Henry V of England
Henry V called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England. In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry, his sudden and unexpected death in France two years condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France. Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle in Wales, for that reason was sometimes called Henry of Monmouth.
He was the son of Henry of Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun, thus the paternal grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, great-grandson of Edward III of England. At the time of his birth, Richard II, his first cousin once removed, was king. Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the king's guardian; as he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not documented. However, records indicate that his younger brother Thomas was born in the autumn of 1387 and that his parents were at Monmouth in 1386 but not in 1387, it is now accepted that he was born on 16 September 1386. Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly; the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland. While in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, Henry's grandfather died. In the same year, King Richard II was overthrown by the Lancastrian usurpation that brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir apparent to the Kingdom of England.
He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Earl of Chester and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year, Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the chancellor of the university. From 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. Less than three years Henry was in command of part of the English forces, he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days, John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, flushed the wound with alcohol.
The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. For eighteen months in 1410–11, Henry was in control of the country during his father's ill health and took full advantage of the opportunity to impose his own policies; when the king recovered, he dismissed the prince from his council. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henry's energies until 1408; as a result of the king's ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort, legitimised sons of John of Gaunt, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who discharged the prince from the council in November 1411; the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV. Their opponents endeavoured to defame the prince, it may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity.
Henry's record of involvement in war and politics in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel wi
White Rose of York
The White Rose of York, a white heraldic rose, is the symbol of the House of York and has since been adopted as a symbol of Yorkshire as a whole. The origins of the emblem are said to go back to the fourteenth century, to Edmund of Langley, the first Duke of York and the founder of the House of York as a cadet branch of the ruling House of Plantagenet The actual symbolism behind the rose has religious connotations as it represents the Virgin Mary, called the Mystical Rose of Heaven; the Yorkist rose is white in colour, because in Christian liturgical symbolism, white is the symbol of light, typifying innocence and purity and glory. During the civil wars of the fifteenth century, the White Rose was the symbol of Yorkist forces opposed to the rival House of Lancaster; the red rose of Lancaster would be a invention used to represent the House of Lancaster, but was not in use during the actual conflict. The opposition of the two roses gave the wars their name: the Wars of the Roses The conflict was ended by King Henry VII of England, who symbolically united the White and Red Roses to create the Tudor Rose, symbol of the Tudor dynasty.
In the late Seventeenth Century the Jacobites took up the White Rose of York as their emblem, celebrating "White Rose Day" on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of James III and VIII in 1688. At the Battle of Minden in Prussia on 1 August 1759, Yorkshiremen of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry's predecessor the 51st Regiment picked white roses from bushes near to the battlefields as a tribute to their fallen comrades who had died, they stuck the plucked white roses in their coats as a tribute. Yorkshire Day is held on this date each year; the Yorkist Rose was engraved on the coffin holding the remains of King Richard III, the last Yorkist king of England and the last to die leading his troops in battle, interred at Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. The coffin was made by Michael Ibsen, a distant relative of the king, whose DNA helped to prove his identity; the flag of Yorkshire is a White Rose of York on a blue background. The flags of the three ridings prominently include it. More than 20 civic entities in Yorkshire have a coat of arms.
When depicted at small size it is rendered more more as a graphic image. In heraldry The Rose of York is seeded proper. According to the College of Heralds, the heraldic rose may be used with ether a petal at the top or with a sepal at the top. Traditionally, the rose is displayed with a petal at the top in the North Riding and West Riding but with a sepal at the top in the East Riding of Yorkshire, However this custom is disregarded; the Yorkist rose is used in the seal of the City of York, known as White Rose City. The town's minor league baseball team, which played in different leagues for several decades, was called the York White Roses; the white rose is featured on one of the hats for York's current minor league baseball team, the York Revolution. The hats are worn during War of the Roses games vs. the Lancaster Barnstormers. The York Rose features on the shield of Canada's York University; the York Rose features in the emblem of Lenana School, a tier-one High School in Nairobi, Kenya. Lenana School was known as Duke of York School, after the Duke of York.
