Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose. The wars eliminated the male lines of both families; the conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, but there was related fighting before and after this period between the parties. The power struggle ignited around social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, unfolding the structural problems of feudalism, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of King Henry VI which revived interest in Richard of York's claim to the throne. Historians disagree on. With the Duke of York's death in 1460, the claim transferred to Edward. After a series of Yorkist victories from January–February 1461, Edward claimed the throne on March 4, 1461, the last serious Lancastrian resistance ended at decisive Battle of Towton.
Edward was thus unopposed as the first Yorkist king of England, as Edward IV. Resistance smoldered in the North until 1464, but the early part of his reign remained peaceful. A new phase of the wars broke out in 1469 after The Earl of Warwick, the most powerful noble in the country, withdrew his support for Edward and threw it behind the Lancastrian cause. Fortunes changed many times as the Yorkist and Lancastrian forces exchanged victories throughout 1469–1470; when Edward fled to Flanders in 1470, Henry VI was re-installed as king on 3 October 1470, but his resumption of rule was short lived, he was deposed again following the defeat of his forces at the Battle of Tewkesbury, on 21 May 1471, Edward entered London unopposed, resumed the throne, had Henry killed that same day. With all significant Lancastrian leaders now banished or killed, Edward ruled unopposed until his sudden death in 1483, his son reigned for 78 days as Edward V, but was deposed by his uncle, who became Richard III. The ascension of Richard III occurred under a cloud of controversy, shortly after assuming the throne, the wars sparked anew with Buckingham's rebellion, as many die-hard Yorkists abandoned Richard to join Lancastrians.
While the rebellions lacked much central coordination, in the chaos the exiled Henry Tudor, son of Henry VI's half-brother Edmund Earl of Richmond, the leader of the Lancastrian cause, returned to the country from exile in Brittany at the head of an army of combined Breton and English forces. Richard avoided direct conflict with Henry until the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. After Richard III was killed and his forces defeated at Bosworth Field, Henry assumed the throne as Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter and heir of Edward IV, thereby uniting the two claims; the House of Tudor ruled the Kingdom of England until 1603, with the death of Elizabeth I, granddaughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Shortly after Henry took the throne, the Earl of Lincoln, a Yorkist sympathizer, put forward Lambert Simnel as an imposter Richard of York, younger brother of Edward V. Lincoln's forces were defeated, he was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487, bringing a close to the Wars of the Roses.
The name "Wars of the Roses" refers to the heraldic badges associated with two rival branches of the same royal house, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in 1829 of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott. Scott based the name on a scene in William Shakespeare's play Henry VI, Part 1, set in the gardens of the Temple Church, where a number of noblemen and a lawyer pick red or white roses to show their loyalty to the Lancastrian or Yorkist faction respectively, it is suggested by literary critics that Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has strong allegorical references to the conflict with York represented by the White Queen and Lancaster represented by the Red Queen. The Yorkist faction used the symbol of the white rose from early in the conflict, but the Lancastrian red rose was introduced only after the victory of Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, when it was combined with the Yorkist white rose to form the Tudor rose, which symbolised the union of the two houses.
Owing to nobles holding multiple titles, more than one badge was used: Edward IV, for example, used both his sun in splendour as Earl of March, but his father's falcon and fetterlock as Duke of York. Badges were not always distinct. Most, but not all, of the participants in the wars wore livery badges associated with their immediate lords or patrons under the prevailing system of bastard feudalism. Another example: Henry Tudor's forces at Bosworth fought under the banner of a red dragon while the Yorkist army used Richard III's personal device of a white boar. Although the names of the rival houses derive from the cities of York and Lancaster, the corresponding duchy and dukedom had little to do with these cities; the lands and offices attached to the Duchy of Lancaster were in Gloucestershire, North Wales, in Yorkshire, while the estates and castles of the Duke of York were spread throughout England and Wales, many in the We
Battle of Edgecote Moor
The Battle of Edgecote Moor took place 6 miles north east of Banbury, Oxfordshire, in what is now the civil parish of Chipping Warden and Edgcote, England on 26 July 1469 during the Wars of the Roses. The site of the battle was Danes Moor in Northamptonshire, at a crossing of a tributary of the River Cherwell; the battle saw supporters of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeat the forces of King Edward IV, leading to the king's capitulation soon afterwards. The Earl of Warwick came to be in open rebellion against Edward by 1469. Eight years after the great Yorkists' victory in battle of Towton in which The Kingmaker took crucial part, he and Edward IV fell out. In 1464 Warwick was in the middle of negotiations with pro-Lancastrian France, he knew that a royal marriage with a French princess could solve their problems. Warwick told Louis XI that Edward would be delighted to marry the French princess, but soon afterwards was informed of the humiliating truth: Edward had secretly been married to Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner, for the past six months.
