began. Four additional slave states seceded after Lincoln requested arms in order to make a retaliatory strike. Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war ended slavery before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the United States. Africans first came to the New World with Christopher Columbus in 1492. Juan Las Canaries was a crewman on the Santa Maria. Not much longer after, the first enslavement occurred in what would be the United States. In 1508, Ponce de Leon established the first settlement near present-day San Juan and began enslaving the indigenous Tainos. In 1513, to supplement the dwindling Tainos population, the first African slaves were imported to Puerto Rico; the first African slaves within the continental United States arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. On August 28, 1565, St. Augustine, Florida was founded by the Spanish conquistador Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles and he brought three African slaves with him. During the 16th and 17th centuries, St. Augustine was the hub of the slave trade in Spanish colonial Florida and the first permanent settlement in the continental United States to include African slaves.60 years in the early years of the Chesapeake Bay settlements, colonial officials found it difficult to attract and retain laborers under the harsh frontier conditions, there was a high mortality rate. Most laborers came from Britain as indentured laborers, signing contracts of indenture to pay with work for their passage, their upkeep and training on a farm.
The colonies had agricultural economies. These indentured laborers were young people who intended to become permanent residents. In some cases, convicted criminals were transported to the colonies as indentured laborers, rather than being imprisoned; the indentured laborers were not slaves, but were required to work
Lieutenant Governor of Florida
The Lieutenant Governor of Florida is a statewide elected office in the government of the U. S. state of Florida. According to the Florida Constitution, the lieutenant governor is elected to a four-year term congruent with that of the Governor of Florida, succeeds to the office of governor if it becomes vacant; the incumbent is Jeanette Núñez, who took office on January 8, 2019. The position of lieutenant governor has been used in Florida's government twice in the state's history; the first period spanned from 1865, after the American Civil War, through 1889. During this time, the lieutenant governor was elected independently of the governor. In addition to being first in succession to the governor, the lieutenant governor was the ex officio president of the Florida Senate, could cast a vote in the case of a tie. William W. J. Kelly was the first person elected lieutenant governor after the position was created by the 1865 Constitution of Florida; the position was abolished by the post-Reconstruction Constitution of 1885, with the last lieutenant governor, Milton H. Mabry, serving out his term until 1889.
After this point the office of President of the Senate was given to an elected member of the Senate, who served as first in line of succession to the governor. The state constitution was again revised in 1968, the office of lieutenant governor was recreated. In the modern period, the lieutenant governor is elected directly along with the governor as his or her running mate; the lieutenant governor serves as first in the line of succession, but the office of President of the Senate remains with an elected senator. The lieutenant governor has a few prescribed duties and otherwise assists the governor with the duties of the executive branch; the first lieutenant governor in the modern period was Ray C. Osborne, who took office in 1969. Parties No party Democratic Republican Parties No party Democratic Republican As of January 2019, there are eight former lieutenant governors of Florida who are living, the oldest being Wayne Mixson; the former lieutenant governor of Florida who died most was J. H. Williams on December 16, 2016.
Florida Florida Constitution Florida Democratic Party Florida State Capitol List of Governors of Florida List of current United States Lieutenant Governors Republican Party of Florida Manuscript Collections of Florida Lieutenant Governors The Political Graveyard: Florida: Lieutenant Governors