Queens County, New York uses the red rose on the county flag. Queens County was named after Queen consort Catherine of Braganza, spouse of Charles II who sent a fleet to New York in 1664 to recapture New Amsterdam from the Dutch and renamed New York for the Duke of York, James brother of Charles II. White rose is the coat of arms of Lithuanian town Alytus - the regional capital, it is one of two coat of arms in the country that features roses. The largest pedestrian bridge built in 2013 - 2015 is named "The bridge of White Rose"; the name was chosen by the citizen of the town. Royal Badges of England Wars of the Roses Red Rose of Lancaster Tudor Rose White boar The White Rose on History of York
Anne Stafford, Countess of Huntingdon
Anne Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon was the daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Lady Katherine Woodville. She was the wife of Sir Walter Herbert, George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, served in the household of King Henry VIII's daughter, Princess Mary, the future Queen Mary I. Born around 1483, Lady Anne Stafford was the daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Katherine WoodvilleAnne Stafford had two brothers, Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire. In 1483, King Richard III executed Henry Stafford for treason. Anne's mother remarried to Jasper Tudor. In 1503, Anne married Sir Walter Herbert; when Herbert died in 1507, Anne gave control of her jointure, which included Raglan Castle in Wales, to her brother, Edward. Anne went to live in her brother's household at Thornbury until her second marriage to George Hastings in 1509. In 1510, Anne was the subject of a sex scandal, her brother had heard rumours. On one occasion, Stafford found Compton in Anne's room.
Compton was forced to take the sacrament to prove. Hastings sent Anne to live in a convent 60 miles away from the royal court. There is no evidence that Compton committed adultery. However, in 1523 Compton took the unusual step of bequeathing land to Anne in his will, directing his executors to include her in the prayers for his kin for which he had made provision in his will. Despite this scandal and Hastings enjoyed a close, loving relationship; this was evidenced by a letter written to Anne by Hastings in 1525, described as'one of the most affectionate and charming letters of the period'. Anne Stafford married firstly, in 1503, Sir Walter Herbert, an illegitimate son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke; the marriage was childless. She married secondly, in December 1509, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, they had five sons and three daughters: Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon, who married Katherine Pole, elder daughter of Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, by her had six sons, including Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, George Hastings, 4th Earl of Huntingdon, five daughters, including Frances, wife of Henry Compton, 1st Baron Compton.
Sir Thomas Hastings, who married, before October 1553, Winifred Pole, daughter of Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu, Jane Neville, daughter of George Neville, 4th Baron Bergavenny. There were no issue of the marriage. After Sir Thomas Hastings' death, Winifred Pole married Sir Thomas Barrington. Edward Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings of Loughborough. Henry Hastings. William Hastings. Lady Dorothy Hastings, who married Sir Richard Devereux, second son of Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford, Mary Grey, the daughter of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset; the eldest son of Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford, predeceased him, as did his second son, Sir Richard Devereux. However Sir Richard Devereux and Dorothy Hastings had a son, Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, his grandfather's heir. Lady Mary Hastings, who married Thomas Berkeley, 6th Baron Berkeley. Lady Katherine Hastings. Anne is the protagonist of At the King's Pleasure by Kate Emerson. In two 2007 episodes of the Showtime television series, The Tudors, portrayed by Anna Brewster, is presented as the 3rd Duke of Buckingham's daughter, is involved not with Henry VIII but with a fictionalized version of the King's future brother-in-law, Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
She is shown as dying of the same sweating sickness that killed William Compton. Anne is a character in The Constant Princess. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII. London: St Catherine Press. Davies, C. S. L.. "Stafford, third duke of Buckingham". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26202. Davies, C. S. L.. "Stafford, second duke of Buckingham". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26204. Dockray, Keith. "Stafford, earl of Wiltshire". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/70804. Harris, Barbara J.. English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Howell, A. Lloyd. "Devereux, first Viscount Hereford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7567. McGurk, J. J. N.. "Devereux, first earl of Essex". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7568.