On, Elizabeth's brothers and sisters were married off to ladies and nobles of importance, throughout the land. Most of these marriages offended Warwick in some way, at least one was a direct insult to his family. Warwick was angered by Edward's constant refusal to let George, Duke of Clarence, marry Warwick's eldest daughter. Edward claimed hypocritically that Clarence would serve for none other. Warwick no longer exercised any control or influence over his cousin, the King, in political matters. Thoughts turned to rebellion in Warwick's mind, a rebellion in which he had an ally: the Duke of Clarence, heir to the English throne while the king had no male offspring. Small rebellions in the North sent the King on a slow march in that direction. With the King's back turned, Warwick's agents spread rumours stating that the King was bastard-born and that Clarence was York's true heir. In the North, one of Warwick's captains, calling himself Robin of Redesdale, started a new rebellion; when Edward heard of this, he believed the rebellion would be put down and mustered only a few of his men.
He soon learned that the rebels in fact outnumbered his own small force, he started a retreat towards Nottingham to gather more recruits. The King lacked the popularity he once had, reinforcements were few. Edward decided to wait in Nottingham for the Earls of Pembroke and Devon to arrive with an army from the south. On 12 July and Clarence declared their support for the rebels. On the 18th, Warwick left London at the head of a large army to reinforce the rebels; the rebels hurried south to meet with Warwick, bypassing the King but nearly colliding with Pembroke and Devon at Edgecote Moor. The two armies became aware of each other on 25 July and joined in battle early in the morning of the 26th, on the same site as the Battle of Danes Moor; the beginning was a rather one-sided affair as the Earl of Devon and his Welsh archers were some miles away, having stayed the night in a neighbouring village. The rebels attacked across the river forcing Pembroke to retreat and pull his men back some distance.
Pembroke was attacked again in his new position. At 1 o'clock the Earl received the news he had been waiting for: Devon was advancing with all his men. However, at the same time the advance guard of Warwick's army arrived upon the field. Rebel morale was boosted. Seeing Warwick's livery amongst the enemy, Pembroke's men presumed his whole force of expert soldiers was upon them; the royal army broke and fled the field before Devon could reinforce them. The Earl of Pembroke and his brother Sir Richard Herbert were captured and executed the following day; the Earl of Devon suffered a similar fate a few days later. The rebel dead included Henry Neville, the eldest son and heir of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer, Sir John Conyers, the son of their general and Sir Oliver Dudley, the youngest son of John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley. Following the battle, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of the Yorkist Queen Elizabeth Woodville, his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469 On 12 and 13 September 2009 there was a re-creation of the battle on the actual battlefield, staged by the Medieval Siege Society and the English Tournament Society to commemorate the 540th anniversary.
Following the success of the 2009 commemoration and re-enactment, a second recreation was staged on 11 and 12 September 2010 for the 541st anniversary. Since 2009, an annual walk of the battlefield and the key sites has taken place on the Sunday closest to the anniversary; the walk pauses at the Trafford Bridge site to lay a wreath remembering all those that lost their lives from both sides. This is organised by the Medieval Siege Society. Haigh, Philip; the Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses. Brambley Books, 1995. Chapter 13. Weir, Alison; the Wars of the Roses. New York, Ballantine Books, 1995. Pp. 351–353. 2009 Re-enactment of the Battle of Edgecote The Medieval Siege Society The English Tournament Society
William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1570)
William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, 1st Baron Herbert of Cardiff KG was a Tudor period nobleman and courtier. Herbert was the son of Sir Richard Margaret Cradock, his father was an illegitimate son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke of the eighth creation by his mistress, daughter of Adam ap Howell Graunt. William Herbert's early life was distinguished by intense ambition coupled with an fierce temper and hot-headed nature. Described by John Aubrey as a "mad fighting fellow," the young Herbert began his career as a gentleman servant to the earl of Worcester. However, when a mercer called Vaughan was killed by Herbert, after an affray between some Welshmen and the watchmen for unknown reasons in Bristol, he fled to France. Upon arrival, he joined the service of King Francis I as a soldier, earning a reputation for courage and great skill on the battlefield. "In a short time he became eminent, was favoured by the king, who afterwards recommended him to Henry VIII of England, who much valued him, heaped favours and honours upon him."
