Attorney General of Ontario
The Attorney General of Ontario is the chief legal adviser to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Ontario and, by extension, the Government of Ontario. The Attorney General is a senior member of the Executive Council of Ontario and oversees the Ministry of the Attorney General – the department responsible for the oversight of the justice system in the province of Ontario; the Attorney General is an elected Member of Provincial Parliament, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario on the constitutional advice of the Premier of Ontario. The goal of the Ministry of the Attorney General is to provide a fair and accessible justice system which reflects the needs of the diverse communities it serves across government and the province; the Ministry represents the largest justice system in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It strives to manage the justice system in an equitable and accessible way throughout the province; as of June 29, 2018, the Attorney General of Ontario is Caroline Mulroney and is assisted by Lindsey Park as Parliamentary Assistant to the Attorney General.
The Attorney General has the authority to represent the provincial government in court but this task is always delegated to crown attorneys, or to crown counsel in civil cases. Ian Scott, a prominent courtroom lawyer prior to entering politics, chose to plead the crown's case in court for several cases related to constitutional law. Most holders of the office had legal training. Marion Boyd was the only Attorney General, not a lawyer until Caroline Mulroney appointment. Although Mulroney studied and practiced law in the United States, she is not able to practice law in Canada; the Ministry of the Attorney General delivers and administers a wide range of justice services, including: administering 115 statutes. The Ontario Crown Attorney's Office, the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee, the Children's Lawyer, the Special Investigations Unit all fall within the Ministry's responsibilities; the Ministry funds Legal Aid Ontario, administered by an independent board. In 2008, Office of the Independent Police Review Director was established under the authority of the AG, as a civilian body with powers invested through Public Inquiries Act to investigate complaints about municipal police forces and the Ontario Provincial Police.
Following the 2013 release of former Supreme Court judge Frank Iacobucci's report on the relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the Ontario justice system, a position of deputy attorney general with responsibility for Aboriginal issues was created. 1. John White 1791–1800 2. Robert Isaac Dey Gray 1800–1801 3. Thomas Scott 1801–1806 4. William Firth 1807–1812 5. G. D'Arcy Boulton 1814–1818 6. Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto 1818–1829, acting AG 1812–1814 7. Henry John Boulton 1829–1832 8. Robert Sympson Jameson 1833–1837, last British-appointed AG 9. Christopher Alexander Hagerman 1837–1840, first Canadian-born AG of Upper Canada 10. William Henry Draper 1840–1841, last AG of Upper Canada In 1841, the Province of Upper Canada became the Province of Canada 11. William Henry Draper 1841–1843 12. Robert Baldwin 1843–1848 13. William Buell Richards 1848–1854 14. John A. Macdonald 1854–1862, 1864–1867 15. John Sandfield Macdonald 1862–1864 After 1867, the Attorney General position was split into federal and provincial counterparts: Attorney General of OntarioAttorney General of Quebec Attorney General of Canada Government of Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General website
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Francis Robert Latchford
Francis Robert Latchford, QC was an Ontario lawyer and political figure. He represented Renfrew South in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1899 to 1904 as a Liberal member, he was born in Aylmer, the son of James Culhane Latchford, an Irish immigrant, studied at the University of Ottawa. Latchford was called to the bar in 1886, he was named King's Counsel in 1899. Latchford served as Commissioner of Public Works from 1899 to 1904 and Attorney General of Ontario from 1904 to 1905, he was served until his death. Latchford was an amateur conchologist specializing in fresh water molluscs, he died in Toronto. Biography excerpt from American Malacologists: A national register, Abbott, R. T. and M. E. Young Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Frederick George McBrien was an Ontario lawyer and political figure. He represented Toronto Southwest and Brockton from 1923 to 1934 and Parkdale from 1937 to 1938 in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as a Conservative member, he died in office at the age of 50. He was born in on 15 June 1888 in the Mono Township, Dufferin County and educated in Toronto and at Osgoode Hall, he was a newspaper boy for the Toronto Star in his youth. When he was 17, he opened a hardware store with his younger brother William, supplying builders in Toronto's growing outlying areas, he began studying law at Osgoode Hall 1914, while still running his hardware business, graduated in 1922. McBrien was named King's Counsel in 1934, he first ran for city council in 1908, after three tries, was elected on 1 January 1911 as the Alderman for the old City of Toronto Ward 6, in the west-end. At the time, Toronto had yearly city council elections on New Year's Day, he decided to run for mayor in 1914. He was defeated by incumbent mayor Horatio Clarence Hocken by just over 1000 votes.
In June 1938, he had a heart attack, was hospitalized at Toronto Western Hospital. He died on 2 July 1938 at the hospital. An odd thing happened regarding his funeral, his brother William McBrien was the chair of the Toronto Transit Commission at the time, was involved in a minor car accident on his way to make the funeral arrangements for Fred. Since he died in office, his funeral was attended by the province's premier Mitchell Hepburn and Toronto mayor Ralph Day, his daughter Muriel was one of the founding co-owners of the Kansas City Royals baseball team along with her husband Ewing Kauffman. History of Dufferin County, S Sawden Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
1919 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election, 1919 was the 15th general election held in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It was held on October 20, 1919, to elect the 111 Members of the 15th Legislative Assembly of Ontario; the Ontario Conservative Party, led by Sir William Hearst, was soundly defeated in a bid for a fifth consecutive term in office by the newly formed United Farmers of Ontario. This election put an end to 14 years of continuous Ontario Conservative Party rule, much of it under James Whitney. Whitney had died in 1914; the UFO ran in the election without a party leader and with only one incumbent MLA, Beniah Bowman, who had entered the legislature the previous year by winning a by-election in Manitoulan. When they emerged from the vote with the largest bloc of seats, they joined the eleven Labour MLAs to form a coalition and approached Ernest C. Drury to lead the new government as Premier of Ontario. Drury had not been a candidate in the election and had to run in a by-election to enter the legislature following his appointment to the office of Premier.
Liberal-UFO MLA David James Taylor of Grey North and "Soldier" MLA Joseph McNamara of Riverdale and Labour-UFO MLA Karl Homuth of Waterloo South were members of the governing caucus giving Drury's coalition 58 seats in total. The Ontario Liberal Party, led by Hartley Dewart, was able to maintain and increase its caucus by a small number, it was the Conservative Party that lost the most ground to the Labour. Note: * Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition
William Buell Richards
Sir William Buell Richards, was the first Chief Justice of Canada. Richards was born in Upper Canada to Stephen Richards and Phoebe Buell, he earned law degree at the St. Lawrence Academy in Potsdam, New York and articled with his uncle Andrew Norton Buell in Brockville, he was called to the bar in 1837 and continued to practice in Brockville with George Malloch until 1853 and with his uncle again. In 1848 Richards was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada and by 1848 he became the Attorney General for the province. Leaving politics in June 1853, he was appointed to the Court of Common Pleas of Canada West and by 1863 he became Chief Justice. In November 1868 Richards was appointed to Chief Justice of the province, the highest court in Ontario at that time, the Supreme Court not yet having been created.. It was during this time that he heard the appeal of Patrick James Whelan for the murder of Thomas D'Arcy McGee. With the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada in 1875 Richards was appointed directly to the position of Chief Justice which he stayed at until his retirement on January 10, 1879.
His brother Albert Norton Richards served in the Canadian House of Commons and was Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia. His niece Frances Richards painted his official portrait. William Buell William Buell Jr. Supreme Court of Canada biography "William Buell Richards". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016