Pollard, Albert Frederick. "Edward Stafford". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 53. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 446–7. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. II. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381. Richardson, Douglas. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. III. Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X. Richardson, Douglas
Raglan Castle is a late medieval castle located just north of the village of Raglan in the county of Monmouthshire in south east Wales. The modern castle dates from between the 15th and early 17th centuries, when the successive ruling families of the Herberts and the Somersets created a luxurious, fortified castle, complete with a large hexagonal keep, known as the Great Tower or the Yellow Tower of Gwent. Surrounded by parkland, water gardens and terraces, the castle was considered by contemporaries to be the equal of any other in England or Wales. During the English Civil War the castle was held on behalf of Charles I but was taken by Parliamentary forces in 1646. In the aftermath, the castle was slighted, or deliberately put beyond military use. Raglan Castle became first a source of local building materials a romantic ruin, it now attracts visitors as a modern tourist attraction. Following the Norman invasion of Wales, the area around the village of Raglan was granted to William FitzOsbern, the Earl of Hereford.
Some historians, such as John Kenyon, suspect that an early motte and bailey castle may have been built on the Raglan site during this period: the location had strategic importance and archaeologists have discovered the remains of a possible bailey ditch on the site. The local manor was held by the Bloet family from the late 12th century until the late 14th century, the family built a manor house somewhere on the site during this period, surrounded by a park. By the late medieval period the Raglan site was surrounded by the large deer parks of Home Park and Red Deer Park, the latter being enclosed at the end of the period; the current Raglan Castle was begun by Sir William ap Thomas, the lesser son of a minor Welsh family who rose through the ranks of mid-15th century politics, profiting from the benefits of the local offices he held. William married first Elizabeth, a wealthy heiress, Gwladus, another heiress who would prove to be a powerful regional figure in her own right. In 1432 William purchased the manor of Raglan, where he had been staying as a tenant, for 1,000 marks and commenced a programme of building work that established the basic shape of the castle as seen today, although most of it — with the exception of the South Gate and the Great Tower — was built over.
William's son dropped the Welsh version of his name. He continued to rise in prominence, supporting the House of York during the War of the Roses, fighting in the Hundred Years War in France but making his fortune from the Gascon wine trade, he was closely associated with Welsh politics and status. In the 1460s William used his increasing wealth to remodel Raglan on a much grander scale; the symbolism of the castle architecture may have reflected the Welsh family roots: historian Matthew Johnson has suggested that the polygonal towers were designed to imitate those of Caernarfon Castle, whose architecture carries numerous allusions to the eventual return of a Roman Emperor to Wales. Historian Anthony Emery has described the resulting castle as one of the "last formidable displays of medieval defensive architecture". There was an important link between Raglan Castle and the surrounding parkland, in particular the Home Park and the Red Deer Park. Historian Robert Liddiard suggests that on the basis of the views from the castle at this time, the structured nature of the parks would have contrasted with the wilderness of the mountain peaks framing the scene beyond, making an important statement about the refinement and cultured nature of the castle lord.
In the 15th century there were extensive orchards and fish ponds surrounding the castle, favourably commented upon by contemporaries. William Herbert was executed as a Yorkist supporter in 1469 after the Battle of Edgecote Moor. Building work may have stopped for a period under his son called William Herbert, before recommencing in the late 1470s. By 1492, the castle passed to Elizabeth Somerset, William Herbert's daughter, who married Sir Charles Somerset, passing the castle into a new family line. Sir Charles Somerset was politically successful under both Henry VII and Henry VIII, being made the Earl of Worcester, his son, Henry Somerset, died shortly after inheriting Raglan, but not before using lead reclaimed from Tintern Abbey to help the building work at Raglan Castle during the dissolution of the monasteries. His son and grandson, William Somerset and Edward Somerset, proved to be what John Kenyon describes as "wealthy and cultured men". William rebuilt much of the Pitched Stone Court, including the hall, adding the Long Gallery and developing the gardens into the new Renaissance style.