For his service to King Henry, Herbert was granted the estates of Wilton and Cardiff Castle, his position as a man of means was secured. Herbert's first wife, Anne Parr, was sister of Queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife to King Henry VIII, he rose with the Parrs after his sister-in-law's marriage and was knighted in 1544. He had been granted Wilton Abbey and other land by Henry VIII by 1544, he pulled down the abbey, built the first Wilton House in the 1540s. Herbert was a Guardian of the young King Edward VI after the death of Henry VIII in 1547; as an executor of Henry's will and the recipient of valuable grants of land, Herbert was a prominent and powerful person during Edward's reign, with both the protector Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset and his rival, John Dudley, angling for his support. He threw in his lot with Dudley, after Somerset's fall obtained some of his lands in Wiltshire, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1549, created Baron Herbert of Cardiff on 10 October 1551, 1st Earl of Pembroke the following day, by Edward VI.
After the death of Edward VI, Herbert supported Lady Jane Grey's claim to the throne. Herbert arranged the marriage of his eldest son and heir, Henry, to Jane's sister, Lady Catherine Grey, at Durham House on 25 May 1553, the same day as her sister Jane was married to Guilford Dudley; the third couple married that day was the Duke of Northumberland's youngest daughter, Katherine, to Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon. When it became clear that Lady Mary Tudor would take the throne as Mary I, he cast his daughter-in-law, out of his house and had the marriage annulled. Lady Catherine's father and sister, were both executed for high treason in February 1554 by the orders of Queen Mary I. Herbert managed to distance himself from the Grey family after their fall and obtained the new queen's favour by crushing Thomas Wyatt's rebellion. In 1557 the English army under the Earl of Pembroke did not arrive in time for the battle of St Quentin, but played a significant role in the capture of the city that followed.
Pembroke was Mary's most effective commander at the war with France. Mary sometimes suspected Pembroke's loyalty, but he was employed as governor of Calais, as president of Wales and in other ways, he was to some extent in the confidence of Philip II of Spain. The earl retained his place at court under Elizabeth I until 1569, when he was suspected of favouring the projected marriage between Mary, Queen of Scots, the duke of Norfolk. According to John Aubrey's colourful Brief Life, he could "neither read nor write" but "had a stamp for his name." Aubrey says: "He was of good naturall parts, but colericque. In Queen Mary's time, upon the return of the Catholique religion, the nunnes came again to Wilton Abbey. Upon Queen Mary's death, the Earl came to Wilton and turned them out crying, "Out, ye jades! to worke, to worke—ye jades, goe spinne!" Herbert had a secretary'Robert Streynsham'. Herbert is reported to have had a close bond with his pet dog. Aubrey writes that he "had a little cur-dog which loved him, the earl loved the dog.
When the earl died the dog would not go from his master's dead body, but pined away, died under the hearse." Herbert's dog can be seen in the portrait at left. Herbert married twice: Firstly to Anne Parr, the younger sister of Queen Catherine Parr, 6th and last wife of King Henry VIII, by whom he had progeny: Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, eldest son and heir, who in 1553 married Lady Catherine Grey; the marriage was annulled in 1554 and he married secondly Catherine Talbot, a daughter of George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury. His third wife was Mary Sidney, a granddaughter of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, by whom he had issue, including William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke and Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke. Sir Edward Herbert, who married Mary Stanley, a daughter of Sir Thomas Stanley, Under-Treasurer of the Mint, by whom he had issue including William Herbert, 1st Baron Powis. Lady Anne Herbert, who in February 1562 married Francis, Lord Talbot, eldest son and heir apparent of George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, whom he predeceased.
