Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years. It was the primary Bible of 16th-century English Protestantism and was the Bible used by William Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, John Knox, John Donne and it was one of the Bibles taken to America on the Mayflower. The Geneva Bible was used by many English Dissenters, and it was respected by Oliver Cromwells soldiers at the time of the English Civil War. Because the language of the Geneva Bible was more forceful and vigorous, in the words of Cleland Boyd McAfee, it drove the Great Bible off the field by sheer power of excellence. The Geneva Bible followed the Great Bible of 1539, the first authorized Bible in English, whittingham was directly responsible for the New Testament, which was complete and published in 1557, while Gilby oversaw the Old Testament. The first full edition of this Bible, with a further revised New Testament, appeared in 1560, over 150 editions were issued, the last probably in 1644.
The very first Bible printed in Scotland was a Geneva Bible, some editions from 1576 onwards included Laurence Tomsons revisions of the New Testament. Some editions from 1599 onwards used a new Junius version of the Book of Revelation, the Geneva Bible had motivated the earlier production of the Bishops Bible under Elizabeth I, for the same reason, and the Rheims-Douai edition by the Catholic community. The Geneva Bible remained popular among Puritans and remained in use until after the English Civil War. The Geneva notes were included in a few editions of the King James version. Like most English translations of the time, the Geneva Bible was translated from editions of the Greek New Testament. The English rendering was substantially based on the translations by William Tyndale. However, the Geneva Bible was the first English version in all of the Old Testament was translated directly from the Hebrew. The Geneva Bible was the first English Bible to use verse numbers based on the work of Stephanus and it had an elaborate system of commentary in marginal glosses.
This annotation was done by Laurence Tomson, who translated LOiseleurs notes on the Gospels, in 1576 Tomson added LOiseleurs notes for the Epistles, which came from Bezas Greek and Latin edition of the Bible. Beginning in 1599 Franciscus Junius notes on Revelation were added, replacing the original notes deriving from John Bale, bales The Image of both churches had a great effect on these notes as well as Foxes Book of Martyrs. Both the Junius and Bullinger-Bale annotations are explicitly anti-Roman Catholic and representative of much popular Protestant apocalypticism during the Reformation, the 1560 Geneva Bible was printed in Roman type—the style of type regularly used today—but many editions used the older black-letter type. Of the various English Bible translations, the next to use Roman type was the Douay-Rheims Bible of 1582, the Geneva Bible was issued in more convenient and affordable sizes than earlier versions
The Poly-Olbion is a topographical poem describing England and Wales. Written by Michael Drayton and published in 1612, it was reprinted with a part in 1622. Drayton had been working on the project since at least 1598, the Poly-Olbion is divided into thirty songs, written in alexandrine couplets, consisting in total of almost 15,000 lines of verse. Drayton intended to compose a part to cover Scotland. Each song describes between one and three counties, describing their topography and histories, copies were illustrated with maps of each county, drawn by William Hole, whereon places were depicted anthropomorphically. The first book was accompanied by historical and philological summaries written by John Selden, because of its length and its authors conflicting goals the Poly-Olbion was almost never read as a whole, but is an important source for the period nevertheless. 1612 in poetry 1622 in poetry William H. Moore, Poly-Olbion Summary Oliver Elton, Michael Drayton, a Critical Study, with a Bibliography Poly-Olbion in The Complete Works of Michael Drayton, vol
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Michael Drayton was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. Drayton was born at Hartshill, near Nuneaton, England, almost nothing is known about his early life, beyond the fact that in 1580 he was in the service of Thomas Goodere of Collingham, Nottinghamshire. More recent work has cast doubt on those speculations, in 1590 he produced his first book, The Harmony of the Church, a volume of spiritual poems, dedicated to Lady Devereux. It is notable for a version of the Song of Solomon, with the exception of forty copies, seized by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the whole edition was destroyed by public order. Nevertheless, Drayton published a vast amount within the few years. In 1593 appeared Idea, The Shepherds Garland, a collection of nine pastorals, in which he celebrated his own love-sorrows under the poetic name of Rowland. The basic idea was expanded in a cycle of sonnets, published in 1594, under the title of Ideas Mirror. It appears that he failed to win his Idea, and lived and died a bachelor.