The Somerset family owned two key castles in the region and Chepstow, these appeared to have figured prominently as important status symbols in paintings owned by the family. Edward Somerset made minor improvements to the interior of the castle at the start of the 17th century, but focused on the exterior and developing the gardens and building the moat walk around the Great Tower; the resulting gardens were considered the equal of any other others in the kingdom at the time. Upon inheriting Raglan in 1628, Henry Somerset the 5th Earl of Worcester, continued to live a grand lifestyle in the castle in the 1630s, with a host of staff, including a steward, Master of Horse, Master of Fishponds, auditors, ushers, a falconer and many footmen; the interior walls were hung with rich tapestries from Arras in France, while an inventory taken in 1639 recorded a large
Henry VII of England
Henry VII was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor. Henry attained the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses, he was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war, his supportive stance of the British Isles' wool industry and his standoff with the Low Countries had long-lasting benefits to all of the British economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that indebted many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VII's death, after a commission revealed widespread abuses. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years.
Henry can be credited with a number of administrative and diplomatic initiatives. He paid close attention to detail, instead of spending lavishly he concentrated on raising new revenues and after a reign of nearly 24 years, he was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII; the new taxes were unpopular and two days after his coronation, Henry VIII arrested his father's two most unpopular ministers, Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley. They were charged with high treason and were executed in 1510. Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Countess of Richmond, his father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth. Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V, he rose to become one of the "Squires to the Body to the King" after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. Owen is said to have secretly married the widow of Catherine of Valois. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII.
Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, "formally declared legitimate by Parliament". Henry's main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunt's mistress for about 25 years, thus Henry's claim was somewhat tenuous: it was from a woman, by illegitimate descent. In theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile. Gaunt's nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunt's children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397. In 1407, Henry IV, Gaunt's son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but declaring them ineligible for the throne. Henry IV's action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henry's claim.
Nonetheless, by 1483 Henry was the senior male Lancastrian claimant remaining, after the deaths in battle or by murder or execution of Henry VI, his son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, the other Beaufort line of descent through Lady Margaret's uncle, the 2nd Duke of Somerset. Henry made some political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support and safeguarding his army's passage through Wales on its way to the Battle of Bosworth, he came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr, on occasion Henry displayed the red dragon of Cadwaladr. He took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth. A contemporary writer and Henry's biographer, Bernard André made much of Henry's Welsh descent. In reality, his hereditary connections to Welsh aristocracy were not strong, he was descended by the paternal line, through several generations, from Ednyfed Fychan, the seneschal of Gwynedd and through this seneschal's wife from Rhys ap Tewdwr, the King of Deheubarth in South Wales.
His more immediate ancestor, Tudur ap Goronwy, had aristocratic land rights, but his sons, who were first cousins to Owain Glyndŵr, sided with Owain in his revolt. One son was executed and the family land was forfeited. Another son, Henry's great-grandfather, became a butler to the Bishop of Bangor. Owen Tudor, the son of the butler, like the children of other rebels, was provided for by Henry V, a circumstance that precipitated his access to Queen Catherine of Valois. Notwithstanding this lineage, to the bards of Wales, Henry was a candidate for Y Mab Darogan – "The Son of Prophecy" who would free the Welsh from oppression. In 1456, Henry's father Edmund Tudor was captured while fighting for Henry VI in South Wales against the Yorkists, he died in three months before Henry was born. Henry's uncle Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke and Edmund's younger brother, undertook to protect the young widow, 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry; when Edward IV became King in 1461, Jasper Tudor went into exile abroad.
Pembroke Castle, the Earldom of Pembroke, were granted to the Yorkist William Herbert, who assumed the guardianship of Margaret Beaufort and the young Henry. Henry lived in the Herbert household
Red Rose of Lancaster
The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower of Lancashire. The exact species or cultivar which the red rose relates to is uncertain, but it is thought to be Rosa gallica officinalis; the rose. It was one of the badges of Henry IV of the first king of the House of Lancaster. Following the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, it became the emblem of Lancashire. Lancaster's Red Rose is an official variety and is the first cultivated rose; the rose was discovered by the ancient Persians and Egyptians. Adopted by the Romans, who introduced it to Gaul where it assumed the name Rosa gallica, it is documented. The rose was appreciated for its medical value and was utilized in countless medical remedies; the Red Rose of Lancaster derives from the gold rose badge of Edward I of England. Other members of his family used variants of the royal badge, with the king's brother, the Earl of Lancaster, using a red rose, it is believed that the Red Rose of Lancaster was the House of Lancaster's badge during the Wars of the Roses.