There is no known issue from this marriage. Secondly he married Anne Talbot, a daughter of George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, widow of Peter Compton. There wa
Baron Herbert is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created by writ in 1461 for William Herbert, made Earl of Pembroke; the second Earl of Pembroke surrendered his earldom in return for Huntingdon. The barony, passed to his daughter Elizabeth, who would marry the first Earl of Worcester. At Elizabeth's death, the title passed to her son, who would inherit the earldom of Worcester; the fifth Earl was made Marquess of Worcester, the third Marquess became Duke of Beaufort. Thereafter, the barony and dukedom remained united until 1984, upon the death of the tenth Duke, the barony fell into abeyance. In 2002, the Queen terminated the abeyance of the barony of Herbert in favour of the last holder's great-nephew, David John Seyfried. William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke Elizabeth Somerset, 3rd Baroness Herbert Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester, 4th Baron Herbert William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester, 5th Baron Herbert Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester, 6th Baron Herbert Henry Somerset, 1st Marquess of Worcester, 7th Baron Herbert Edward Somerset, 2nd Marquess of Worcester, 8th Baron Herbert Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of Beaufort, 9th Baron Herbert Henry Somerset, 2nd Duke of Beaufort, 10th Baron Herbert Henry Somerset, 3rd Duke of Beaufort, 11th Baron Herbert Charles Noel Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort, 12th Baron Herbert Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, 13th Baron Herbert Henry Charles Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort, 14th Baron Herbert Henry Somerset, 7th Duke of Beaufort, 15th Baron Herbert Henry Charles Fitzroy Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, 16th Baron Herbert Henry Adelbert Wellington Fitzroy Somerset, 9th Duke of Beaufort, 17th Baron Herbert Henry Hugh Arthur Somerset, 10th Duke of Beaufort, 18th Baron Herbert David John Seyfried-Herbert, 19th Baron Herbert The heir apparent is the present holder's son the Hon. Oscar James Seyfried Herbert
Raglan Castle is a late medieval castle located just north of the village of Raglan in the county of Monmouthshire in south east Wales. The modern castle dates from between the 15th and early 17th centuries, when the successive ruling families of the Herberts and the Somersets created a luxurious, fortified castle, complete with a large hexagonal keep, known as the Great Tower or the Yellow Tower of Gwent. Surrounded by parkland, water gardens and terraces, the castle was considered by contemporaries to be the equal of any other in England or Wales. During the English Civil War the castle was held on behalf of Charles I but was taken by Parliamentary forces in 1646. In the aftermath, the castle was slighted, or deliberately put beyond military use. Raglan Castle became first a source of local building materials a romantic ruin, it now attracts visitors as a modern tourist attraction. Following the Norman invasion of Wales, the area around the village of Raglan was granted to William FitzOsbern, the Earl of Hereford.
Some historians, such as John Kenyon, suspect that an early motte and bailey castle may have been built on the Raglan site during this period: the location had strategic importance and archaeologists have discovered the remains of a possible bailey ditch on the site. The local manor was held by the Bloet family from the late 12th century until the late 14th century, the family built a manor house somewhere on the site during this period, surrounded by a park. By the late medieval period the Raglan site was surrounded by the large deer parks of Home Park and Red Deer Park, the latter being enclosed at the end of the period; the current Raglan Castle was begun by Sir William ap Thomas, the lesser son of a minor Welsh family who rose through the ranks of mid-15th century politics, profiting from the benefits of the local offices he held. William married first Elizabeth, a wealthy heiress, Gwladus, another heiress who would prove to be a powerful regional figure in her own right. In 1432 William purchased the manor of Raglan, where he had been staying as a tenant, for 1,000 marks and commenced a programme of building work that established the basic shape of the castle as seen today, although most of it — with the exception of the South Gate and the Great Tower — was built over.