It has been said Draytons sonnets possess a direct and universal appeal, by reason of their simple straightforward ring and foreshadowed the style of Fairfax, Waller. Drayton was the first to bring the term ode, for a poem, to popularity in England and was a master of the short. Also in 1593 there appeared the first of Draytons historical poems, The Legend of Piers Gaveston, and the year saw the publication of Matilda. In his Fig for Momus, Lodge reciprocated these friendly courtesies, in 1596 Drayton published his long and important poem Mortimeriados, a very serious production in ottava rima. He enlarged and modified this poem, and republished it in 1603 under the title of The Barons Wars, in 1596 appeared another historical poem, The Legend of Robert, Duke of Normandy, with which Piers Gaveston was reprinted. In 1597 appeared Englands Heroical Epistles, a series of historical studies and these last poems, written in the heroic couplet, contain some of the finest passages in Draytons writings.
By 1597, the poet was resting on his laurels and it seems that he was much favoured at the court of Elizabeth, and he hoped that it would be the same with her successor. But when, in 1603, he addressed a poem of compliment to James I, on his accession, it was ridiculed and his bitterness found expression in a satire, The Owl, but he had no talent in this kind of composition. Not much more entertaining was his scriptural narrative of Moses in a Map of his Miracles, in 1605 Drayton reprinted his most important works, his historical poems and the Idea, in a single volume which ran through eight editions during his lifetime. Some of the odes are extremely spirited, in this volume he printed for the first time the famous Ballad of Agincourt
John Bull (composer)
John Bull was an English composer and organ builder. He was a keyboard performer of the virginalist school and most of his compositions were written for this medium. Bulls place of birth is shrouded in uncertainty, in an article published in 1952, Thurston Dart presumed that Bulls family originated in Somerset, where it is possible the composer was born. Then, in the edition of his Calendar of the Life of John Bull. More recent research by Susi Jeans suggests that Bull was born in the Radnorshire parish of Old Radnor within the diocese of Hereford, although no birth records have yet been discovered. After being appointed to the Merchant Taylors Company in 1577–78, Bull received his first appointment as organist of Hereford Cathedral in 1582, in 1586 he received his degree from Oxford, and he became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal that same year. On the death of Elizabeth, he entered into the service of King James, establishing a reputation as a skilled composer, however, in addition to his virtuosity as a keyboard performer and composer, Bull was skilled at getting into trouble.
The outcome of this case is not known, even though he filed a petition for a marriage licence two days after he lost his job, he never returned to the college. He married Elizabeth Walter in 1607, by whom he had a daughter. William Trumbull, the English envoy in the Low Countries, after first attempting to cover for him – but fearing for his own position if he continued to do so – wrote to the King in early 1614. The Archbishop of Canterbury had said of him the previous year, Bull remained in Flanders, where it seems he stayed out of trouble. In 1615 Antwerp Cathedral appointed him as assistant organist, and as principal organist in 1617, Bull wrote a series of letters while in Flanders, including one to the mayor of Antwerp, claiming that the reason he left England was to escape religious persecution. Which is a capital offence there and he seems to have been believed, for he was never extradited back to England in spite of Trumbulls complaining to the Archduke. While in Antwerp he most probably met Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, the most influential composer of the age.
In the 1620s he continued his career as an organist, organ builder and he died in Antwerp on 15 March 1628 and was buried in the cemetery next to the cathedral. He left many compositions for keyboard, some of which were collected in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, the other contributors to Parthenia were Bulls contemporaries William Byrd and Orlando Gibbons, among the most famous composers of the age. Bull wrote an anthem, God the father, God the son, for the wedding in 1613 of the princess, in addition to his keyboard compositions, he wrote verse anthems and other works. One of the most unusual collections of music from the period is his book of 120 canons, of the 120 canons,116 are based on the Miserere
The Iliad is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer. Then the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles imminent death and the fall of Troy, although the narrative ends before these events take place. However, as events are prefigured and alluded to more and more vividly. The Iliad is paired with something of a sequel, the Odyssey, along with the Odyssey, the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature, and its written version is usually dated to around the 8th century BC. Recent statistical modelling based on language evolution gives a date of 760–710 BC, in the modern vulgate, the Iliad contains 15,693 lines, it is written in Homeric Greek, a literary amalgam of Ionic Greek and other dialects. Note, Book numbers are in parentheses and come before the synopsis of the book, after an invocation to the Muses, the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks.