Evidence for this "wearing of the rose" includes land tenure records requiring service of a red rose yearly for a manor held directly from Henry VI of England. There are, doubts as to whether the red rose was an emblem taken up by the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses. Adrian Ailes has noted that the red rose “probably owes its popular usage to Henry VII responding to the pre-existing Yorkist white rose in an age when signs and symbols could speak louder than words." It allowed Henry to invent and exploit his most famous heraldic device, the Tudor Rose, combining the so-called Lancastrian red rose and the White Rose of York. This floral union neatly symbolised the restoration of peace and harmony and his marriage in January 1486 to Elizabeth of York, it was a brilliant piece of simple heraldic propaganda.” The Tudor Rose is used as the plant badge of England. The rose does not form any part of the insignia of the Duchy of Lancaster, but came to be seen as an emblem of the county of Lancashire, as such was incorporated in the coats of arms of numerous Lancashire local authorities including the county council.
Since 1974 a number of metropolitan boroughs in Greater Manchester and Merseyside have included red roses in their armorial bearings to show their formation from parts of Lancashire. It is present in the crest of the coat of arms of the London Borough of Enfield; the traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was never registered with the Flag Institute and when this was attempted it was found that this flag had been registered by the town of Montrose, Scotland. As two flags of the same design can not be registered, Lancashire’s official flag is now registered as a red rose on a yellow field. Today the Red Rose is still used, not on a yellow background. Lancashire County Cricket Club still use; the Trafford Centre features Red Roses in its architecture, most noticeably on all of the glass panes in the shopping centre. Lancashire GAA features. Manchester City Football Club featured the red rose on the club badge from 1972 to 1997 and reinstated it in 2015, reflecting Manchester's history as part of Lancashire.
It features on the badge of Blackburn Rovers and Bolton Wanderers. Edge Hill University in Ormskirk uses the Red Rose on a yellow background on its crest along with a Liver bird which signifies its current location and origins in Liverpool; the shield of Lancashire County Council's coat of arms, displays not one but three red roses, on gold piles on a red background. The arms have been official since 1903. From the nineteenth century the red rose was part of the badge of a number of units of the British Army recruiting in the county. In World War I the rose; the cap badge of the Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, formed in 2006, features. The Saskatoon Light Infantry of the Canadian Army incorporated the red rose into the design of their cap badge and regimental buttons, due to an alliance with the York and Lancaster Regiment of the British Army; the Canadian city of Montreal has a Lancastrian rose in the top right hand corner of its flag, representing the city's historical English community. The U.
S. City of Lancaster, known as "Red Rose City", uses the Lancastrian rose as its seal, in its flag. Royal Badges of England Wars of the Roses White Rose of York Tudor rose Lancashire villages homepage concerning the rose 55th Territorial
Richard Herbert of Coldbrook
Sir Richard Herbert of Coldbrook Park, near Abergavenny was a 15th-century Welsh knight, the lineal ancestor of the Herberts of Chirbury. He was the son of William ap Thomas of Raglan Castle and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, the brother of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, he married sister of Sir Rhys ap Thomas. They had two sons: Sir William Herbert of Coldbrook, Sir Richard Herbert of Powys, his great-grandson, Edward Herbert, was raised to the peerage in 1629. Like many members of the Welsh gentry, Herbert was a notable bardic patron, he was the principal patron of Ieuan Deulwyn, was a patron of Guto'r Glyn as well as others. He hosted a bardic debate at Coldbrook House between Bedo Brwynllys, he was eulogized by Ieuan Deulwyn, Bedo Brwynllys, Hywel Dafi, Huw Cae Llwyd. Like his brother, he was a supporter of the House of York during the Wars of the Roses, he fought alongside his brother at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, where he was executed. He is interred with his wife near other members of his family.
Coxe, William. A Historical Tour Through Monmouthshire. Hereford: Davies & Co. Dwnn, Lewys. Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches Between 1586 and 1613. Llandovery: Welsh MSS. Society. Wilkins, Charles; the Red Dragon: The National Magazine of Wales. Cardiff: Daniel Owen & Co