William's son dropped the Welsh version of his name. He continued to rise in prominence, supporting the House of York during the War of the Roses, fighting in the Hundred Years War in France but making his fortune from the Gascon wine trade, he was closely associated with Welsh politics and status. In the 1460s William used his increasing wealth to remodel Raglan on a much grander scale; the symbolism of the castle architecture may have reflected the Welsh family roots: historian Matthew Johnson has suggested that the polygonal towers were designed to imitate those of Caernarfon Castle, whose architecture carries numerous allusions to the eventual return of a Roman Emperor to Wales. Historian Anthony Emery has described the resulting castle as one of the "last formidable displays of medieval defensive architecture". There was an important link between Raglan Castle and the surrounding parkland, in particular the Home Park and the Red Deer Park. Historian Robert Liddiard suggests that on the basis of the views from the castle at this time, the structured nature of the parks would have contrasted with the wilderness of the mountain peaks framing the scene beyond, making an important statement about the refinement and cultured nature of the castle lord.
In the 15th century there were extensive orchards and fish ponds surrounding the castle, favourably commented upon by contemporaries. William Herbert was executed as a Yorkist supporter in 1469 after the Battle of Edgecote Moor. Building work may have stopped for a period under his son called William Herbert, before recommencing in the late 1470s. By 1492, the castle passed to Elizabeth Somerset, William Herbert's daughter, who married Sir Charles Somerset, passing the castle into a new family line. Sir Charles Somerset was politically successful under both Henry VII and Henry VIII, being made the Earl of Worcester, his son, Henry Somerset, died shortly after inheriting Raglan, but not before using lead reclaimed from Tintern Abbey to help the building work at Raglan Castle during the dissolution of the monasteries. His son and grandson, William Somerset and Edward Somerset, proved to be what John Kenyon describes as "wealthy and cultured men". William rebuilt much of the Pitched Stone Court, including the hall, adding the Long Gallery and developing the gardens into the new Renaissance style.
The Somerset family owned two key castles in the region and Chepstow, these appeared to have figured prominently as important status symbols in paintings owned by the family. Edward Somerset made minor improvements to the interior of the castle at the start of the 17th century, but focused on the exterior and developing the gardens and building the moat walk around the Great Tower; the resulting gardens were considered the equal of any other others in the kingdom at the time. Upon inheriting Raglan in 1628, Henry Somerset the 5th Earl of Worcester, continued to live a grand lifestyle in the castle in the 1630s, with a host of staff, including a steward, Master of Horse, Master of Fishponds, auditors, ushers, a falconer and many footmen; the interior walls were hung with rich tapestries from Arras in France, while an inventory taken in 1639 recorded a large
Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland
Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, was an English magnate. The Earldom of Northumberland was one of the greatest landholdings in northern England; this title would bring him into direct conflict with the Poynings family themselves, indeed, feuds with neighbouring nobles, both lay and ecclesiastical, would be a key occupancy of his youth. Percy married Eleanor Poynings, he was a leading Lancastrian during the Wars of the Roses, from which he managed to benefit, although his father died early in the war. He was not, however, to live to enjoy these gains, being killed at the Battle of Towton in 1461 on the defeated Lancastrian side. Percy was the son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, Lady Eleanor Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, his second wife, Joan Beaufort. Percy was knighted in 1426 together with Henry VI, he was appointed Warden of the Eastern March on the Scottish border on 1 April 1440 for four years, subsequent extensions in 1444, 1445, for the next seven years.
This came as well with the custody of Berwick Castle and responsibility for its defence He was to hold this post until March 1461. In May 1448, with his father and Sir Robert Ogle, invaded Scotland in a pre-emptive defence of the border, burnt Dunbar and Dumfries, for which, in revenge, the Scots attacked his father's castles of Alnwick and Warkworth. King Henry made his way north, whilst at Durham sent Percy – now Lord Poynings – to raid Dumfrieshire. Sir Robert Ogle was now outlawed and the king used half of his estates to compensate Poynings for the ransom he had expended arranging his release from captivity. Tensions with Scotland remained, to the extent that Poynings, his father, other nobles were requested to stay and guard the border rather than attend Parliament, for which they were excused. In summer 1451, with an Anglo-Scottish truce pending, Poynings was commissioned to treat with Scottish embassies. In July 1455, he prevented an assault on Berwick by the Scottish King, James II, was congratulated by the English King as a result.