Chryses, a Trojan priest of Apollo, offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis, held captive of Agamemnon, although most of the Greek army is in favour of the offer, Agamemnon refuses. Chryses prays for Apollos help, and Apollo causes a plague to afflict the Greek army, after nine days of plague, the leader of the Myrmidon contingent, calls an assembly to deal with the problem. Under pressure, Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father, Achilles declares that he and his men will no longer fight for Agamemnon but will go home. Odysseus takes a ship and returns Chryseis to her father, whereupon Apollo ends the plague, in the meantime, Agamemnons messengers take Briseis away. Achilles becomes very upset, sits by the seashore, and prays to his mother, Achilles asks his mother to ask Zeus to bring the Greeks to the breaking point by the Trojans, so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need Achilles. Thetis does so, and Zeus agrees, Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon, urging him to attack Troy.
Agamemnon heeds the dream but decides to first test the Greek armys morale, the plan backfires, and only the intervention of Odysseus, inspired by Athena, stops a rout. Odysseus confronts and beats Thersites, a soldier who voices discontent about fighting Agamemnons war. After a meal, the Greeks deploy in companies upon the Trojan plain, the poet takes the opportunity to describe the provenance of each Greek contingent. When news of the Greek deployment reaches King Priam, the Trojans too sortie upon the plain, in a list similar to that for the Greeks, the poet describes the Trojans and their allies. The armies approach each other, but before they meet, Paris offers to end the war by fighting a duel with Menelaus, urged by his brother and head of the Trojan army, Hector. While Helen tells Priam about the Greek commanders from the walls of Troy, Paris is beaten, but Aphrodite rescues him and leads him to bed with Helen before Menelaus can kill him
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
George Chapman was an English dramatist and poet. He was a scholar whose work shows the influence of Stoicism. Chapman has been identified as the Rival Poet of Shakespeares sonnets by William Minto, Chapman is best remembered for his translations of Homers Iliad and Odyssey, and the Homeric Batrachomyomachia. Chapman was born at Hitchin in Hertfordshire, there is conjecture that he studied at Oxford but did not take a degree, though no reliable evidence affirms this. Very little is known about Chapmans early life, but Mark Eccles uncovered records that much about Chapmans difficulties. Chapmans courtly ambitions led him into a trap and he apparently never received any money, but he would be plagued for many years by the papers he had signed. As Sadler died in 1587, this gives Chapman little time to have trained under him and it seems more likely that he was in Sadlers household from 1577–83, as he dedicates all his Homerical translations to him. Chapman spent the early 1590s abroad, and saw action in the Low Countries fighting under renowned English general Sir Francis Vere.
His earliest published works were the obscure philosophical poems The Shadow of Night, the latter has been taken as a response to the erotic poems of the age, such as Philip Sidneys Astrophil and Stella and Shakespeares Venus and Adonis. The former was executed for treason by Elizabeth I in 1601, Chapmans resultant poverty did not diminish his ability or his standing among his fellow Elizabethan poets and dramatists. Chapman died in London, having lived his latter years in poverty and he was buried at St Giles in the Fields. A monument to him designed by Inigo Jones marked his tomb, by the end of the 1590s, Chapman had become a successful playwright, working for Philip Henslowe and for the Children of the Chapel. Among his comedies are The Blind Beggar of Alexandria, An Humorous Days Mirth, All Fools, Monsieur DOlive, The Gentleman Usher, May Day, and The Widows Tears. With The Widows Tears, he was one of the first writers to meld comedy with more serious themes, creating the tragicomedy made famous by Beaumont.
He wrote one play in collaboration. Eastward Ho, written with Jonson and John Marston, contained references to the Scots which landed Chapman. Various of their letters to the king and noblemen survive in a manuscript in the Folger Library known as the Dobell MS, in the letters, both men renounced the offending line, implying that Marston was responsible for the injurious remark. Chapmans friendship with Jonson broke down, perhaps as a result of Jonsons public feud with Inigo Jones, some satiric, scathing lines, written sometime after the burning of Jonsons desk and papers, provide evidence of the rift