In the late 1440s, the Yorkshire tenants of his father, the Earl of Northumberland, were in constant conflict with their neighbours, those of the Archbishop of York, involving armed skirmishes which Percy's brothers led. These events were deemed so severe that in 1448 they led to the only progress north for the King during his reign; the same year, because of a dispute over the inheritance his family received as a result of Henry Percy's marriage, the Earl of Northumberland's retainers had ejected the earl's relative, Robert Poynings, from his Sussex manors. A year Henry Percy – now Lord Poynings by right of his wife – took direct part, with his father, in raiding the manor of Newington Bertram in Kent, enfeoffed by Robert; this attack apparently involved cattle rustling and theft, Robert claimed it to be so brutal that he was "deterred from seeking a remedy at law for three years". By the early 1450s, relations with a powerful neighbouring family, the Nevilles, became tense, Poyning's brother Thomas, Lord Egremont, had ambushed a Neville force, returning from a wedding, near Sheriff Hutton, with a force of between 1,000 and 5,000 men.
Although this was a bloodless confrontation, a precedent for the use of force in this particular dispute had been laid in the previous violence in the region. By October 1453, Poynings was directly involved, with his father, brothers Egremont and Richard, joined by Lord Clifford, in forcing a battle with John and Richard Neville at Topcliffe; the feud continued into the next year, when Poyning planned on attending parliament accompanied by a large force of men in February, three months both he and the earl were summoned by the king to attend council in attempt to impose a peace. Neither, along with John Salisbury, did as requested. During the Wars of the Roses, Percy followed his father in siding with the Lancastrians against the Yorkists; the Earl himself died at what is considered to be the first battle of the wars, at St Alban's on 22 May 1455, Poynings was elevated as third Earl of Northumberland, without having to pay relief to the Crown, due the fact that his father had died in the King's service.
He in his turn "swore to uphold the Lancastrian dynasty". Although a reconciliation of the leading magnates of the realm was attempted in October 1458 in London, he arrived with such a large body of men that the city denied him entry; the new earl and his brother Egremont were bound over £4,000 each to keep the peace. When conflict broke out again, he attended the so-called Parliament of Devils in October 1459, which condemned as traitors those Yorkists accused of, among other offences, causing the death of his father four years before. On 30 December 1460, Percy led the central "battle" or section of the victorious Lancastrian army at the Battle of Wakefield, following which, the army marched south, pillaging on the road to London, he fought against Warwick at the second Battle of St. Albans on 17 February 1461, he commanded the Lancastrian van at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461, however, "his archers were blinded by snowstorms", he was either slain in close fighting, or died of his wounds soon after.
He was buried at York. He was posthumously attainted by the first parliament of the
Henry V of England
Henry V called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England. In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry, his sudden and unexpected death in France two years condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France. Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle in Wales, for that reason was sometimes called Henry of Monmouth.
He was the son of Henry of Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun, thus the paternal grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, great-grandson of Edward III of England. At the time of his birth, Richard II, his first cousin once removed, was king. Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the king's guardian; as he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not documented. However, records indicate that his younger brother Thomas was born in the autumn of 1387 and that his parents were at Monmouth in 1386 but not in 1387, it is now accepted that he was born on 16 September 1386. Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly; the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland. While in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, Henry's grandfather died. In the same year, King Richard II was overthrown by the Lancastrian usurpation that brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir apparent to the Kingdom of England.
He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Earl of Chester and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year, Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the chancellor of the university. From 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. Less than three years Henry was in command of part of the English forces, he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days, John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, flushed the wound with alcohol.
The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. For eighteen months in 1410–11, Henry was in control of the country during his father's ill health and took full advantage of the opportunity to impose his own policies; when the king recovered, he dismissed the prince from his council. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henry's energies until 1408; as a result of the king's ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort, legitimised sons of John of Gaunt, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who discharged the prince from the council in November 1411; the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV. Their opponents endeavoured to defame the prince, it may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity.
Henry's record of involvement in war and politics in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel wi